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Encyclopedia > Arabidopsis thaliana
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Thale Cress

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Brassicales
Family: Brassicaceae
Subfamily: Brassicoideae
Genus: Arabidopsis
Species: A. thaliana
Binomial name
Arabidopsis thaliana
(L.) Heynh.

Arabidopsis thaliana, commonly called arabidopsis, thale cress, or mouse-ear cress, a small flowering plant related to cabbage and mustard, is one of the model organisms for studying plant sciences, including genetics and plant development. It plays the role for agricultural sciences that mice and fruit flies (Drosophila) play in human biology. Download high resolution version (458x635, 39 KB)Arabidopsis thaliana Image from nl:Afbeelding:Zandraket. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... It has been suggested that Angiospermae, and Anthophyta be merged into this article or section. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class: this name is formed by replacing the termination -aceae in the name Magnoliaceae by the termination -opsida (Art 16 of the ICBN). ... Families See text. ... Genera See text. ... Species See text. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Species See text The mustards are several plant species in the genus Brassica whose proverbially tiny mustard seeds are used as a spice and, by grinding and mixing them with water, vinegar or other liquids, are turned into a condiment also known as mustard. ... A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, please see Introduction to genetics. ... Binomial name Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 Mus musculus is the common house mouse. ... Binomial name Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 [1] Drosophila melanogaster (from the Greek for black-bellied dew-lover) is a two-winged insect that belongs to the Diptera, the order of the flies. ...

Contents

Model organism

Although Arabidopsis thaliana has little direct significance for agriculture, it has several advantages that made it the model for understanding the genetic, cellular, and molecular biology of flowering plants.


The small size of its genome made it useful for genetic mapping and sequencing. At about 157 million base pairs[1] and five chromosomes, it is a small genome for a plant species. It was the first sequenced plant genome, in 2000. Much work has been done to assign a function to the 25,498 genes so far found. In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (or primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer. ... In genetics, two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds are called a base pair (often abbreviated bp). ... THERE ARE NOW 30 CHROMOSOMES!!!!!! Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other meanings of this term, see gene (disambiguation). ...


The plant's small size and rapid life cycle are also advantages. For many commonly used lab strains, it takes about six weeks from germination to mature seed. The small size of this plant is convenient for cultivation in a small space and it produces many seeds. Further, the selfing nature of this plant assists genetic experiments. And as an individual plant can produce several thousand seeds, each of the above are critera leading to Arabidopsis thaliana as a genetic model organism.


Finally, plant transformation in arabidopsis is routine, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens to transfer DNA to the plant genome. The current protocol termed "floral-dip" does not involve tissue culture, nor plant regeneration. Transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the introduction, uptake and expression of foreign genetic material (DNA or RNA). ... Binomial name Agrobacterium tumefaciens Smith & Townsend, 1907 Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a species of bacteria that causes tumors (commonly known as galls or crown galls) in dicots (Smith et al. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ...


History of arabidopsis as a model organism

The first mutant in arabidopsis was documented by Alexander Braun in 1873. Yet the potential of arabidopsis as a model organism was not documented until 1943. This mutant is now known as AGAMOUS, and the mutated gene was isolated by cloning in 1990. Alexander Carl Heinrich Braun (May 10, 1805 - March 29, 1877 was a German botanist from Regensburg, Bavaria. ... // The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The 1990s decade refers to the years from the start of 1990 to the end of 1999. ...


Friedrich Laibach published the chromosome number of arabidopsis in 1907 and proposed it as a model organism in 1943. His student Erna Reinholz published her thesis on arabidopsis in 1945, describing the first collection of arabidopsis mutants that they generated using x-ray mutagenesis. Laibach continued his important contributions to arabidopsis research by collecting a large number of ecotypes. With the help of Albert Kranz, these were organised into the current ecotype collection of 750 natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana from around the world. In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... This article is about mutation in biology, for other meanings see: mutation (disambiguation). ... An ecotype of a species is subgroup of members of that species characterized by the ecological surroundings it inhabits. ...


In the 1950s and 1960s John Langridge and George Rédei played an important role in establishing arabidopsis as a useful organism for biological laboratory experiments. Rédei wrote several scholarly reviews instrumental in introducing the model to the scientific community. // Recovering from World War I and its aftermath, the economic miracle emerged in West Germany and Italy. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... John George Langridge, born February 10, 1910 and died June 27, 1999, was a cricketer who played for Sussex and perhaps the finest batsman never to play test cricket. ...


The start of the arabidopsis research community dates to a newsletter called Arabidopsis Information Service (AIS), established in 1964. The first International Arabidopsis Conference was held in 1965, in Göttingen, Germany. Göttingen ( ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ...


In the 1980s arabidopsis started to become widely used in plant research laboratories around the world. It was one of several candidates that included maize, petunia and tobacco. The latter two were attractive since they were easily transformable with the then current technologies, while maize was a well established genetic model for plant biology. The breakthrough year for arabidopsis as the preferred model plant came in 1986 when T-DNA mediated transformation was first published and this coincided with the first gene to be cloned and published. The 1980s refers to the years of and between 1980 and 1989. ... “Corn” redirects here. ... Petunia is a widely-cultivated genus of flowering plants of South American origin, in the family Solanaceae. ... Species Nicotiana acuminata Nicotiana alata Nicotiana attenuata Nicotiana benthamiana Nicotiana clevelandii Nicotiana excelsior Nicotiana forgetiana Nicotiana glauca Nicotiana glutinosa Nicotiana langsdorffii Nicotiana longiflora Nicotiana obtusifolia Nicotiana paniculata Nicotiana plumbagifolia Nicotiana quadrivalvis Nicotiana repanda Nicotiana rustica Nicotianasuaveolens Nicotiana sylvestris Nicotiana tabacum Nicotiana tomentosa Ref: ITIS 30562 as of August 26, 2005... Binomial name Agrobacterium tumefaciens Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a species of bacteria that causes tumors (commonly known as galls or crown galls) on a wide range of dicots. ... Transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the introduction, uptake and expression of foreign genetic material (DNA or RNA). ... For other meanings of this term, see gene (disambiguation). ... Molecular cloning refers to the procedure of isolating a defined DNA sequence and obtaining multiple copies of it in vivo. ...


Research

Non-Mendelian inheritance

In 2005, scientists at Purdue University discovered in arabidopsis an alternative to previously known mechanisms of DNA repair, which one scientist called a "parallel path of inheritance". It was observed in mutations of the HOTHEAD gene. Plants mutant in this gene exhibit organ fusion, and pollen can germinate on all plant surfaces, not just the stigma. After spending over a year eliminating simpler explanations, it was indicated that the plants "cached" versions of their ancestors' genetic code going back at least four generations, and used these records as templates to correct the HOTHEAD mutation and other Single nucleotide polymorphisms. The initial hypothesis proposed that the record may be RNA-based[2] Since then, alternative models have been proposed which would explain the phenotype without requiring a new model of inheritance[3][4] More recently the whole phenomenon is being challenged as a being a simple artifact of pollen contamination.[5] "When Jacobsen took great pains to isolate the plants, he couldn't reproduce the [reversion] phenomenon," notes Steven Henikoff.[6] In response to the new finding, Lolle and Pruitt agree that Peng et al.'s did observe cross-pollination but note that some of their own data, such as double reversions of both mutant genes to the regular form, cannot be explained by cross pollination.[7] Purdue redirects here. ... DNA damage resulting in multiple broken chromosomes DNA repair refers to a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. ... Mendelian inheritance (or Mendelian genetics or Mendelism) is a set of primary tenets relating to the transmission of hereditary characteristics from parent organisms to their children; it underlies much of genetics. ... It has been suggested that mutant be merged into this article or section. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... In a botanical sense, germination is the process of emergence of growth from a resting stage. ... Amaryllis style and stigmas A carpel is the female reproductive organ of a flower; the basic unit of the gynoecium. ... A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism or S.N.P. (pronounced snip) is a DNA sequence variation occurring when a single nucleotide - A, T, C, or G - in the genome (or other shared sequence) differs between members of a species (or between paired chromosomes in an individual). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ...


Light sensing

The photoreceptors phytochrome A, B, C, D and E mediate red light based phototropic response. Understanding the function of these receptors has helped plant biologists understand the signalling cascades that regulate photoperiodism, germination, de-etiolation and shade avoidance in plants. Phytochrome is a photoreceptor, a pigment that plants use to detect light. ... Photoperiodicity is the physiological reaction of organisms to the length of day or night. ... It has been suggested that Germination rate be merged into this article or section. ... Shade avoidance is a set of responses that plants display when they are subjected to the shade of another plant. ...


Arabidopsis was used extensively in the study of the genetic basis of phototropism, chloroplast alignment, and stomatal aperture and other blue light-influenced processes. These traits respond to blue light, which is perceived by the phototropin light receptors. Another blue light receptor, cryptochrome, is also know to function in arabidopsis and is especially important for light entrainment to control the plants circadian rhythms. The Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) is regulated by blue to UV light (plantphys. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... This is not about surgically created bowel openings; see stoma (medicine) In botany, a stoma (also stomate; plural stomata) is a tiny opening or pore, found mostly on the undersurface of a plant leaf, and used for gas exchange. ... Phototropins are photoreceptors that mediate phototropism responses in higher plants. ... Cryptochrome is a name used historically for the blue light photoreceptors of plants. ... A circadian rhythm is a roughly-24-hour cycle in the physiological processes of living beings, including plants, animals, fungi and cyanobacteria. ...


Light response was even found in roots, which were thought not to respond to light. While gravitropic response of arabidopsis root organs is their predominant tropic response, specimens treated with mutagens and selected for the absence of gravitropic action showed negative phototropic response to blue or white light, and positive response to red light. Gravitropism [or geotropism] is a turning or growth movement by a plant or fungi in response to gravity. ... In biology, a mutagen (Latin, literally origin of change) is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic information (usually DNA) of an organism and thus increases the number of mutations above the natural background level. ...


Research on auxin resistance using Arabidopsis

A certain amount of research has also been undertaken regarding auxin biochemical pathways. Arabidopsis plants were taken with auxin resistant mutations and by studying these mutations and secondary modifier mutations, it is hoped to create a biochemical mechanism for membrane transport and membrane trafficking in plants. IAA appears to be the most active Auxin in plant growth. ...


Some examples of the auxin resistant mutants are axr1 and axr4. The auxin resistant mutation confers features such as long roots, fewer lateral roots and defective gravitropism upon the plant. It is suspected that this is due to the mis-localisation of Aux 1 proteins in the epidermal cell. Since the inequitable growth of epidermal cells is a big factor in Gravitropism and Phototropism, Aux 1 is a significant auxin influx protein.


Perception of magnetic fields

Research published in September 2006[8] has shown, certainly in the case of Arabidopsis thaliana, the role of cryptochromes in the perception of magnetic fields by plants. Cryptochrome is a name used historically for the blue light photoreceptors of plants. ...


See also

Pinguicula grandiflora Botany is the scientific study of plantlife. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ...

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ Lolle, S.J., Victor, J.L., Young, J.M., and Pruitt, R.E. (2005). "Genome-wide non-mendelian inheritance of extra-genomic information in Arabidopsis." Nature 434, 505 – 509. . [2]
  3. ^ Chaudhury, A. (2005) "Hothead healer and extragenomic information." Nature 437, E1 – E2.
  4. ^ Comai, L. and Cartwright, R.A. (2005). "A Toxic Mutator and Selection Alternative to the Non-Mendelian RNA Cache Hypothesis for hothead Reversion." The Plant Cell, 17 2856-2858. [3]
  5. ^ Peng P., et al. (2006) advance online publication Nature doi:10.1038/nature05251
  6. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi (2006) News of the Week GENETICS: Pollen Contamination May Explain Controversial Inheritance Science 313; 1864 DOI 10.1126/science.313.5795.1864
  7. ^ Lolle S. J., et al. advance online publication Nature DOI 10.1038/nature05252
  8. ^ The "sixth sense" of plants

External links

from Kimball's Biology Pages

Major Model Organisms in Genetic Studies
Lambda phage | E. coli | Chlamydomonas | Tetrahymena | Budding yeast | Fission yeast | Neurospora | Maize | Arabidopsis | C. elegans | Drosophila | Zebrafish | Rat | Mouse

  Results from FactBites:
 
Arabidopsis FAQ (332 words)
Arabidopsis ist ein Mitglied der Familie der Senfpflanzen (Brassicaceae), zu der viele Kulturpflanzen wie Kohl und Rettich gehören.
Dieser Vorteile wegen wurde Arabidopsis zum Modellorganismus bei der Untersuchung von Zell- und Molekularbiologie der Blütenpflanzen.
Arabidopsis thaliana wurde von Johannes Thal (hence, thaliana) im 16.
Arabidopsis thaliana Summary (2300 words)
Arabidopsis has no inherent agricultural value and is even considered a weed, but it is one of the favored model organisms of plant geneticists and molecular biologists, and it is the most thoroughly studied plant species at the molecular level.
Arabidopsis thaliana, commonly called arabidopsis, Thale Cress, or Mouse-ear Cress, a small flowering plant related to cabbage and mustard, is one of the model organisms for studying plant sciences, including genetics and plant development.
While gravitropic response of arabidopsis root organs is their predominant tropic response, specimens treated with mutagens and selected for the absence of gravitropic action showed negative phototropic response to blue or white light, and positive response to red light.
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