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Encyclopedia > Arado Ar 234
Ar 234 Blitz
Type Reconnaissance Bomber
Manufacturer Arado Flugzeugwerke
Maiden flight 15 June, 1943
Introduction September 1944
Status Retired
Primary user Luftwaffe
Number built 210

The Arado Ar 234 Blitz (Lightning) was the world's first operational jet powered bomber, built by the Arado company in the closing stages of World War II. In the field it was used almost entirely in the reconnaissance role, but in its few uses as a bomber it proved to be nearly impossible to intercept. Image File history File linksMetadata Arado_234B_3. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... The B-17 Flying Fortress is one of the most recognizable and famous bombers of World War II. A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bombs. ... An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, building, testing, selling, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, missiles, rockets, and/or spacecraft. ... Arado Flugzeugwerke was originally established as the Warnemünde factory of the Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen firm. ... The Maiden flight of an aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground of its own accord. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1943: Events January January 27 - the USAAF makes its first daylight raid on Germany January 30 - Royal Air Force de Havilland Mosquitos make the first daylight air-raid on Berlin January 30-31 – the H2S radar is used by RAF... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... This or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Arado Flugzeugwerke was originally established as the Warnemünde factory of the Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen firm. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... The B-17 Flying Fortress is one of the most recognizable and famous bombers of World War II. A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bombs. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ...

Contents

Models

Background and prototypes

In the autumn of 1940 the RLM offered a tender for a jet powered high-speed reconnaissance aircraft with a range of 2,156 km (1,340 miles). Arado was the only company to respond, offering their E.370 project, lead by Professor Walter Blume. This was a high-winged conventional-looking design with a Junkers Jumo 004 engine under each wing. The projected weight for the aircraft was approximately 8,000 kg (17,640 lbs). In order to reduce the weight of the aircraft and maximize the internal fuel Arado deleted the typical integrated landing gear and the aircraft was to take off from a wheeled trolly and land via retractable skids. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Reich Air Ministry (German: Reichsluftfahrtministerium) was a government department during the period of Nazi Germany (1933-45). ... The Jumo 004 was the worlds first turbojet engine in production and operational use. ... Luftwaffe Junkers Ju 87s, with fixed conventional landing gear. ...


Arado estimated a maximum speed of 780 km/h at 6,000 m (485 mph at 19,685 ft), an operating altitude of 11,000 m (36,090 ft), and a range of 1,995 km (1,240 miles).


The estimated range was short of the RLM request, however they liked the design and ordered two prototypes as the Ar 234. The first two prototypes were largely complete before the end of 1941. However the Jumo 004 engines were not ready, and would not be ready until February 1943. When they did arrive they were only cleared for static and taxi tests, considered unreliable by Junkers to be used for in-flight use. Flight-qualified engines were finally delivered that spring, and the Ar 234 V1 made its first flight on June 15, 1943. By September four prototypes were flying. Of what ended up being eight prototype aircraft to be fitted with the original arrangement of trolley-and-skid landing gear, the sixth and eighth prototypes were powered with a quartet of BMW 003 jet engines each, the sixth having its engines housed in individual nacelles, and the eighth flown with them paired up in a single nacelle on either wing; the remaining ones were all Jumo 004 powered, with the V7 prototype destined to make history on August 2, 1944 as the first ever jet aircraft to fly a reconnaissance mission. Junkers & Co was a major German aircraft manufacturer. ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The BMW 003 was an early turbojet engine produced in Germany during World War II. Work on its design began earlier than the contemporary Junkers Jumo 004 engine, but prolonged developmental problems meant that the BMW 003 entered production much later, and the aircraft projects that had been designed with...


Ar 234B

The RLM had already seen the promise of the design and in July had asked Arado to supply two prototypes of a schnellbomber version as the Ar 234B. Since the aircraft was very slender and entirely filled with fuel tanks, there was no room for an internal bomb bay and the bombload had to be carried on external racks. The added weight and drag reduced the speed with a full bombload so a set of 20 mm MG 151 cannon was added to a rear tail stinger for defence. Since the pilot had no view to the rear they had to be aimed through a periscope mounted on the cockpit roof. The system was generally considered useless and many pilots had the guns removed to decrease weight. A Schnellbomber (German, literally fast bomber) was a specialized high-speed bomber aircraft. ... A bomb bay is an openable hatch in the floor of a bomber aircraft, that the bombs are dropped through. ... The MG 151 (MG 151/15) was a 15 mm autocannon produced by Waffenfabrik Mauser starting in 1940. ... Principle of the periscope. ...


The external bombload, and the presence of inactive aircraft littering the landing field after their missions were completed (as with the similarly dolly-geared Me 163) made the skid-landing system impractical, so the B version was modified to have tricycle landing gear. The ninth prototype, with radio code PH+SQ, was the first Ar 234B, and flew in March 10, 1944. The B models were slightly wider to hold the landing gear, and with full bombload the plane would fly as slow as 668 km/h (415 mph) at altitude. This was still better than any bomber the Luftwaffe had at the time, and made it the only bomber with any hope of surviving the massive allied air forces. The Me 163 Komet, designed by Alexander Martin Lippisch, was the only operational rocket-powered fighter aircraft during the Second World War. ... A Cessna 152 with a tricycle landing gear Tricycle gear describes a kind of aircraft undercarriage, or landing gear, arranged in a tricycle fashion. ...


Production lines were already being set up, and twenty B-0 pre-production planes were delivered by the end of June. Later production was slow however, as the Arado plants were tasked with producing planes from other bombed-out factories hit during the Big Week. Meanwhile several of the prototypes were sent forward in the reconnaissance role. In most cases it appears they were never even detected, cruising around 740 km/h (460 mph) at over 9,145 m (30,000 ft). The Big Week (20 February - 25 February 1944) was an American bombing campaign during World War II. On February 20, 1944, as part of the European strategic bombing campaign of the United States Strategic Air Forces (USSTAF) launched a series of missions against Third Reich that became known as Big...


The few B's entered service in the fall and impressed their pilots. They were fairly fast and completely aerobatic. The long takeoff runs led to several accidents; a search for a solution lead to improved training as well as the use of RATO, or rocket assisted takeoff. The engines were always the real problem; they suffered constant flameouts and required overhaul or replacement after about ten hours of operation. JATO is an acronym for Jet Assisted Take Off. ...


The most notable use of the Ar 234 in the bomber role was their use in the attempt to destroy the Ludendorff Bridge at Remagen. Between March 7 when it was captured by the Allies and March 17 when it finally collapsed, the bridge was continuously attacked by Ar 234's of III/KG 76 carrying 1,000 kg (2,204 lb) bombs. The aircraft continued to fight in a scattered fashion until Germany surrendered on May 8, 1945. Some were shot down in air combat, destroyed by flak, or "bounced" by Allied fighters during take-off or the landing approach. Most simply sat on the airfields waiting for fuel which never arrived. The Ludendorff Bridge was a railroad bridge across the Rhine in Germany, connecting the cities of Remagen and Erpel. ... Remagen is a city in Germany in the Bundesland of Rhineland-Palatinate, district Ahrweiler. ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (129th in leap years). ... Year 1945and died 2007 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare, including military airlift of cargo to further the national interests as was demonstrated in the Berlin Airlift. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft warfare, or air defense, is any method of engaging military aircraft in combat from the ground. ...


The normal bombload consisted of two 500 kg (1,102 lb) bombs suspended from the engines or one large 1,000 kg (2,204 lb) bomb semi-recessed in the underside of the fuselage with maximum bombload being 1,500 kg (3,306 lb). If the war had continued it is possible that the aircraft would have been converted to use the Fritz X guided bombs or Henschel Hs 293 air-to-surface missiles. Fritz X was a German air-launched anti-ship missile, deployed during World War II. Fritz X was an allied code-name; alternate names include Ruhrstahl SD 1400 X. History Development began in 1938. ... The Henschel Hs 293 was a German guided glide bomb used against ships during World War II. History The Hs 293 project was started in 1940, based on the Gustav Schwartz Propellerwerke glide bomb which was designed in 1939. ...


Overall from the summer of 1944 until the end of the war a total of 210 aircraft were built. In February of 1945 production was switched to the C variant. It was hoped by November of 1945 production would hit 500 per month.


Ar 234C

The AR 234C was equipped with four BMW 003A engines to free up Junkers Jumo 004s for use by Me 262. The utilization of four engines improved overall thrust, especially in take-off and climb-to-altitude performance. Additional airspeed was found to be about 20% faster than the B series and it had an increased range. Although Hauptmann Diether Lukesch was preparing to form an operational test squadron, the AR 234C was not developed in time to participate in actual combat operations. There were two primary versions of the C, the C-1, a 4 engined version of the B-1, and the C-2, a four engine version of the B-2. At least seven other versions of the C were designed, or were in the planning stages before the war ended, these included bombers, armed reconnaissance, night-fighters and a heavy bomber. Fourteen prototypes of the AR 234C, which included the C-1 and C-2 models, were completed before the end of the war. The BMW 003 was an early turbojet engine produced in Germany during World War II. Work on its design began earlier than the contemporary Junkers Jumo 004 engine, but prolonged developmental problems meant that the BMW 003 entered production much later, and the aircraft projects that had been designed with... ... Hauptmann (German: ) is a German word usually translated as captain when it is used as an officers rank in the German Army. ... Hauptmann Diether Lukesch (born 15 July 1918 in Hadersdorf-Weidlingau, Wien, died 28 February 2004) was German World War II Luftwaffe bomber pilot. ... A night fighter is a fighter aircraft adapted for use at night, or in other times of bad visibility. ...


Ar 234D

A two-seat aircraft powered by a pair of Heinkel HeS 011 turbojet engines. No D's were produced. The HeS 011 was an advanced (for the era) jet engine built by Heinkel-Hirth. ...


Ar 234P

A two-seat night-fighter version, differing in powerplant options and several options of radar. Several were in the planning stage, but none made it into production. A night fighter is a fighter aircraft adapted for use at night, or in other times of bad visibility. ...


The Only Known Survivor

Only one Ar 234 survives today. The aircraft is an Ar 234 B-2 bomber variant carrying Werknummer (manufacturer's serial number) 140312, and was one of nine Ar 234's surrendered to British forces at Sola Airfield near Stavanger, Norway. The aircraft had been operating with 9./KG 76 (9th squadron, Bomber Wing 76) during the final weeks of the war, having operated previously with the 8th squadron. This aircraft and three others were collected by the famous "Watson's Whizzers" of the USAAF to be shipped back to the United States for flight testing. The aircraft was flown from Sola to Cherbourg, France on June 24, 1945 where it joined thirty-four other advanced German aircraft shipped back to the U.S. aboard the British aircraft carrier HMS Reaper. The Reaper departed Cherbourg on July 20, arriving at Newark, New Jersey eight days later. Upon arrival two of the Ar 234's were reassembled (including 140312) and flown by USAAF pilots to Freeman Field, Indiana for testing and evaluation. 140312 was assigned the foreign equipment number FE-1010. The fate of the second Ar 234 flown to Freeman Field remains a mystery. One of the remaining two was reassembled by the U.S. Navy for testing, but was found to be in unflyable condition and was scrapped. Stavanger is a city and municipality in the county of Rogaland, Norway, located on the southwest coast of Norway. ... The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was a part of the U.S. Army during World War II. The direct precursor to the U.S. Air Force, the USAAF formally existed between 1941 and 1947. ... Cherbourg is a city of Normandy, in northwestern France, in the Manche département, of which it is a sous_préfecture. ... June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 190 days remaining. ... Year 1945and died 2007 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The USS Winjah (CVE-54) (originally AVG-54 then later ACV-54) was a Prince William-class escort aircraft carrier in the United States Navy, leased to the Royal Navy during World War II. Winjah was laid down on 5 June 1943 at Tacoma, Washington, by the Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... Nickname: Map of Newark in Essex County County Essex Founded/Incorporated 1666/1836 Government  - Mayor Cory Booker, term of office 2006–2010 Area [1]  - City 67. ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ...


After receiving new engines, radio and oxygen equipment 140312 was transferred to Wright Field near Dayton, Ohio and delivered to the Accelerated Service Test Maintenance Squadron (ASTMS) of the Flight Test Devision in July, 1946. Flight testing was completed on October 16, 1946 though the aircraft remained at Wright Field until 1947. It was then transferred to Orchard Place Airport, Park Ridge, Illinois, and remained at Orchard Place Airport until May 1, 1949 when it, and several other aircraft stored at the airport were transferred to the Smithsonian Institution. During the early 1950s the Ar 234 was moved to the Smitsonian's facility at Suitland, Maryland for storage, and eventual restoration. Nickname: Motto: Birthplace of Aviation Coordinates: , Country United States State Ohio County Montgomery Founded April 1, 1796 Incorporated 1805 Government  - Mayor Rhine L. McLin Area  - City  56. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... The City of Park Ridge The city of Park Ridge is an affluent suburb of Chicago in Cook County in the United States. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Suitland-Silver Hill is a census-designated place located in Prince Georges County, Maryland. ...


The Smithsonian began restoration of Ar 234 B-2 140312 in 1984 and completed it in February, 1989. All paint had been stripped from the aircraft prior to the Smithsonian receiving it, so the aircraft was painted with the markings of an aircraft of 8./KG 76, the first operational unit to fly the "Blitz". The restored aircraft was first displayed at the Smithsonian's main museum building in downtown Washington D.C. in 1993 as part of a display titled "Wonder Weapon? The Arado Ar 234." In 2005 it became one of the first aircraft moved to the new Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center near Washington D.C. Today 140312 is displayed next to the last surviving Dornier Do 335, an aircraft that had accompanied it on its voyage across the Atlantic Ocean aboard the Reaper over sixty years earlier. Year 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Interior of the Udvar-Hazy Center The Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center is the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum (NASM)s annex at Washington Dulles International Airport in Chantilly, Virginia. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... The Dornier Do 335 Pfeil (Arrow) was a World War II heavy fighter built by the Dornier company. ...


This aircraft is displayed with a pair of Hellmuth Walter designed, liquid-fueled RATO units mounted under its wings. These RATO units may be the only known surviving examples in existance. JATO is an acronym for Jet Assisted Take Off. ...


Specifications (Ar 234B)

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 12.63 m (41 ft 5½ in)
  • Wingspan: 14.10 m (46 ft 3½ in)
  • Height: 4.30 m (14 ft 1¼ in)
  • Wing area: 26.40 m² (284.16 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 5,200 kg (11,464 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 9,850 kg (21,715 lb)
  • Powerplant:Junkers Jumo 004B-1 turbojets, 8.80 kN (1,980 lb) each

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 742 km/h at 6,000 m (461 mph at 19,685 ft)
  • Combat radius: 1,100 km (684 miles (with max bombload))
  • Service ceiling: 10,000 m (32,810 ft)

Armament

  • 2 x 20 mm MG 151 cannon in tail firing to the rear (optional)
  • up to 1,500 kg (3,306 lb) of disposable stores on external racks

The distance AB is the wing span of this Aer Lingus Airbus A320. ... In aviation, the Maximum Take-Off Weight (or MTOW) is the maximum weight with which an aircraft is allowed to try to achieve flight. ... The Jumo 004 was the worlds first turbojet engine in production and operational use. ... Turbojets are the simplest and oldest kind of general purpose jet engine. ... VNO of an aircraft is the V speed which refers to the velocity of normal operation. ... In aeronautics, the service ceiling is the maximum density altitude where the best rate of climb airspeed will produce a 100 feet per minute climb(twin engine) and 50 feet(single engine) at maximum weight while in a clean configuration with maximum continuous power. ... The MG 151 (MG 151/15) was a 15 mm autocannon produced by Waffenfabrik Mauser starting in 1940. ...

External links

  • Air Vectors - Arado Ar 234
  • Sole surviving example of the Ar 234-Smithsonian National Air & Space Museum

Related content

Comparable aircraft

Junkers Ju 287 The Junkers Ju 287 was a flying testbed built to develop the technology required for a multi-engined jet bomber aircraft. ...

Designation sequence

Ar 231 - Ar 232 - Ar 233 - Ar 234 - Do 235 - BV 237 - BV 238/Fw 238 The Arado Ar 231 was a light-weight seaplane developed during World War II in Germany as a scout plane for submarines. ... The Ar 232 Tausendfüssler (millipede in German) was the first truly modern transport aircraft, designed and built in small numbers by Arado during World War II. The design introduced almost all of the features now considered to be standard to transports, including a low_slung box_like fuselage, rear loading ramp... A BV238 shortly after takeoff. ...

Related lists

List of World War II jet aircraft List of World War II jet aircraft Any aircraft added to this list should have a corresponding Category:World War II country jet aircraft link put into the article to keep the Category database up to date. ...

See also

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ar 234 (1680 words)
I think a lot of people crash their Arados or are overwhelmed but it so don't try and fly it (or maybe lose the perk points and can no longer afford to fly it).
The keys of the Arado attack though are to set up nice and early outside of the enemy area, race in at top speed and drop your bombs in a single pass, then leaving at even higher speeds.
Often, if the enemy has made the mistake to take a formation of Arados instead of only a single, you can actually kill all 3 in one pass as an overshoot is terribly unlikely as you will all be travelling in the same direction at very high speeds.
Arado Ar 234 (702 words)
The Arado Ar 234 Blitz was the world's first operational jet powered bomber, built by the Arado[?] company in the closing stages of World War II.
In the field it was used almost entirely in the reconnaissance role, but in its few uses as a bomber it proved to be impossible to intercept.
Arado estimated a maximum speed of 780km/h (485mph), an operating altitude of almost 11,000m (36,000ft), and a range of 2,000km (1,250 miles).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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