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Encyclopedia > Arabs
Arabs
العرب
Total population

approx. 300 to 340 million Image File history File links Information. ...

Regions with significant populations
Estimates may encompass genealogically Arab and/or Arabized peoples without implying proportions for either
Flag of Egypt Egypt 77,498,000
Flag of Sudan Sudan 36,992,490
Flag of Morocco Morocco 33,241,259
Flag of Algeria Algeria 33,190,000
Flag of Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 27,601,038
Flag of Iraq Iraq 27,000,000
Flag of Yemen Yemen 21,200,000
Flag of Syria Syria 19,314,747
Flag of Brazil Brazil[1] 12,000,000
Flag of Somalia Somalia 10,700,000
Flag of Tunisia Tunisia 10,000,000
Flag of Iran Iran (Ahwaz) 9,000,000
Flag of Jordan Jordan 5,924,000
Flag of Libya Libya 5,670,688
Flag of United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 4,496,000
Flag of Eritrea Eritrea (35%) 4,401,000
Flag of Lebanon Lebanon 3,925,502
Flag of Oman Oman 3,204,800
Flag of Kuwait Kuwait 3,100,000
Flag of Mauritania Mauritania 3,069,000
Flag of Israel Israel 1,400,000
Flag of Qatar Qatar 841,000
Flag of Djibouti Djibouti 793,000
Flag of Bahrain Bahrain 698,585
Languages
Arabic
other minority languages
Religions
Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism
Footnotes
a Mainly in Antakya.
b Mainly in France.
c Majority in Khūzestān Province; minorities in Bushehr province, Hormuzgan province and North Khurasan province.

An Arab (Arabic: عربي) is a member of a complexly defined ethnic group who identifies as such on the basis of one or all of either geneaological, political, or linguistic grounds. Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sudan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Algeria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Yemen. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Somalia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tunisia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Libya. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Arab_Emirates. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Eritrea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Oman. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kuwait. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mauritania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Qatar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Djibouti. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bahrain. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Greek Orthodox Church can refer to: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... For the Alaouite dynasty of Morocco see:Alaouite Dynasty, for the former state now in Yemen see: Alawi (sheikhdom) The Alawi, also known as Alawites, Nusayris or Ansaris, are a Middle Eastern sect of Shia Islam[1][2] prominent in Syria The terms AlawÄ« and Alevi, although they share... This article needs cleanup. ... Al-Ibāḍiyyah (Arabic الاباضية) is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni denominations. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Antakya (Antiokheia, Antakiya, ), located on the eastern side (left bank) of the Orontes River (in Turkish: Asi Nehri) about 20 miles from the sea, is the seat of Hatay Province, Turkey. ... Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... Bushehr is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Hormozgān is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... North Khorasan (in Persian: خراسان شمالی) is a province located in northeastern Iran. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... // Computer programming In object-oriented programming, object identity is a mechanism for distinguishing different objects from each other. ... Genealogy is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ... Broadly conceived, linguistics is the study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ...


The Arabic language and culture began to spread in the Middle East in the 2nd century with genealogically Arab Christians such as the Ghassanids, Lakhmids, and Banu Judham, and even earlier Arab Jewish tribes. Widespread proliferation of Arab language, culture and identity in the Middle East and North Africa, however, did not begin until after the advent of Islam in the 7th century and the ensuing Arab Muslim expansion. The early conquests of successive Islamic Arab empires resulted in the Arabization and cultural assimilation of the region's other indigenous Semitic and non-Semitic peoples of non-Arabian origin, often but not always together with their Islamization. With time, the label Arab expanded beyond a pure geneaological definition to come to be associated with Arabized populations of countries in North Africa and the Middle East. This latter expanded definition is contested by many it would encompass, regardless of religious heritage, including Muslims. Islamized, but non-Arabized peoples form part of the Muslim World, and not the traditionally secular Arab World. Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Arab Christians are people who are ethnically Arab or culturally and linguistically Arabized and who follow the religion of Christianity. ... language|Arabic]]:الغساسنة) were [[Arab Christian|Arab it is assumed that the Ghassanids adopted the religion of Christianity from the native Aramaeans and Romans. ... The Lakhmids (Arabic: ) less commonly Muntherids (Arabic: ) were a group of Arab Christians who lived in Southern Iraq, and made al-Hirah which was a fabulous city with many castles and bath-houses and Palm gardens their capital in (266). ... The Banu Judham is a Yemeni tribe that emigrated to Syria and Iraq and dwelled with the Azd and Hamdan Kahlani tribes. ... The Arab Jewish tribes are the ethnically Arab tribes professing the Jewish faith that inhabited the Arabian Peninsula before and during the advent of Islam. ... North Africa is the Mediterranean, northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... Age of the Caliphs The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. ... Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... Arabization is the gradual transformation of an area into one that speaks Arabic and is part of the Arab culture. ... Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ... Islamization (also spelt Islamisation, see spelling differences) or Islamification means the process of a societys conversion to the religion of Islam, or a neologism meaning an increase in observance by an already Muslim society. ... Arabization is the gradual transformation of an area into one that speaks Arabic and is part of the Arab culture. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Map of Arab League states in dark green with non-Arab areas in light green and Mauritania, Somalia and Djibouti in striped green due to their Arab League membership but non-Arab population. ...

Contents

Defining who is an Arab

Further information: Etymology of the word Arab

Arabness is defined independent of religious identity. It pre-dates the rise of Islam, with historically attested Arab Christian kingdoms and Arab Jewish tribes. The earliest documented use of the word "Arab" as defining a group of people dates from the 9th century BC.[2] The proper name Arab or Arabian (and cognates in other languages) has been used to translate several different but similar sounding words in ancient and classical texts which do not necessarily have the same meaning or origin. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Arab Jewish tribes are the ethnically Arab tribes professing the Jewish faith that inhabited the Arabian Peninsula before and during the advent of Islam. ... (10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC - other centuries) (900s BC - 890s BC - 880s BC - 870s BC - 860s BC - 850s BC - 840s BC - 830s BC - 820s BC - 810s BC - 800s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Kingdom of Kush (900 BC...


In the modern era, defining who is an Arab is done on the grounds of one or more of the following three criteria:

The relative importance of these three factors is estimated differently by different groups and frequently disputed. Some combine aspects of each definition, as done by Habib Hassan Touma,[2] who defines an Arab "in the modern sense of the word", as "one who is a national of an Arab state, has command of the Arabic language, and possesses a fundamental knowledge of Arabian tradition, that is, of the manners, customs, and political and social systems of the culture." Most people who consider themselves Arab do so based on the overlap of the political and linguistic definitions. Genealogy is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ... Arabs are a semitic race. ... The Arabian Peninsula Emirets towers in United Arab Emirates; the eastern part of Arabian Penisula The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية, or جزيرة العرب) is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia consisting mainly of desert. ... The Syrian Desert is a combination of steppe and true desert that is located in parts of the nations of Syria, Jordan, and Iraq. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Ibn KhaldÅ«n or Ibn Khaldoun (full name Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332/732AH – March 19, 1406/808AH), was a famous Arab Muslim historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher and sociologist born in present-day Tunisia. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... “Native Language” redirects here. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... The Arabic language is classified as a Semitic language. ... Political geography is a field of human geography that is concerned with politics. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique status in the constitutions of countries, states, and other territories. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Largest cities Alexandria, Baghdad, Cairo, Casablanca, Damascus, Khartoum Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13... Arab diaspora refers to the numbers of Arab immigrants, and their descendants, who voluntarily or as refugees emigrated from their native countries and now reside in non-Arab nations, primarily in Western countries as well as parts of Asia, Latin America and West Africa, particularly in the Ivory Coast (home... This article is about the concept of a minority. ... Habib Hassan Touma (December 12, 1934 - 1998) was a Palestinian composer and ethnomusicologist. ...

Syrian Bedouin with family, 1893.

Some groups who meet some of these criteria, however, still do not identify as Arab due to genealogy or traditional pre-Arab ethnic identity, or more recently, nationality. In particular, the native people of North Africa, the Berbers and the Egyptians, in addition to being genealogically non-Arab, were also not traditionally Semitic-speaking peoples until the introduction and generalised shift to monolignual Arabic usuage. The Berber languages and Egyptian languages (not to be confused with Egyptian Arabic), however, are two language branches that along with Semitic languages (such as Arabic, Aramaic and Hebrew), Chadic languages and Cushitic languages come together to form the Afro-Asiatic language family. Thus, North Africans, especially those who still use their indigenous non-Semtic languages, such as the Berber language, more strongly identify as non-Arab. In the case of Berber speakers, they would identify as Berbers, and many Egyptians, whether Muslim or Coptic, identify only as Egyptians, that is, descendants of the ancient Egyptians.[3] Among the Lebanese, many would also reject the label Arab in favor of a more narrowly defined Phoenician-based Lebanese identity, including most predominantly Lebanese Christians (Maronites), but also some Lebanese Muslims. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 749 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1249 × 1000 pixel, file size: 251 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Syrian Bedouin, Khalil Sarkees, with family at the Worlds Columbian Exposition, 1893. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 749 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1249 × 1000 pixel, file size: 251 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Syrian Bedouin, Khalil Sarkees, with family at the Worlds Columbian Exposition, 1893. ... A Bedouin man on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic ( ), a generic name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... North Africa is the Mediterranean, northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group indigenous to the Maghreb, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... 14th century BCE diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... The language of the Egyptian hieroglyphs and their modern descendant, the Coptic language is classifed under this category. ... Egyptian Arabic (MarÄ« مصري) is part of the Arabic macrolanguage of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... 14th century BCE diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... The Chadic languages are a language family spoken across northern Nigeria, Niger, Chad, Central African Republic and Cameroon, belonging to the Afro-Asiatic phylum. ... The Cushitic languages are a subgroup of the Afro-Asiatic languages, named after the Biblical figure Cush by analogy with Semitic. ... The Afro-Asiatic languages constitute a language family (Languages of Africa) with about 375 languages (SIL estimate) and more than 300 million speakers spread throughout North Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and Southwest Asia (including some 200 million speakers of Arabic). ... Afro-Asiatic - Berber The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... The Berbers (also called Amazigh, free men, pl. ... Religions Coptic Orthodox Christianity, Coptic Catholicism, Protestantism Scriptures Bible Languages Mari, Coptic, Arabic, English, French, German A Copt (Coptic: , literally: Egyptian Christian) is a native Egyptian Christian. ... Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was the civilization of the Nile Valley between about 3000 BC and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation it is the quintessential example of an hydraulic empire. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܶܐ in Syriac, Mawarinah in Arabic) are members of one of the Eastern Rites of the Catholic church. ...


Few people consider themselves Arab based on the political definition without the linguistic one; thus few Kurds and Berbers identify as Arab. But some do, for instance some Berbers also consider themselves Arab (v. e.g. Gellner, Ernest and Micaud, Charles, Eds. Arabs and Berbers: from tribe to nation in North Africa. Lexington: Lexington Books, 1972). Some ethnic and religious Arabic-speaking minorities within the Middle East and North Africa, such as the Copts,[4] and the Maronites [5][6][7][8], are not likely to self-identify as Arabs and capitalize on their pre-Arab identities. Thus groups using a non-Arabic liturgical language are especially likely to consider themselves non-Arab. Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... The Berbers (also called Amazigh, free men, pl. ... The word Copt signifies the natives of Egypt as a nationality, and in popular common culture in Egypt it is used to specifically signify Christian Egyptians, although its use to mean Egyptian is not unwitnessed. ... Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܶܐ in Syriac, Mawarinah in Arabic) are members of one of the Eastern Rites of the Catholic church. ... A sacred language is a language, frequently a dead language, that is cultivated for religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life. ...


The Arab League at its formation in 1946 defined Arab as "a person whose language is Arabic, who lives in an Arabic speaking country, who is in sympathy with the aspirations of the Arabic speaking peoples"[9]. Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Largest cities Alexandria, Baghdad, Cairo, Casablanca, Damascus, Khartoum Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The relation of ʿarab and ʾaʿrāb is complicated further by the notion of "lost Arabs" al-ʿArab al-ba'ida mentioned in the Qur'an as punished for their disbelief. All contemporary Arabs were considered as descended from two ancestors, Qahtan and Adnan. Qahtan was related to the "lost Arabs", and the Southern Arabs were identified as of his lineage, regarded as the "real Arabs", al-ʿArab al-ʿariba. The Northern Arabs, including the tribes of Makkah, were considered the descendants of Adnan, in Islamic tradition traced back to Ismail son of Abraham, said to have been Arabized later. Qahtanite refers to al Arab al Aribah or the aboriginal Arabs. ... Adnan (Arabic: عدنان ) is the traditional ancestor of the Adnani (Arabized Arabs) of northern Arabia, as opposed to the Qahtani of Southern Arabia who descend from Qahtan. ... South Arabian is a technical designation within Semitic linguistics for one of two main branches of South Semitic. ... Ismail may refer to: Ishmael, son of Abraham, mentioned in both the Torah and the Quran Izmail, a town in Ukraine This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... An angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac. ...


Versteegh (1997) is uncertain whether to ascribe this distinction to the memory of a real difference of origin of the two groups, but it is certain that the difference was strongly felt in early Islamic times. Even in Islamic Spain there was enmity between the Qays of the northern and the Kalb of the southern group. The so-called Himyarite language described by Al-Hamdani (died 946) appears to be a special case of language contact between the two groups, an originally north Arabic dialect spoken in the south, and influenced by Old South Arabic. Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... The Himyarite language was a Semitic tongue spoken in the south-western Arabian peninsula until the the 10th century. ... Mohammed al-Hassan al-Hamdani (* 900; † 945) was one of the most important medieval scholars of Yemen. ... Events Eadred I succeeds his brother as king of England End of the reign of Emperor Suzaku of Japan Emperor Murakami ascends the throne of Japan Births Deaths May 26 - King Edmund I of England Abu-Bakr Muhammad ben Yahya as-Suli Categories: 946 ... Old South Arabic is the term used for four closely related languages spoken in the southern portion of the Arabian Peninsula. ...


During the Muslim conquests of the seventh and eighth centuries, the Arabs forged an Arab Empire (under the Rashidun and Umayyads, and later the Abbasids) whose borders touched southern France in the west, China in the east, Asia Minor in the north, and the Sudan in the south. This was one of the largest land empires in history. In much of this area, the Arabs spread Islam and the Arabic language (the language of the Qur'an) through conversion and cultural assimilation. Many groups became known as "Arabs" through this process of Arabization rather than through descent. Thus, over time, the term Arab came to carry a broader meaning than the original ethnic term: cultural Arab vs. ethnic Arab. Some native people in Sudan, Morocco and Algeria (Berbers) and in other regions became Arabized.[citation needed] Age of the Caliphs The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the rightly guided Caliphs. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Abbasid Caliphate (Abbasid Khalifat) and contemporary states and empires in 820. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... This is an alphabetical list of empires that stretched far beyond their geographical and cultural limits to govern other parts of the world. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... In general, conversion is the transformation of one thing into another. ... Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ... Arabization is the gradual transformation of an area into one that speaks Arabic and is part of the Arab culture. ... The Berbers (also called Amazigh, free men, pl. ...


Arab nationalism declares that Arabs are united in a shared history, culture and language. Arab nationalists believe that Arab identity encompasses more than outward physical characteristics, race or religion. A related ideology, Pan-Arabism, calls for all Arab lands to be united as one state. Arab nationalism has often competed for existence with regional and ethnic nationalisms in the Middle East, such as Lebanese and Egyptian. Arab nationalism refers to a common nationalist ideology in wider Arab world. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... Pan-Arabism is a movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ...


Arabs of Central Asia

Arabs of Central Asia are fully assimilated with local, and call themselves the same as local (e.g. Kazakhs, Uzbeks).[citation needed] In order to notice their arabian orign they have a specail term khozha/qoja.[citation needed] Languages Kazakh (and/or languages in country of residence) Religions Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups Kipchak and other Turk peoples, ancient Indo-Iranian tribes, Mongols The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар []; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turk people of the northern parts of Central...


Origins & History

Arab woman wearing traditional dress in 1915
Arab woman wearing traditional dress in 1915

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Ancient origins

Based on the Torah, Bible, and Qur'an, Arabs of the Arabian Peninsula are descendants of Ismail, son of Abraham. Keeping the surname is an important part of Arabic culture as some lineages can be traced far back to ancient times. Some Arabs claim they can trace their lineage back to Noah and Adam. In addition to Adam, Noah, and Shem, some of the first known Arabs are those who came from Petra, the Nabataean capital. “Tora” redirects here. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Arabian Peninsula Emirets towers in United Arab Emirates; the eastern part of Arabian Penisula The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية, or جزيرة العرب) is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia consisting mainly of desert. ... A family name, or surname, is that part of a persons name that indicates to what family he or she belongs. ... Petra (from petra, rock in Greek; Arabic: البتراء, Al-Butrā) is an archaeological site in Jordan, lying in a basin among the mountains which form the eastern flank of Arabah (Wadi Araba), the large valley running from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. ... Petra, the Nabataean capital The Nabataeans, a people of ancient Arabia, whose settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the border-land between Syria and Arabia from the Euphrates to the Red Sea. ...


Other Arabs are known as Arabized-Arabs, including those who came from parts of Mesopotamia, the Levant, lands of the Berbers and the Moors, the Sudan, and other African Arabs.[10] Arabization is the gradual transformation of an area into one that speaks Arabic and is part of the Arab culture. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, and parts of eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and southwest Iran. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: /ləvænt/) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... The Berbers (also called Amazigh, free men, pl. ... The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of the western Mediterranean and western Sahara, including: al-Maghrib (the coastal and mountain lands of present day Morocco and Algeria, and Tunisia although Tunisia often is separately called Ifriqiya after the former Roman province of Africa); al-Andalus (the former Islamic sovereign...


Arab origin is divided into two major groups:

  1. al-ʻĀriba (العاربة) "Pure origin", or Qahtani Semites who are traditionally considered direct descendants of Noah through his son Shem and his sons Aram and Arfakhshaath. Famous noble Qahtanite families can be recognised in modern days by their surnames. Arab genealogies usually ascribe the origins of the Qahtanites to the south Arabians who built up one of the oldest centres of civilisation in the Near East beginning around 800 BC. These groups did not speak a predecessor of Arabic but South Semitic languages such as Sabaic, Minaic, Qatabanic, and Hadramitic.[11] Qahtanites take pride in their pure Semitic lineage and maintained the old Aramiac Script until the rise of Islam. But spoken Qahtani south Arabic was very close to the Adnani north Arabic. Many north Arabic tribes, such as the Ghassanids, claimed Qahtani lineage.
  2. al-Mustaʻribah (المستعربة) "Arabized Arabs". This term can refer to:
    1. Adnanites, Arabs traditionally considered descendants of Abraham through his son Ishmael and his son Adnan. The are believed to have settled in Makkah when Abraham took his Egyptian wife Heather (or Hajar) and their son Ishmael there. Ishmael was raised by his mother Hagar and the noble Arab tribe "Jurhom" who left Yemen and settled in Makkah after the drought in Yemen. Ishmael spoke fluent Arabic. It is believed that the prophet of Islam, Mohammad, descended from an Adnanite tribe of "Qureish". Famous noble Adnanite families include Alanazi, Altamimi, Almaleek, Bani Khaled, Bani Kolab, and Bani Hashim. Adnani Arabs spoke a similar dialect to Qahatani Arabic, but later started using the unique Nabatean script that evolved into modern Arabic script.
    2. Arabs who spoke other Afro-Asiatic languages[citation needed]. Today they speak Arabic and are regarded as Arabs.
    3. "Mixed Arabs", between "Pure Arabs" and the Arabs from south Arabia.

Qahtanite (Arabic: قحطان; transliterated: Qahtan) (English: Joktan) refers to al Arab al Aribah or the aboriginal Arabs the who inhabited Yemen. ... Noahs Ark, Französischer Meister (The French Master), Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest. ... Shem (שֵׁם renown; prosperity; name, Standard Hebrew Å em, Tiberian Hebrew Å Ä“m; Greek Σημ, SÄ“m; ) was one of the sons of Noah in the Bible who adhered to the Noahide Laws. ... The term Aram can refer to: Aram (אֲרָם or ), the son of Shem, according to the Table of nations of Genesis 10 in the Hebrew Bible. ... South Semitic is one of the three macro-classifications in Semitic linguistics, the other two being North Semitic (e. ... The Sabey language was a language and alphabet used in Ethiopia up until the 8th Century AD. The Sabay language was replaced by the Geez language and writing system. ... The Minaean language was an Old Arabic Language spoken in Yemen between 100 BC and 600 AD. http://linguistlist. ... Region close to Sayun in the Hadhramaut Valley An ancient sculpture of a griffon from the royal palace at shabwa, the capital city of Hadhramaut Hadhramaut, Hadhramout or Hadramawt (Arabic: ‎ []) is a historical region of the south Arabian Peninsula along the Gulf of Aden in the Arabian Sea, extending eastwards... For other uses, see Adnan (disambiguation). ... language|Arabic]]:الغساسنة) were [[Arab Christian|Arab it is assumed that the Ghassanids adopted the religion of Christianity from the native Aramaeans and Romans. ... Arabization is the gradual transformation of an area into one that speaks Arabic and is part of the Arab culture. ... An angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac. ... Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismāīl) was Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ... Adnan (Arabic: عدنان ) is the traditional ancestor of the Adnani (Arabized Arabs) of northern Arabia, as opposed to the Qahtani of Southern Arabia who descend from Qahtan. ... Mecca or Makkah (in full: Makkah al-Mukkaramah; Arabic مكة المكرمة) is revered as the holiest site of Islam, and a pilgrimage to it is required of all Muslims who can afford to go. ... Heather may be: In botany, the plant Calluna vulgaris, or, more loosely, various species of the closely related genera Erica and Cassiope, low evergreen shrubs (also called heaths). The term is also used to describe land which is vegetated with these plants; In apparel or textiles, interwoven yarns with a... Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismāīl) was Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ... Mecca or Makkah (in full: Makkah al-Mukkaramah; Arabic مكة المكرمة) is revered as the holiest site of Islam, and a pilgrimage to it is required of all Muslims who can afford to go. ... For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ... Banu Quraish was the dominant tribe of Mecca. ... The Afro-Asiatic languages constitute a language family (Languages of Africa) with about 375 languages (SIL estimate) and more than 300 million speakers spread throughout North Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and Southwest Asia (including some 200 million speakers of Arabic). ...

Pre-Sabaean Semitic Arabia

The first written attestation of the ethnonym "Arab" occurs in an Assyrian inscription of 853 BC, where Shalmaneser III lists a King Gindibu of mâtu arbâi (Arab land) among the people he defeated at the Battle of Qarqar. Some of the names given in these texts are Aramaic, others are the first attestations of proto-Arabic dialects. Assyrian records from the 9th century BC talk about Arabs, such as tribes led by queens, and show how they became increasingly important for escorting trading caravans or military expeditions in northern Arabia and Sinai. [3] The Treasury at Petra. ... The Treasury at Petra. ... Al Khazneh Al Khazneh (The Treasury) (Arabic: الخزنة) is one of the most elaborate buildings in the ancient city of Petra in Jordan. ... Petra (from petra, rock in Greek; Arabic: البتراء, Al-Butrā) is an archaeological site in Jordan, lying in a basin among the mountains which form the eastern flank of Arabah (Wadi Araba), the large valley running from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. ... Petra, the Nabataean capital The Nabataeans, a people of ancient Arabia, whose settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the border-land between Syria and Arabia from the Euphrates to the Red Sea. ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lamassu. ... Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 900s BC 890s BC 880s BC 870s BC 860s BC - 850s BC - 840s BC 830s BC 820s BC 810s BC 800s BC Years: 859 BC 858 BC 857 BC 856 BC 855 BC 854 BC 853 BC 852 BC... Shalmaneser III (Å ulmānu-aÅ¡arÄ“du, the god Shulmanu is pre-eminent) was king of Assyria (859 BC-824 BC), and son of the previous ruler, Ashurnasirpal II. His long reign was a constant series of campaigns against the eastern tribes, the Babylonians, the nations of Mesopotamia and Syria... Gindibu was king of the Arab forces at the battle of Karkar (853 BC), fought against Assyria. ... Combatants Assyria An alliance of 12 Kings Commanders Shalmaneser III Hadadezer Strength Assyrian records claim 100,000 troops; modern scholars believe Assyrian forces were smaller 60,000 infantry, 2,450 chariots, 1,900 horsemen, 10,000 camel riders Kurkh stela of Shalmaneser that reports battle of Karkar The Battle of... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 The Sinai Peninsula (in Arabic, Shibh Jazirat Sina) is a triangle-shaped peninsula lying between the Mediterranean Sea (to the north) and Red Sea (to the south). ...


A modern study by Kamal Salibi connects Israel and the biblical events to Yemen instead of Palestine. The study relies on linguistic evidence from rural dialects in Yemen, and old village names that are similar to biblical names and outnumber those in the north. The study was considered biased because it was labeled Anti-Israeli.[citation needed] Although it gives weak evidence against the Mesopotamian origin of Israelites, it confirms a traditionally accepted Qahtani general origin of Semites. [4] Kamal Suleiman Salibi (born Beirut, 1929) is the Director of Royal Institute for Inter-Faith Studies and Emeritus Professor at the Department of History and Archaeology at the American University of Beirut, Lebanon. ... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism, the movement for a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel. ... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ... Qahtanite (Arabic: قحطان; transliterated: Qahtan) (English: Joktan) refers to al Arab al Aribah or the aboriginal Arabs the who inhabited Yemen. ... Semitic is an adjective which in common parlance mistakenly refers specifically to Jewish things, while the term actually refers to things originating among speakers of Semitic languages or people descended from them, and in a linguistic context to the northeastern subfamily of Afro-Asiatic. ...


Pre-Arabic Near East

Early Semites built civilizations in Mesopotamia and Syria, but slowly lost their political domination of the Near East due to internal turmoil and constant attacks by new nomadic Semitic and non-Semitic groups. The Arameans, Akkadians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Phoenicians, Amorites, Sabaeans amd Minaeans spoke closely related Semitic languages. These groups often overlapped and mixed racial lines, as did Indo-European groups. [12] Attacks climaxed with the arrival of the Medians to east Mesopotamia and the incorporation of the Neo Babylonians. Although the Semites lost political control, the Aramaic language remained the lingua Franca of Mesopotamia and Syria. Eventually, Aramiac lost its day-to-day use with the defeat of the Persians and the arrival of the Hellenic armies around 330BC. Both nations maintained their pure Semitic tongues and continued to evolve into Northern and Southern Arabic.[13] The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing Anatolia (the Asian portion of modern Turkey), the Levant (modern Israel/Palestine, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Georgia, Armenia, and... The Aramaeans, or Arameans, were a Semitic, seminomadic and pastoralist people who originated and had lived in upper Mesopotamia and Syria. ... Akkad (or Agade) was a city and its region of northern Iraq) between Assyria to the northwest and Sumer to the south. ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... What is left of Awam Temple or the Sun temple in Marib. ... The Minaeans from Arabic (المعينيون Maeeneoon) or (معين Maeen) (also spelled Main) were an ancient Arab group in Yemen during the 1st millennium BC. Their Minaean Kingdom Arabic (مملكة معين Mamlakat Maeen) was one of the major kingdoms in ancient Yemen and Southwestern Arabia. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The term Neo-Babylonian or Chaldean refers to Babylonia under the rule of the 11th (Chaldean) dynasty, from the revolt of Nabopolassar in 626 BC until the invasion of Cyrus the Great in 539 BC, notably including the reign of Nebuchadnezzar. ...


The Hebrew Bible occasionally refers to `Arvi peoples (or variants thereof), translated as "Arab" or "Arabian". The scope of the term at that early stage is unclear, but it seems to have referred to various desert-dwelling Semitic tribes in the Syrian Desert and Arabia. Its earliest attested use referring to the southern "Qahtanite" Arabs is much later. 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh (Jewish tradition) or Old Testament (Christian tradition). ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... The Syrian Desert is a combination of steppe and true desert that is located in parts of the nations of Syria, Jordan, and Iraq. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Qahtanite refers to al Arab al Aribah or the aboriginal Arabs. ...


Proto-Arabic, or ancient north Arabian, texts give a clearer picture of the Arabs' emergence. The earliest are written in variants of epigraphic south Arabian musnad script, including the 8th century BC Hasaean inscriptions of eastern Saudi Arabia, the 6th century BC Lihyanite texts of southeastern Saudi Arabia and the Thamudic texts found throughout Arabia and the Sinai (not in reality connected with Thamud). In literature, an epigraph is a quotation that is placed at the start of a work or section that expresses in some succinct way an aspect or theme of what is to follow. ... The South Arabian alphabet branched from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet in ca. ... Ash Sharqiyah, known as Eastern Province is the largest province of Saudi Arabia, located in the east of the country on the coasts of the Persian Gulf, and has borders with Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, and Yemen. ... The Lihyanites were a tribe of northern pre-Islamic Arabia, known from Old North Arabian inscriptions dating to ca. ... The Thamud (Arabic: ثمود) were an early Arabian people. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 The Sinai Peninsula (in Arabic, Shibh Jazirat Sina) is a triangle-shaped peninsula lying between the Mediterranean Sea (to the north) and Red Sea (to the south). ... The Thamud are a people mentioned in the Quran as rejecting their Prophet Saleh. ...


Nabateans, 330BC

The Nabateans moved into territory vacated by the Edomites -- Semites who settled the region centuries before them. The Nabateans were nomadic newcomers who wrote in a vernacular Aramiac that evolved into modern Arabic and modern Arabic script around the 4th century. This process included Safaitic inscriptions (beginning in the 1st century BC) and the many Arabic personal names in Nabataean inscriptions in Aramaic. From about the 2nd century BC, a few inscriptions from Qaryat al-Faw (near Sulayyil) reveal a dialect which is no longer considered "proto-Arabic", but pre-classical Arabic. Petra, the Nabataean capital The Nabataeans were a trading people of ancient Arabia, whose oasis settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the borderland between Syria and Arabia, from the Euphrates to the Red Sea. ... Edom (אֱדוֹם, Standard Hebrew Edom, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔḏôm) sounds like the Biblical Hebrew word for red and is a vividly apposite designation for the red sandstones of Edom. ... Safaitic is the name given to an Old North Arabian dialect, preserved in the form of inscriptions which are written in a type of South Semitic script. ... Petra, the Nabataean capital The Nabataeans, a people of ancient Arabia, whose settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the border-land between Syria and Arabia from the Euphrates to the Red Sea. ... As Sulayyil is a city in Ar Riyad Province, Saudi Arabia. ...


Ghassanids, 250AD

The Ghassanids were the last major migration of non-Islamic Semites out of Yemen to the north. They revived the Semitic presence in the then Hellenized Syria. They mainly settled the Hauran region and spread to modern Lebanon, Palestine and Jordan. language|Arabic]]:الغساسنة) were [[Arab Christian|Arab it is assumed that the Ghassanids adopted the religion of Christianity from the native Aramaeans and Romans. ... Hauran, also Hawran or Houran, (Arabic: ‎, transliteration: ) is the southern region of modern-day Syria. ...

Coin showing the roman emperor Philip the Arab

Greeks and Romans referred to all the nomadic population of the desert in the Near East as Arabi. The Greeks called Yemen "Arabia Felix".[5], The Romans called the vassal nomadic states within the Roman Empire "Arabia Petraea" after the city of Petra, and called unconquered deserts bordering the empire to the south and east Arabia Magna[6] Image File history File links Antoninianus_Philip_the_Arab_-_Seculum_Novum. ... Image File history File links Antoninianus_Philip_the_Arab_-_Seculum_Novum. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Marcus Julius Philippus (c. ... The Republic of Yemen is a country in the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, and is a part of the Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Red Sea, between Oman and Saudi Arabia. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Arabia Petraea Arabia Petraea, also called Provincia Arabia or simply Arabia, was a frontier province of the Roman Empire beginning in the second century; it consisted of the former Nabataean kingdom in modern Jordan, southern modern Syria Sinai, and northwestern Saudi Arabia. ... Petra (from petra, rock in Greek; Arabic: البتراء, Al-Butrā) is an archaeological site in Jordan, lying in a basin among the mountains which form the eastern flank of Arabah (Wadi Araba), the large valley running from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. ...


By the fourth century AD, the Arab kingdoms of the Lakhmids in southern Iraq and Ghassanids in southern Syria had emerged just south of the Fertile Crescent and ended up allying respectively with the Sassanid and Byzantine Empires. The Kindite Kingdom emerged in Central Arabia and allied with the Himyarite Empire of South Arabia. Thus they were constantly at war with each other on behalf of their imperial patrons. Their courts were responsible for some notable examples of pre-Islamic Arabic poetry, and for some of the few surviving pre-Islamic Arabic inscriptions in the Arabic alphabet. The Sassanids dissolved the Lakhmid kingdom in 602, while the Ghassanids held out until engulfed by the expansion of Islam (Pre-Islamic Arabia). The Lakhmids (Arabic: ) less commonly Muntherids (Arabic: ) were a group of Arab Christians who lived in Southern Iraq, and made al-Hirah which was a fabulous city with many castles and bath-houses and Palm gardens their capital in (266). ... language|Arabic]]:الغساسنة) were [[Arab Christian|Arab it is assumed that the Ghassanids adopted the religion of Christianity from the native Aramaeans and Romans. ... The Fertile Crescent is a historical crescent-shape region in the Middle East incorporating the Levant, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... The Kindites (Arabic: بنو كندة) were an important pre-Islamic Arab tribe (or rather clan) that in the 3rd century CE headed a kingdom with the capital in Qaryah dhat Kahl (the present-day Qaryat al-Faw) in Central Arabia. ... A state in ancient Yemen dating from 115 BCE. Conquered neighbouring Saba in 25 BCE, Qataban in 50 CE and Hadramaut 100 CE. It was the dominant state in Arabia until the sixth century. ... A fairly substantial number of Arabian inscriptions survive from the pre-Islamic era; however, very few are in the Arabic alphabet. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Pre-Islamic Arabia is studied by Islamic scholars because it is the context in which Islam, as practiced today, was formed. ...


Early Islamic Arabization

Further information: Muslim conquests

Muslims of Medina referred to the nomadic tribes of the deserts as the A'raab, and considered themselves sedentary, but were aware of their close racial bonds. The term "A'raab' mirrors the term Assyrians used to describe the closely related nomads they defeated in Syria. Age of the Caliphs The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Qur'an does not use the word ʿarab, only the nisba adjective ʿarabiyyun. The Qur'an calls itself ʿarabiyyun, "Arabic", and mubinun, "clear". The two qualities are connected for example in ayat 43.2-3, "By the clear Book: We have made it an Arabic recitation in order that you may understand". The Qur'an became regarded as the prime example of the al-ʿarabiyya, the language of the Arabs. The term ʾiʿrāb has the same root and refers to a particularly clear and correct mode of speech. The plural noun ʾaʿrāb refers to the Bedouin tribes of the desert who resisted Muhammad, for example in ayat 9.97, ʾaʿrābu ʾašaddu kufrān wa nifāqān "the Bedouin are the worst in disbelief and hypocrisy". This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Arabic is a Semitic language. ... Surat Az-Zukhruf (Ornaments Of Gold, Luxury) is the 43rd sura of the Quran with 89 ayat. ... The are the nominal desinences of Classical Arabic. ... A Bedouin man on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic ( ), a generic name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the... Surat at-Tawba (Arabic: سورة التوبة ) (the Repentance) is the 9th sura of the Quran, with 129 ayat according to mainstream Islam and 127 ayat according to Quran Alone Muslims. ... This article is about an Islamic term. ...


Based on this, in early Islamic terminology, ʿarab referred to the language, and ʾaʿrāb to the Arab Bedouins, carrying a negative connotation due to the Qur'anic verdict just cited. But after the Islamic conquest of the 8th century, the language of the nomadic Arabs became regarded as the most pure by the grammarians following Abi Ishaq, and the term kalam al-ʿArab, "language of the Arabs", denoted the uncontaminated language of the Bedouins. Age of the Caliphs The initial Islamic conquests (632-732) began with the death of Muhammad, were followed by a century of rapid Arab and Islamic expansion, and ended with the Battle of Tours—resulting in a vast Islamic empire and area of influence that stretched from India, across the... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Ê¿Abd Allāh ibn AbÄ« Isḥāq (died AD 735 / AH 117) is the earliest known grammarian of the Arabic language. ...


Syria/Iraq, 7th century

The arrival of Islam united the Arab tribes, who flooded into the strongly Semitic Greater Syria and Iraq. Within years, the major garrison towns developed into the major cities of Syria and Iraq. The local population, which shared a close linguistic and genetic ancestry with Qahtani and Adnani Muslims were quickly Arabized.


North Africa, 7th century

The Phoenicians and later the Carthaginians dominated North African shores for more than 8 centuries until they were suppressed by the Romans and the later Vandal invasion. Inland, the nomadic Berbers allied with Arab Muslims in invading Spain. The Arab tribes mainly settled the old Phoenician and Carthagenian towns, while the Berbers remained dominant inland. Inland north Africa remained partly Arabized until the 11th century. Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ... This article is about the ancient city-state of Carthage in North Africa. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ...


Medieval times

Further information: Islamic Golden Age

Ibn Khaldun's Muqaddima distinguishes between sedentary Muslims who used be nomadic Arabs and the Bedouin nomadic Arabs of the desert. He used the term "formerly-nomadic" Arabs and refers to sedentary Muslims by the region or city they lived in, as in Egyptians, Spaniards and Yemenis.[7] The Christians of Italy and the Crusaders preferred the term Saraceans for all the Arabs and Muslims of that time.[8] The Christians of Iberia used the term Moor to describe all the Arabs and Muslims of that time.[9] Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi (1236–1311), a Persian Astronomer. ... Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332/732AH – March 19, 1406/808AH), was a famous Arab Muslim historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher and sociologist born in present-day Tunisia. ... The Muqaddimah records an early Muslim view of universal history. Many modern thinkers view it as one of the first works of sociology. ... Look up moor, Moor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Banu Hilal in North Africa, 1046AD

The Banu Hilal was a Yemeni tribal confederation, organized by the Fatimids. They struck in Libya, reducing the Zenata Berbers (a clan that claimed Yemeni ancestry from pre-Islamic periods) and small coastal towns, and Arabizing the Sanhaja berber confederation. The Banu Hilal eventually Settled modern (Morocco and Algeria) and subdued Arabized the Sanhaja by the time of Ibn Khaldun. The Banu Hilal were an Arab tribe that migrated from Arabia into North Africa in the 11th century, having been sent by the Fatimids to punish the Zirids for abandoning Shiism. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-Fātimiyyūn (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... The Zenata are one of the main divisions of the medieval Berbers, along with Senhaja and Masmuda. ... The Sanhaja were one of the largest Berber tribal confederations of the Maghreb, along with the Zanata and Masmuda History The tribes of the Sanhaja settled at first in the northern Sahara. ... Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332/732AH – March 19, 1406/808AH), was a famous Arab Muslim historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher and sociologist born in present-day Tunisia. ...


Banu Sulaym in North Africa, 1049AD

The Banu Sulyam is another Bedouin tribal confederation from Nejd which followed through the trials of Banu Hilal and helped them defeat the Zirids in the battle of Gabis in 1052AD, and finally took Kairuan in 1057Ad. The Banu Sulaym mainly settled and completely Arabized Libya. The Beni Sulaym were an eastern Arab tribe that migrated from Nejd via Egypt following the trails of the Beni Hilal 1049. ... Najd (Nejd) is a region in central Saudi Arabia and the location of the nations capital, Riyadh. ... The Banu Hilal were an Arab tribe that migrated from Arabia into North Africa in the 11th century, having been sent by the Fatimids to punish the Zirids for abandoning Shiism. ... The Zirids were a Berber dynasty, originating in Petite Kabylie among the Kutama tribe, that ruled Ifriqiya (roughly, modern Tunisia), initially on behalf of the Fatimids, for about two centuries, until weakened by the Banu Hilal and finally destroyed by the Almohads. ... Mosque of Oqba Kairouan (Arabic القيروان ) (variations include Kairwan, Kayrawan, Al Qayrawan) is a Muslim holy city in Tunisia, about 160 kilometres south of Tunis. ...


Banu Kanz Nubia/Sudan, 11th-14th century

A branch of the Rabia' tribe settled in north Sudan and slowly Arabized the Makurian kingdom in modern Sudan until 1315 AD when the Banu Kanz inherited the kingdom of Makuria and paved the way for the Arabization of the Sudan, that was completed by the arrival of the Jaali and Juhayna Arab tribes. Rabiah (Arabic: ) purported patriarch of one of the two main branches of the so-called North Arabian (Adnanite) tribes, the other branch being known as Mudhar. ... Christian Nubia in the three states period. ... The Banu Kanz (Arabic Sons of Kanz) were a group of Rabia Arabs who emigrated to Egypt, eventually dislocating the Beja and penetrating into the desert east of the Nile around Aswan. ... Christian Nubia in the three states period. ... One of the famous intricate jaalis from the Sidi Saiyyed mosque in Ahmedabad, India A jaali is the term for a perforated stone screen, usually with an ornamental pattern, as used in Indian architecture. ... Juhayna is an Egyptian beverages and yoghurt giant. ...


Repopulating crusade struck towns, 12th century

After the defeat of the Crusades, the Ayubids repopulated the reconquered towns with Arabs mainly from their southern provinces of modern Yemen and Asir in modern Saudi Arabia.[citation needed] The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... The Middle East, c. ... Categories: Stub | Provinces of Saudi Arabia ...


Banu Hassan Mauritania 1644-1674AD

The Banu Maqil is a Yemeni nomadic tribe that settled in Tunisia in the 13th century. The Banu Hassan a Maqil branch moved into the Sanhaja region in whats today the Western Sahara and Mauritania, they fought a thirty years war on the side of the Lamtuna Arabized Berbers who claimed Himyarite ancestry (from the early Islamic invasions) defeating the Sanhaja berbers and Arabizing Mauritania. Beni Hassan is a Bedouin group, one of several Yemeni tribes who emigrated to northwest Africa and the Western Sahara in the Middle Ages. ... The Maqil or Maquil were a collection of Arab Bedouin tribes of Yemeni origin who migrated westwards via Egypt during the 13th century. ... The Sanhaja were one of the largest Berber tribal confederations of the Maghreb, along with the Zanata and Masmuda History The tribes of the Sanhaja settled at first in the northern Sahara. ... The Lamtuna are a Berber nomadic tribe of the western Sahara. ... A state in ancient Yemen dating from 115 BCE. Conquered neighbouring Saba in 25 BCE, Qataban in 50 CE and Hadramaut 100 CE. It was the dominant state in Arabia until the sixth century. ...


Tribal genealogy

Medieval Arab genealogists divided Arabs into three groups: Genealogy is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ...

  • "ancient Arabs", tribes that had vanished or been destroyed, such as 'Ad and Thamud, often mentioned in the Qur'an as examples of God's power to destroy wicked peoples.
  • "Pure Arabs" of South Arabia, descending from Qahtan. The Qahtanites (Qahtanis) are said to have migrated the land of Yemen following the destruction of the Ma'rib Dam (sadd Ma'rib).
  • The "Arabized Arabs" (musta`ribah) of center and North Arabia, descending from Ishmael son of Abraham.

The Arabic language spoken today in classical Quranic form evolved as a mix between the original Arabic of Qahtan and northern Arabic which shares a great deal with northern Semitic languages from the Levant. Arabs take great pride in their language and its survival as a usable and comprehensible language over thousands of years[neutrality disputed]. Ad (Arabic عاد) was an ancient Arabian nation mentioned in the Quran as being the place where the Islamic prophet Hud (هود) was sent to by Allah to guide its people back to the righteous path of Islam. ... The Thamud are a people mentioned in the Quran as rejecting their Prophet Saleh. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Qahtanite refers to al Arab al Aribah or the aboriginal Arabs. ... Qahtanite refers to al Arab al Aribah or the aboriginal Arabs. ... One of the engineering wonders of the old world and an icon for the ancient south arabian civilization. ... Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismāīl) was Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ... An angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: /lÉ™vænt/) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ...


Jewish and Christian tradition described the Ishmaelites as an "Arabian people" at least by the time of Joseph, which became standard centuries before Islam. The term Hagarenes was commonly used; it is a pun on the Arabic muhajir and the name Hagar. Efforts to reconcile the Biblical and Arab genealogies later led to conflicting attempts to trace Adnan to Ishmael (Ismail), the eldest son of Abraham and Hagar. Joktan was identified with Qahtan, probably due to his biblical identification as the ancestor of Hazarmaveth (Hadramawt) and Sheba, although these links are based on biblical guesses. According to Quranic tradition Ibrahim had two wives Sarah and Hajira. ... Muhajir or Mohajir (Arabic: مهاجر) is an Arabic word meaning refugee or immigrant or emigrant. ... Hagar can refer to: Hagar (Bible), in the Book of Genesis, the handmaiden of Sarah and wife of Abraham Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World, title name taken from the above lady Hagar (company), an Icelandic retailer company, part of the Baugur Group Hägar the Horrible, the comic... Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismāīl) was Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ... An angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac. ... Hagar can refer to: Hagar (Bible), in the Book of Genesis, the handmaiden of Sarah and wife of Abraham Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World, title name taken from the above lady Hagar (company), an Icelandic retailer company, part of the Baugur Group Hägar the Horrible, the comic... Joktan or Yoktan (Arabic: قحطان Qahtan ) (יָקְטָן little, Standard Hebrew Yoqtan, Tiberian Hebrew Yoqṭān) was the second of the two sons of Eber (Gen. ... Hadhramaut, (also Hadramawt) now part of Yemen, is the coastal region of the south Arabian peninsula on the Gulf of Aden in the Arabian Sea, extending eastwards from Yemen to the Dhofar region of Oman. ... Sheba (from the English transcription of the Hebrew name shwa and Saba, Arabic: سبأ, also Saba, Amharic: ሳባ, Tigrinya: ሳባ) was a southern kingdom mentioned in the Jewish scriptures (Old Testament) and the Quran. ...


Religions

Arab Muslims are Sunni, Shi'a, Ibadhite, Alawite, or Ismaili. The Druze faith is usually considered separate. The self-identified Arab Christians follow generally Eastern Churches such as Greek Orthodox or Greek Catholic. Other Arabic-speaking Christians, such as Copts and Maronites, do not generally consider themselves Arabs. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Al-Ibadhiyah is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni sects. ... For the Alaouite dynasty of Morocco see:Alaouite Dynasty, for the former state now in Yemen see: Alawi (sheikhdom) The Alawi, also known as Alawites, Nusayris or Ansaris, are a Middle Eastern sect of Shia Islam[1][2] prominent in Syria The terms AlawÄ« and Alevi, although they share... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the ShÄ«a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... Religions Druzism Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom) Languages Arabic, Hebrew The Druze (Arabic: درزي, derzÄ« or durzÄ«, plural دروز, durÅ«z; ‎, Druzim; also transliterated Druz or Druse) are a Middle Eastern religious community whose traditional religion began as an offshoot of the Ismaili sect of Islam, but is unique... Arab Christians are people who are ethnically Arab or culturally and linguistically Arabized and who follow the religion of Christianity. ... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, the Balkans, the rest of Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... Greek Orthodox Church can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The word Copt signifies the natives of Egypt as a nationality, and in popular common culture in Egypt it is used to specifically signify Christian Egyptians, although its use to mean Egyptian is not unwitnessed. ... Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܶܐ in Syriac, Mawarinah in Arabic) are members of one of the Eastern Rites of the Catholic church. ...


Before the coming of Islam, most Arabs followed a religion with a number of deities, including Hubal, Wadd, Allāt, Manat, and Uzza. Some tribes had converted to Christianity or Judaism. A few individuals, the hanifs, had apparently rejected polytheism in favor of a vague monotheism. The most prominent Arab Christian kingdoms were the Ghassanid and Lakhmid kingdoms. When Himyarite kings converted to Judaism in the late 4th century, the elites of the other prominent Arab kingdom, the Kindites, being Himyirite vassals, apparently also converted (at least partly). With the expansion of Islam, most Arabs rapidly became Muslim, and polytheistic traditions disappeared. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Hubal (هبل) was a god worshipped in pagan Arabia, notably at Mecca before the arrival of Islam. ... Wadd was the Minaean moon god. ... Mentioned in the Quran (Sura 53:20), Allāt (a contraction of pre-Arabic *al-ilāhat the Goddess) was a pre-Islamic Arabian goddess who was one of the three chief goddesses of Mecca. ... Manat is: The currency unit of Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan; see Manat (Azerbaijan) and Manat (Turkmenistan). ... Mentioned in the Quran (Sura 53:20), al-Ê•uzzā the Mightiest One (derived from the root Ê•zy) was a pre-Islamic Arabian fertility goddess who was one of the three chief goddesses of Mecca. ... (Arabic , plural حنفاء) is an Arabic term that refers to pre-Islamic non-Jewish nor Christian Arabian monotheists. ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity or God, or in the oneness of God. ... The Ghassanids were Arab Christians that emigrated in 250 CE from Yemen to the Hauran, in southern Syria. ... The Lakhmids (Arabic: ) or Muntherids (Arabic: ) were Arab Christians that lived in Iraq,al-Hirah became their capital in (266 AD). ... A state in ancient Yemen dating from 115 BCE. Conquered neighbouring Saba in 25 BCE, Qataban in 50 CE and Hadramaut 100 CE. It was the dominant state in Arabia until the sixth century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Kindites (Arabic: بنو كندة) were an important pre-Islamic Arab tribe (or rather clan) that in the 3rd century CE headed a kingdom with the capital in Qaryah dhat Kahl (the present-day Qaryat al-Faw) in Central Arabia. ...


Today, Sunni Islam dominates in most areas, overwhelmingly so in North Africa. Shia Islam is prevalent in Bahrain, southern Iraq and adjacent parts of Saudi Arabia, southern Lebanon, parts of Syria, al-Batinah region in Oman, northern Yemen, and in Iran. (Most Iranians are not Arabs.) The tiny Druze community follow a secretive faith similar to Islam, and are also Arab. Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Religions Druzism Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom) Languages Arabic, Hebrew The Druze (Arabic: درزي, derzī or durzī, plural دروز, durūz; ‎, Druzim; also transliterated Druz or Druse) are a Middle Eastern religious community whose traditional religion began as an offshoot of the Ismaili sect of Islam, but is unique...

Christian martyr Saint Abo, the patron saint of Tbilisi
Christian martyr Saint Abo, the patron saint of Tbilisi

Estimates of the number of Arab Christians vary, and depend on the definition of "Arab", as with the number of all Arabs, especially Muslim Arabs. Christians make up 9.2% of the population of the Near East.[14] In Lebanon they number about 39% of the population,[15] in Syria 10% to 15%. In Palestine before the creation of Israel estimates ranged as high as 20%, but is now 3.8% due to mass emigration. In Israel Arab Christians constitute 2.1% (roughly 10% of the Palestinian Arab population). In Egypt, they constitute 10% to 20%, and do not identify as Arabs. Most North and South American Arabs are Christian, as are about half of Arabs in Australia who come particularly from Lebanon, Syria, the Palestinian territories,. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Saint Abo of Tiflis, Abo Tbileli, or Habo Tbileli (Abo/Habo of Tbilisi; in Georgian: აბო თბილელი, ჰაბო ტფილელი) (ca. ... Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Georgia Established IV-III Millennium BC Government  - Mayor Giorgi (Gigi) Ugulava Area  - City 726 km²  (280. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ...


Jews from Arab countries – mainly Mizrahi Jews and Yemenite Jews – are today usually not categorised as Arab. Sociologist Philip Mendes asserts that before the anti-Jewish actions of the 1930s and 1940s, overall Iraqi Jews "viewed themselves as Arabs of the Jewish faith, rather than as a separate race or nationality".[16] Prior to the emergence of the term Mizrahi, the term "Arab Jews" (Yehudim ‘Áravim, יהודים ערבים) was sometimes used to describe Jews of the Arab world. The term is rarely used today. The few remaining Jews in the Arab countries reside mostly in Morocco and Tunisia. From the late 1940s to the early 1960s, following the creation of the state of Israel, most of these Jews left or were expelled from their countries of birth and are now mostly concentrated in Israel. Some immigrated to France, where they form the largest Jewish community, outnumbering European Jews, but relatively few to the United States. See Jewish exodus from Arab lands. Languages Hebrew, Dzhidi, Judæo-Arabic, Gruzinic, Bukhori, Judeo-Berber, Juhuri and Judæo-Aramaic Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions and Arabs. ... Yemenite Jews (Hebrew: תֵּימָנִים, Standard Temanim Tiberian ; singular תֵּימָנִי, Standard Temani Tiberian ) are those Jews who live, or whose recent ancestors lived, in Yemen (תֵּימָן, Standard Teman Tiberian ; far south), on the southern tip of the Arabian peninsula. ... Iraqi Jews constitute one of the worlds oldest, and historically most important Jewish communities. ... This article deals with those Jewish communities indigenous to the Middle East. ... Map of Arab League states in dark green with non-Arab areas in light green and Mauritania, Somalia and Djibouti in striped green due to their Arab League membership but non-Arab population. ... Languages Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Arab nationalism

Main article: Arab nationalism
Egyptian President Nasser, whose ideology of "Nasserism" defined the pan-Arabism of the 1960s

Arab nationalism declares that Arabs are united in a shared history, culture and language. Arab nationalists believe that Arab identity encompasses more than outward physical characteristics, race or religion. A related ideology, Pan-Arabism, calls for all Arab lands to be united as one state. Image File history File links Information. ... Arab nationalism refers to a common nationalist ideology in wider Arab world. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 442 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (504 × 684 pixel, file size: 216 KB, MIME type: image/gif) President Gamal Abd ElNasser, the second president of Egypt. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 442 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (504 × 684 pixel, file size: 216 KB, MIME type: image/gif) President Gamal Abd ElNasser, the second president of Egypt. ... The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the elected Head of State of Egypt. ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ... An ideology is a collection of ideas. ... President Gamal Abdel Nasser Nasserism is an Arab nationalist political ideology based on the thinking of the former Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... Arab nationalism refers to a common nationalist ideology in wider Arab world. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... Pan-Arabism is a movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ...


During the time of the Ottoman Empire, Syrian writers started to write about "Arab pride" which was aimed to align the peoples of the Middle East away from the traditional tribal and family loyalties. Thanks to this process Arab nationalism gradually filtered into the arts, history and rhetoric. An Arab identity developed and led to a culture clash with the ruling Ottomans. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


After the end of the Ottoman Empire and the colonial period, the new Arab states looked to protect their fragile nations by focusing on their own history and culture to build up an enduring national identity.


As these nations developed, pan Arab media led to the Arabization of the Middle East that resulted in much assistance between states, often forced by empathy of their populations for other Arabs. For example, many Arab countries allied in the wars against Israel. Pan-Arabism is a movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ...


This empathy was an issue to new and weaker states, which needed to reduce the impact of external influence on their citizens in order to run their own countries. For example Iraq functioned thanks to strong governance by the British (reducing third party Arab influence) and later the independent government from 1932 onwards, although the population has significant cultural and historical divides. This new nationalism had a practical application often in response to internal espionage by other Arab nations. This culminated in a number of pivotal events that emphasized the priority of "nation" over the "Arab nation": the 1978 Camp David Peace Accords between Egypt and Israel, Syria's backing of Iran in the Iran-Iraq War, and Jordan's removal of the PLO. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Map of Arab League states in dark green with non-Arab areas in light green and Mauritania, Somalia and Djibouti in striped green due to their Arab League membership but non-Arab population. ... (Redirected from 1978 Camp David Peace Accords between Egypt and Israel) Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations at Camp David. ... Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini, Abolhassan Banisadr, Ali Shamkhani, Mostafa Chamran Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft 750 helicopters[1] 190,000 soldiers 5,000 tanks 4... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the...


See also

General
Diaspora
Language and culture
Origins

The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Abbasid Caliphate (Abbasid Khalifat) and contemporary states and empires in 820. ... Arab nationalism refers to a common nationalist ideology in wider Arab world. ... Map of Arab League states in dark green with non-Arab areas in light green and Mauritania, Somalia and Djibouti in striped green due to their Arab League membership but non-Arab population. ... This article deals with those Jewish communities indigenous to the Middle East. ... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Largest cities Alexandria, Baghdad, Cairo, Casablanca, Damascus, Khartoum Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13... Anti-Arabism is prejudice or hostility against Arabs. ... Pan-Arabism is a movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ... Belly dance originated partly from traditional Arab culture. ... History of the Arabs is a book written by Philip Khuri Hitti in 1937. ... Arab diaspora refers to the numbers of Arab immigrants, and their descendants, who voluntarily or as refugees emigrated from their native countries and now reside in non-Arab nations, primarily in Western countries as well as parts of Asia, Latin America and West Africa, particularly in the Ivory Coast (home... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... North Africa is the Mediterranean, northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Marcus Julius Philippus (c. ... Arab Christians are people who are ethnically Arab or culturally and linguistically Arabized and who follow the religion of Christianity. ... Arab Americans constitute an ethnicity made up of several waves of immigrants from 22 Morocco in the west to Oman in the east. ... An Arab Brazilian is a Brazilian-born person of Arab descent. ... Most Arab Singaporeans have come in the past from Hadhramaut region in Yemen and are Muslim. ... The Arabs of Khuzestan are one of the ethnic groups of Iran inhabiting the province of Khuzestan. ... In 1995 Turkeys ethnic Arab population was estimated at 800,000 to 1 million, according to the US Library of Congress Country Study. ... Arab citizens of Israel, Arabs of Israel or Arab population of Israel are terms used by Israeli authorities and Israeli Hebrew-speaking media to refer to non-Jewish Arabs who are citizens of the State of Israel. ... The Negev Bedouins (Arabic: Badawit an-Naqab) are traditionally pastoral semi-nomadic Arab tribes indigenous to the Negev region, who hold close ties to the Bedouins of the Sinai. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Arabic literature (Arabic ,الأدب العربي ) Al-Adab Al-Arabi, is the writing produced, both prose and poetry, by speakers of the Arabic language. ... Arabic music includes several genres and styles of music ranging from Arab classical to Arabic pop music and from secular to sacred music. ... Arabic poetry is poetry composed and written down in the Arabic language either by Arab people or non-Arabs. ... Arab cinema referes to the cinema of the Arab world where Arabic language is used in theatre and films. ... Arabian mythology is the ancient beliefs of the Arabs. ... Adnan (Arabic: عدنان ) is the traditional ancestor of the Adnani (Arabized Arabs) of northern Arabia, as opposed to the Qahtani of Southern Arabia who descend from Qahtan. ... A Bedouin man on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic ( ), a generic name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the... This is a list of famous Arabs. ... Al Khazneh, Petra (the Nabataean capital) Shivta The Nabataeans, Arabic (الأنباط) Al-Anbaat, were an ancient trading people of southern Jordan, Canaan and the northern part of Arabia- whose oasis settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the borderland between Syria and Arabia, from the Euphrates... Qahtanite refers to al Arab al Aribah or the aboriginal Arabs. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ...

Sources

  • Harthi.org
  • Touma, Habib Hassan. The Music of the Arabs. Portland, Oregon: Amadeus P, 1996. ISBN 0-931340-88-8.
  • Lipinski, Edward. Semitic Languages: Outlines of a Comparative Grammar, 2nd ed., Orientalia Lovanensia Analecta: Leuven 2001
  • Kees Versteegh, The Arabic Language, Edinburgh University Press (1997) [10]
  • The Catholic Encyclopedia, Robert Appleton Company, 1907, Online Edition, K. Night 2003: article Arabia
  • https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/le.html#People
  • History of Arabic language, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd. [11]. Retrieved Feb.17, 2006
  • The Arabic language, National Institute for Technology and Liberal Education web page (2006) [12]. Retrieved Jun. 14, 2006.
  • Ankerl, Guy. Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva: INUPRESS, 2000. ISBN 2881550045.
  • Hooker, Richard. "Pre-Islamic Arabic Culture." WSU Web Site. 6 June 1999. Washington State University. 5 July 2006 <http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ISLAM/PRE.HTM>.
  • Owen, Roger. "State Power and Politics in the Making of the Modern Middle East 3rd Ed" Page 57 ISBN 0-415-29714-1
  • Halliday, Fred. "Two Hours that Shook the World" P47 ISBN 0-86356-382-1
  • Journal of Semitic Studies Volume 52, Number 1
  • Abdulaziz Almsaodi, Himyari Studies
  • Amitav Ghosh, In an Antique Land.
  • Kamal Salibi, The Bible Came from Arabia
  • Aymn Almsaodi, The Historic Atlas of Iberia

References and notes

  1. ^ http://www.brazzil.com/2004/html/articles/sep04/p118sep04.htm
  2. ^ 1996, p.xviii
  3. ^ From Arab.net: "Although modern day Egyptians are usually lumped together with "the Arabs" due to their language and Islamic traditions, this is not completely accurate. There is a truly Bedouin Arab grouping within Egypt, the majority still nomadic tribal peoples living in isolated oases and roaming through the country's vast desert regions. However, anthropologically, the vast majority of indigenous Egyptians trace [their ancestry back to the ancient Egyptians]. Their physical appearance and cultural traditions are distinct from all other Middle Eastern peoples,"
  4. ^ Abadeer: "We are proud of our Egyptian identity and do not accept to be Arabs. Elaph. April 12, 2007.
  5. ^ http://www.petitiononline.com/NotArab/petition.html
  6. ^ http://lebanesewbass.blogspot.com
  7. ^ http://www.aina.org/guesteds/20060210113623.htm
  8. ^ http://amalid.com/prominent_lebs/Gubran_Khalil_Gubran/AMU_to_Powell.htm
  9. ^ from [1]" by NBC News Middle East military analyst, retired intelligence officer Lt Col Rick Francona
  10. ^ Firestone, Reuven, (1990) "Journeys in Holy Lands: Evolution of the Abraham-Ishmael Legends in Islamic Exegesis", SUNY Press, pps.72., ISBN 0-7914-0331-9
  11. ^ Nebes, Norbert, "Epigraphic South Arabian," in von Uhlig, Siegbert, Encyclopaedia Aethiopica (Wiesbaden:Harrassowitz Verlag, 2005), pps.335.
  12. ^ Journal of Semitic Studies Volume 52, Number 1
  13. ^ AbdulAziz Almsaodi, Himyari Studies P.139
  14. ^ (1998) Christian Communities in the Middle East. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-829388-7. 
  15. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/le.html#People
  16. ^ http://www.labyrinth.net.au/~ajds/mendes_refugees.htm

Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was the civilization of the Nile Valley between about 3000 BC and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation it is the quintessential example of an hydraulic empire. ...

External links

  • Classical Arabic Blog

 
 

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