FACTOID # 20: Statistically, Delaware bears more cost of the US Military than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Arabization" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Arabization

Arabization is the gradual transformation of an area into one that speaks Arabic and is part of the Arab culture. It can also mean the replacement or displacement of a native population with Arabs, although this rarely happened in ancient times, as there weren't nearly sufficient numbers of original Arabs to replace or displace existing populations. Image File history File links Information. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predomiantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Maronite, Alawite Islam, Druze, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism An Arab (Arabic: ) is any member of the Semitic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to... Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Forced migration refers to the coerced movement of a person or persons away from their home or home region. ... Look up native in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Pre-Islamic Arabization

It should be noted that the Muslims were not the first Semitic peoples who migrated out of the peninsula (see: Aramaeans, Canaanites , Akkadians who branched into the Northern Semitic civilizations Assyrians, Phoenicians, Babylonians, Hebrews, Amorites )[1] part of Qahtan the origin of the Arabs. However, pre Islamic Modern Arabic script groups are mainly the Ghassanids, Nabataeans, while the Kindites used the South Arabian Musnad Script. ... The Aramaeans, or Arameans, were a Semitic, semi-nomadic and pastoralist people who originated and had lived in upper Mesopotamia and Syria. ... This article is about the land called Canaan. ... Akkad (or Agade) was a city and its region of northern Iraq) between Assyria to the northwest and Sumer to the south. ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... Qahtanite refers to al Arab al Aribah or the aboriginal Arabs. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... language|Arabic]]:الغساسنة) were [[Arab Christian|Arab it is assumed that the Ghassanids adopted the religion of Christianity from the native Aramaeans and Romans. ... Al Khazneh, Petra (the Nabataean capital) Shivta The Nabataeans, Arabic (الأنباط) Al-Anbaat, were an ancient trading people of southern Jordan, Canaan and the northern part of Arabia- whose oasis settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the borderland between Syria and Arabia, from the Euphrates... The Kindites (Arabic: بنو كندة) were an important pre-Islamic Arab tribe (or rather clan) that in the 3rd century CE headed a kingdom with the capital in Qaryah dhat Kahl (the present-day Qaryat al-Faw) in Central Arabia. ... The South Arabian alphabet branched from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet in ca. ...


Post-Islamic Arabization

Early Islamic Arabization

Syria/Iraq 7th century

After Islam the Arab tribes unified under the banner of Islam and flooded into the strongly Semitic Greater Syria and Iraq, within few years the major garrison towns developed into the major cities of Syria and Iraq. The Local population which shared a very close Semitic linguistic/genetic ancestory with the Qahtani and Adnani Muslims were quickly Arabized.


North Africa 7th century

North Africa was no stranger to Semitic culture, the Phoenicians and later the Cathagenians dominated the North African shores for more than 8 centuries until they were suppressed by the Romans and the following Vandal invasion. In the Inland the Nomadic Berbers allied themselves with the Arab muslims[neutrality disputed] and joined them in invading Spain, during this period the Arab tribes mainly settled the old Phoenician/Carthagenian towns while the Berbers remained the dominant group inland. The Inland North Africa remained partly Arabized until the 11th century. Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ... Phoenician can mean: The Phoenician ancient civilization The Phoenician alphabet The Phoenician languages This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Medieval Arabization

Banu Hilal in North Africa 1046Ad

The Banu Hilal a Yemeni tribal confedaration organized by the Fatimids in Egypt, struck first in Libya reducing the Zenata berbers (a berber clan that claimed Yemeni ancestory from pre-Islamic periods) to the small coastal towns and Arabizing the Sanhaja berber confederation. The Banu Hilal eventually Settled modern (Morraco and Algeria) and subdued Arabized the Sanhaja by the time of Ibn Khaldun. The Banu Hilal were an Arab tribe that migrated from Arabia into North Africa in the 11th century, having been sent by the Fatimids to punish the Zirids for abandoning Shiism. ... The Zenata are one of the main divisions of the medieval Berbers, along with Senhaja and Masmuda. ... The Sanhaja were one of the largest Berber tribal confederations of the Maghreb, along with the Zanata and Masmuda History The tribes of the Sanhaja settled at first in the northern Sahara. ... Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332/732AH – March 19, 1406/808AH), was a famous Arab Muslim historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher and sociologist born in present-day Tunisia. ...


Banu Sulaym in North Africa 1049Ad

The Banu Sulyam another Bedouin tribal confederation from Nejd followed through the trials of Banu Hilal and helped them defeat the Zirids in the battle of Gabis 1052Ad, and finally taking Kairuan in 1057Ad. The Banu Sulaym mainly settled and completely Arabized Libya. Najd (Nejd) is a region in central Saudi Arabia and the location of the nations capital, Riyadh. ... The Banu Hilal were an Arab tribe that migrated from Arabia into North Africa in the 11th century, having been sent by the Fatimids to punish the Zirids for abandoning Shiism. ... The Zirids were a Berber dynasty, originating in Petite Kabylie among the Kutama tribe, that ruled Ifriqiya (roughly, modern Tunisia), initially on behalf of the Fatimids, for about two centuries, until weakened by the Banu Hilal and finally destroyed by the Almohads. ... Mosque of Oqba Kairouan (Arabic القيروان ) (variations include Kairwan, Kayrawan, Al Qayrawan) is a Muslim holy city in Tunisia, about 160 kilometres south of Tunis. ...


Banu Kanz Nubia/Sudan 11th-14th century

A Branch of the Rabia' tribe settled Southern Egypt and slowly Arabized the Makurian kingdom in modern Sudan until 1315Ad when the Banu Kanz inherited the kingdom of Makuria and paved the way for the Arabization of the Sudan, that was completed by the arrival of the Jaali and Juhayna Arab tribes. The Banu Kanz (Arabic Sons of Kanz) were a group of Rabia Arabs who emigrated to Egypt, eventually dislocating the Beja and penetrating into the desert east of the Nile around Aswan. ... Christian Nubia in the three states period. ... One of the famous intricate jaalis from the Sidi Saiyyed mosque in Ahmedabad, India A jaali is the term for a perforated stone screen, usually with an ornamental pattern, as used in Indian architecture. ... Juhayna is an Egyptian beverages and yoghurt giant. ...


Repopulating Crusade-struck towns 12th century

After the defeat of the Crusades. The Ayubids repopulated the reconquered towns with Arabs mainly from their Southern provinces of whats today Yemen and Asir in modern Saudi Arabia. Categories: Stub | Provinces of Saudi Arabia ...


Banu Hassan Mauritania 1644-1674AD

The Banu Maqil is a Yemeni nomadic tribe that settled in Tunisia in the 13th century. The Banu Hassan a Maqil branch moved into the Sanhaja region in whats today the Western Sahara and Mauritania, they fought a thirty years war on the side of the Lamtuna Arabized Berbers who claimed Himyarite ancestory (from the early Islamic invasions) defeating the Sanhaja berbers and Arabizing Mauritania. Beni Hassan is a Bedouin group, one of several Yemeni tribes who emigrated to northwest Africa and the Western Sahara in the Middle Ages. ... The Maqil or Maquil were a collection of Arab Bedouin tribes of Yemeni origin who migrated westwards via Egypt during the 13th century. ... The Sanhaja were one of the largest Berber tribal confederations of the Maghreb, along with the Zanata and Masmuda History The tribes of the Sanhaja settled at first in the northern Sahara. ... The Lamtuna are a Berber nomadic tribe of the western Sahara. ... A state in ancient Yemen dating from 115 BCE. Conquered neighbouring Saba in 25 BCE, Qataban in 50 CE and Hadramaut 100 CE. It was the dominant state in Arabia until the sixth century. ...


In general After the rise of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula, Arab culture and language spread through trade with African states, conquest, and intermarriage of the local population with the Arabs. Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Intermarriage normally refers to marriage between people belonging to different religions, tribes, nationalities or ethnic backgrounds. ...


Countries and territories that are traditionally thought to have gone through Arabization include Spain and Portugal (until 1492), Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Palestine, Iraq and the Sudan. Also, though Yemen is traditionally held to be the homeland of Arabs, most[1] of the population did not speak Arabic (but instead South Semitic languages) prior to the spread of Islam. The peninsular Arabic language became common among these areas; dialects also formed. Today, an Arab from the Levant finds the Arabic of a North African almost incomprehensible. Modern Standard Arabic functions as something of a dachsprache, allowing speakers of disparate dialects to communicate. Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... South Semitic is one of the three macro-classifications in Semitic linguistics, the other two being North Semitic (e. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: /lÉ™vænt/) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic North Africa, including the UN subregion North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided politically from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Modern Standard Arabic is the form of Arabic currently used in Arabic books, newspapers and nearly all written media. ... Dachsprache means a language form that serves as standard language for different dialects, mostly in a dialect continuum, even though these dialects may be so different that mutual intellegibility is not possible on the basilectal level between all dialects. ...


The influence of Arabic has also been profound in many other countries whose cultures have been influenced by Islam. Arabic is a major source of vocabulary for languages as diverse as Spanish, Berber, Kurdish, Persian, Somali, Swahili, Urdu, spoken Hindi, Turkish, Malay, and Indonesian, as well as other languages in countries where these languages are spoken. For example the Arabic word for book /kita:b/ is used in all the languages listed, apart from Malay and Indonesian (where it specifically means "religious book") and Spanish (which uses the Latin-derived "libro"). The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... The Kurdish language is a language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Swahili (also called Kiswahili; see below for derivation) is a Bantu language. ... (, historically spelled Ordu), is an Middle Eastern-Aryan language. ... Hindi (Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is one of the official languages of the Union government of India. ... The Malay language, also known locally as Bahasa Melayu, is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people who reside in the Malay Peninsula, southern Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore, central eastern Sumatra, the Riau islands, parts of the coast of Borneo and even in the Netherlands[1]. It is an...


Cultural context

The term "Arabised-Arabs" has historically been used to signify Arabs who are descendants of Adnan, the son of Ishmael and grandson of Abraham.[citation needed] Expulsion of Ishmael and His Mother. ... The angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1634) Abraham (Hebrew: , Standard Avraham Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Geez: , ) is a figure in the Bible and Quran who is by believers regarded as the founding patriarch of the Israelites and of the Nabataean people in Jewish, Christian and...


Modern times

Iraq

In part of the Al-Anfal Campaign, Saddam Hussein's Iraqi Ba'athist regime drove hundreds of thousands of Kurdish, Assyrians,[2][3][4] and Turkmen[5] families out of their homes in Kirkuk after a Kurdish revolt, and gave their homes to Arab-speaking oil field workers as well as to other non-Kurdish people whom Saddam moved from southern Iraq to the city. This violent campaign of Arabization was an attempt to transform the historically multi-ethnic city of Kirkuk, with a strong Turkmen majority[citation needed] according to the Iraqi government's official census[citation needed] , into an Arab city. Kurdish families were left with no homes after being evicted forcefully by Saddam's Iraqi soldiers, and therefore had to migrate to refugee camps. After the fall of Saddam's regime, many Kurdish families came back to Kirkuk. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Baath Party flag The Ba‘ath Parties (also spelled Baath or Ba‘th; Arabic: اﻟﺒﻌﺚ) comprise political parties representing the political face of the Ba‘ath movement. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... Kirkuk (also spelled Karkuk or Kerkuk; Arabic: كركوك, KirkÅ«k; Kurdish: كه‌ركووك, Kerkûk; Syriac: ܐܪܦܗܐ, Arrapha; Persian: کرکوک; Turkish: Kerkük) is a city in northern Iraq and capital of Taamim Governorate. ... This article is about revolution in the sense of a drastic change. ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ...


Sudan

In the Sudan, Janjaweed militia have been in conflict with some African tribes in the Darfur region. The Darfur region is populated by non-Arab African tribes, and the United States government claims the Janjaweed to be supported by the Arab government in a genocidal campaign, although the Sudanese government denied any relations to the militia. A Janjaweed miltiaman mounted The weed (Arabic: جنجويد; variously transliterated Janjawid, Janjawed, Jingaweit, Jinjaweed, Janjawiid, Janjiwid, Janjaweit, etc. ...


See also

The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing Arabic and various other languages, together with various closely related scripts that typically differ in the presence or absence of a few letters. ... If certain characters in this article display badly (as empty squares, question marks, etc), see Unicode. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Cultural genocide is a term used to describe the deliberate destruction of the cultural heritage of a people or nation for political or military reasons. ... Cover of The Economist magazine, June 24th-30th, 2006 edition Eurabia denotes a scenario where Europe allies itself and eventually merges with the Arab world. ... Qahtanite refers to al Arab al Aribah or the aboriginal Arabs. ...

External articles

  • How can you define an Arab?

References

  1. ^ Nebes, Norbert, "Epigraphic South Arabian," in von Uhlig, Siegbert, Encyclopaedia Aethiopica (Wiesbaden:Harrassowitz Verlag, 2005), pps.335.
  2. ^ http://hrw.org/reports/1993/iraqanfal/ANFAL11.htm
  3. ^ http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/PARLMENT/hansArt.nsf/V3Key/LC19930914036
  4. ^ http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200203/cmselect/cmintdev/444/444ap06.htm
  5. ^ http://www.puk.org/web/htm/news/knwsline/nws/16nov02.html

  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Arabization (3043 words)
Arabization is the gradual transformation of an area into one that speaks Arabic and is part of the Arab culture.
A Branch of the Rabia' tribe settled Southern Egypt and slowly Arabized the Makurian kingdom in modern Sudan until 1315Ad when the Banu Kanz inherited the kingdom of Makuria and paved the way for the Arabization of the Sudan, that was completed by the arrival of the Jaali and Juhayna Arab tribes.
Arabization that had begun in the 1960s was reinvigorated.
Algeria - The Arabization Movement (505 words)
The arabization of society was largely a reaction to elite culture and colonial domination and dates back to the revolutionary period when it served as a unifying factor against French colonial forces.
Arabization is seen as a means of national unity and has been used by the national government as a tool for ensuring national sovereignty.
Arabization of education and the government bureaucracy has been an emotional and dominant issue in Berber political participation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m