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Encyclopedia > Arabic literature
History of Literature
The Medieval and Renaissance Periods
Matter of Rome
Matter of France
Matter of Britain
Medieval literature
Arabic literature
13th century in literature
14th century in literature
European Renaissance Literature
15th century in literature

Arabic literature (Arabic ,الأدب العربي ) Al-Adab Al-Arabi, is the writing produced, both prose and poetry, by speakers of the Arabic language. It does not usually include works written using the Arabic alphabet but not in the Arabic language such as Persian literature and Urdu literature. The Arabic word used for literature is adab which is derived from a word meaning "to invite someone for a meal" and implies politeness, culture and enrichment. A stone tablet containing part of the Epic of Gilgamesh The history of literature is the historical development of writings in prose or poetry which attempt to provide entertainment, enlightenment, or instruction to the reader/hearer/observer, as well as the development of the literary techniques used in the communication... According to the mediæval poet Jean Bodel, the Matter of Rome was the literary cycle made up of Greek and Roman mythology, together with episodes from the history of classical antiquity, focusing on military heroes like Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar. ... The Matter of France, also known as the Carolingian cycle is a body of legendary history that springs from the Old French medieval literature of the chansons de geste. ... The Arthurian legend or the Matter of Britain is a name given collectively to the legends that concern the Celtic and legendary history of the British Isles, especially those focused on King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table. ... Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages (encompassing the one thousand years from the fall of the Western Roman Empire ca. ... See also: Pre 13th century in literature, other events of the 13th century, 14th century in literature, list of years in literature. ... See also: 13th century in literature, other events of the 14th century, 15th century in literature, list of years in literature. ... By region Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance French Renaissance German Renaissance English Renaissance Renaissance literature is European literature over an extended period, usually considered to be initiated by Petrarch at the beginning of the Italian Renaissance, and sometimes taken to continue to the English Renaissance, including Shakespeare and into the seventeenth... See also: 14th century in literature, other events of the 15th century, 16th century in literature, list of years in literature. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to the patterns of everyday [[speech. ... The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poiesis, making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing Arabic and various other languages, together with various closely related scripts that typically differ in the presence or absence of a few letters. ... Persian literature (in Persian: ‎ ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... Urdu literature has a long and colorful history that is inextricably tied to the development of that very language, Urdu, in which it is written. ... gadfglkjfdgvkleajbvgopigreogaerpo[gkaerokgkflgsgopsadfvgks;dfkgsdg;dlsfskgsdfgskgkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk ...


Arabic literature emerged in the 6th century with only fragments of the written language appearing before then. It was the Qur'an in the 7th century which would have the greatest lasting effect on Arabic culture and its literature. This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... The Qurān [1] (Arabic: ‎, literally the recitation; also called ‎ The Noble Qurān; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Pre-Islamic literature

The period before the writing of the Qur'an and the rise of Islam is known to Muslims as Jahiliyyah or period of ignorance. Whilst this ignorance refers mainly to religious ignorance, there is little written literature before this time, although significant oral tradition is postulated. Tales like those about Sinbad and Antar bin Shaddad were probably current, but were recorded later. The final decades of the 6th century, however, begin to show the flowering of a lively written tradition. This tradition was captured over two centuries later with two important compilations of the Mu'allaqat and the Mufaddaliyat. These collections probably give us a biased picture of the writings of the time as only the best poems are preserved; some of the poems may represent only the best part of a long poem. Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... Jahiliyyah is an Islamic concept referring to the spiritual condition of pre-Islamic Arabian society. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... The name Sinbad when used alone refers to more than one personage, place, or thing. ... Antar bin Shaddad, or Ê»Antarah ibn Shaddād, was a pre-Islamic Arab legendary figure. ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... The Muallaqat is the title of a group of seven long Arabic poems that have come down from the time before Islam. ... The Mufaddaliyat or Mofaddaliyat, (Ar. ...

See also: Pre-Islamic poetry

Arabic poetry is poetry composed and written down in the Arabic language either by Arab people or non-Arabs. ...

The Qur'an and Islam

The Qur'an was the first major work of Arabic literature and the most influential.
The Qur'an was the first major work of Arabic literature and the most influential.

The Qur'an had a significant influence on the Arab language. The language used in the Qur'an is called classical Arabic and while modern Arabic has diverged slightly, the classical is still the style to be admired. Not only is the Qur'an the first work of any significant length written in the language it also has a far more complicated structure than the earlier literary works with its 114 suras (chapters) which contain 6,236 ayat (verses). It contains injunctions, narratives, homilies, parables, direct addresses from God, instructions and even comments on itself on how it will be received and understood. It is also, paradoxically, admired for its layers of metaphor as well as its clarity, a feature it mentions itself in sura 16:103. File links The following pages link to this file: Quran User:Dsmdgold/Sandbox Gallery of illuminated manuscript images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Quran User:Dsmdgold/Sandbox Gallery of illuminated manuscript images ... The Qurān [1] (Arabic: ‎, literally the recitation; also called ‎ The Noble Qurān; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sura (sometimes referred to as Surah) ( ) is an Arabic term literally meaning picture, evidence, or proof. ... Ayah is the Arabic word for sign or miracle. ... Look up Injunction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In the Roman Catholic Church and in the Eastern Orthodox Church, a homily is usually given during Mass (or Divine Liturgy for Orthodox) at the end of the Liturgy of the Word. ... // A parable is a brief, succinct story, in prose or verse, that illustrates a moral or religious lesson. ... Look up instruction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Although it contains elements of both prose and poetry, and therefore is closest to Saj or rhymed prose, the Qur'an is regarded as entirely apart from these classifications. The text is believed to be divine revelation and is seen by some Muslims as being eternal or 'uncreated'. This leads to the doctrine of i'jaz or inimitability of the Qur'an which implies that nobody can copy the work's style nor should anybody try. Rhymed prose is a literary form and literary genre, written in unmetrical rhymes. ... Rhymed prose is a literary form and literary genre, written in unmetrical rhymes. ... For information on the last book of the New Testament see the entry on the Book of Revelation. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ...


This doctrine of i'jaz possibly had a slight limiting effect on Arabic literature; proscribing exactly what could be written. The Qur'an itself criticises poets in the 26th sura, actually called Ash-Shu'ara or The Poets:

And as to the poets, those who go astray follow them.
16:224

This may have exerted dominance over the pre-Islamic poets of the 6th century whose popularity may have vied with the Qur'an amongst the people. There were a marked lack of significant poets until the 8th century. One notable exception was Hassan ibn Thabit who wrote poems in praise of Muhammed and was known as the "prophet's poet". Just as the Bible has held an important place in the literature of other languages, The Qur'an is important to Arabic. It is the source of many ideas, allusions and quotes and its moral message informs many works. This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Hassan Ibn Thabit (died 674), Arabian poet, was born in Yathrib (Medina), a member of the tribe Khazraj. ... For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ...


Aside from the Qur'an the hadith or tradition of what Muhammed is supposed to have said and done are important literature. The entire body of these acts and words are called sunnah or way and the ones regarded as sahih or genuine of them are collected into hadith. Some of the most significant collections of hadith include those by Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj and Muhammad ibn Isma'il al-Bukhari. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Abul Husayn Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Qushayri al-Nisaburi (Arabic: أبو الحسين مسلم بن الحجاج القشيري النيسابوري) (lived 810-70), Muslim Author of the second most widely recognized collection of Hadith in Sunni Islam, Sahih Muslim, Muslims authentic (collection). He is largely known as simply Al-Muslim. ... Muhammad Ibn Ismail Ibn Ibrahim Ibn al-Mughirah Ibn Bardizbah al-Bukhari محمد بن اسماعيل بن ابراهيم بن المغيرة بن بردزبه البخاري (born (AD 810) - died (AD 870)), author of the most generally accepted collection of traditions (Hadith) from Muhammad, was born at Bokhara (Bukharä), of an Iranian family, in AH 194 (AD 810). ...


The other important genre of work in Qur'anic study is the tafsir or commentaries on the Qur'an. Arab writings relating to religion also includes many sermons and devotional pieces as well as the sayings of Ali which were collected in the 10th century as Nahj al-Balaghah or The Road to Eloquence. A tafsir ( (Arabic: تفسير) tafsīr, Arabic explanation) is Quranic exegesis or commentary. ... In literary criticism, close reading describes the careful, sustained interpretation of a brief passage of text. ... A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... The Nahj al Balagha (Peak of Eloquence) is the most famous collection of speeches (sermons) and letters by Ali ibn Abi Talib, accepted as the fourth of the Caliphs by Sunni Muslims and the first of the Imams by Shia Muslims. ...


Islamic scholarship

Arabic manuscript from the 12th century for Brethren of Purity a group of Arab philosphers (Arabic , Ikhwan Alsafa اخوان الصفا)
Arabic manuscript from the 12th century for Brethren of Purity a group of Arab philosphers (Arabic , Ikhwan Alsafa اخوان الصفا)


The research into the life and times of Muhammad, and determining the genuine parts of the sunnah, was an important early reason for scholarship in or about the Arabic language. It was also the reason for the collecting of pre-Islamic poetry; as some of these poets were close to the prophet—Labid actually meeting Muhammed and converting to Islam—and their writings illuminated the times when these event occurred. Muhammad also inspired the first Arabic biographies, known as al-sirah al-nabawiyyah, the earliest was by Wahb ibn Munabbih but Muhammad ibn Ishaq wrote the best known. Whilst covering the life of the prophet they also told of the battles and events of early Islam and have numerous digressions on older biblical traditions. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 449 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1576 × 2102 pixel, file size: 389 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Arabic literature Brethren... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 449 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1576 × 2102 pixel, file size: 389 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Arabic literature Brethren... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... The Brethren of Purity (اخوان الصفا; also translated as Brethren of Sincerity) were an obscure and mysterious organization of neo-Platonic Arabic philosophers in Basra, Iraq (then seat of the Abbasid Caliphate) sometime during the 900s CE. They are remembered primarily because of a work they produced- the Encyclopedia of the Brethren... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Islam Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Mizrachi Jews, Sephardi Jews, Ashkenazi Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ‎); is a member of a Non-Semetic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... LabÄ«d (Abu Aqil LabÄ«d ibn RabÄ«ah) ( 560– 661), was an Arabian poet. ... This is an article on biographies. ... Wahb ibn Munabbih (Abu Abd Allah al-á¹¢anaani al-Dhimari) was a Mohammedan traditionist of Dhimar (two days journey from Sanaa) in Yemen; died at the age of ninety, in a year variously given by Arabic authorities as 725, 728, 732, and 737 C.E. On his fathers... Muhammad ibn Ishaq (d. ...


Some of the earliest work studying the Arabic language was started in the name of Islam. Tradition has it that the caliph Ali, after reading a Qur'an with errors in it, asked Abu al-aswad al-Du'ali to write a work codifying Arabic grammar. Khalil ibn Ahmad would later write Kitab al-Ayn, the first dictionary of Arabic, along with works on prosody and music, and his pupil Sibawayh would produce the most respected work of Arabic grammar known simply as al-Kitab or The Book. For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... Arabic is a Semitic language. ... Khalil ibn Ahmad ( 718– 791) was an Omani writer and philologist who compiled the first dictionary of the Arabic language, the Kitab al-Ayn. ... Prosody may mean several things: Prosody consists of distinctive variations of stress, tone, and timing in spoken language. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Sibawayh (سيبويه Sîbawayh in Arabic, سیبویه Sibuyeh in Persian) was a linguist of Persian origin born ca. ...


Other caliphs exerted their influence on Arabic with 'Abd al-Malik making it the official language for administration of the new empire, and al-Ma'mun setting up the Bayt al-Hikma or House of Wisdom in Baghdad for research and translations. Basrah and Kufah were two other important seats of learning in the early Arab world, between which there was a strong rivalry. Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (Arabic: عبد المالك بن مروان ) (646 - 705) was an Umayyad caliph. ... Abu Jafar al-Mamun ibn Harun (also spelled Almanon and el-Mâmoûn) (786 – October 10, 833) (المأمون) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 813 until his death in 833. ... The House of Wisdom (Arabic بيت الحكمة Bayt al-Hikma) was a library and translation institute in Abbassid-era Baghdad. ... Baghdad (Arabic ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Location of Basra Basra (also known as Başrah or Basara; historically sometimes called Busra, Busrah, and early on Bassorah; Arabic: البصرة, Al-Basrah) is the second largest city of Iraq with an estimated population of about 1,377,000 in 2003. ... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ...


The institutions set up mainly to investigate more fully the Islamic religion were invaluable in studying many other subjects. Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik was instrumental in enriching the literature by instructing scholars to translate works into Arabic. The first was probably Aristotle's correspondence with Alexander the Great translated by Salm Abu al-'Ala'. From the east, and in a very different literary genre, Abdullah Ibn al-Muqaffa translated the animal fables of the Panchatantra. These translations would keep alive scholarship and learning, particularly that of ancient Greece, during the dark ages in Europe and the works would often be first re-introduced to Europe from the Arabic versions. Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (691–743) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 723 until his death in 743. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... Abdullah Ibn Dhadawayh, also known as Ibn al-Muqaffa (d. ... For a comparison of fable with other kinds of stories, see Myth, legend, fairy tale, and fable. ... The Panchatantra [1][2][3] (also spelled Pañcatantra, Sanskrit पञ्चतन्त्र Five Chapters) or Kelileh va Dimneh or Anvar-i-Suhayli [4][5] or The Lights of Canopus (in Persian)[6] or Kalilag and Damnag (in Syriac)[7] or Kalila and Dimna (also Kalilah and Dimnah, Arabic كليلة و دمنة Kalila wa Dimna)[8... The Temple to Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around three thousand years. ... Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ...


Arabic poetry

Main article: Arabic poetry

A large proportion of Arabic literature before the 20th century is in the form of poetry, and even that which is not is ether filled with snippets of poetry or is in the form of saj or rhymed prose. The themes of the poetry range from high-flown hymns of praise to bitter personal attacks and from religious and mystical ideas to poems on sex and wine. An important feature of the poetry which would be applied to all of the literature was the idea that it must be pleasing to the ear. The poetry and much of the prose was written with the design that it would be spoken aloud and great care was taken to make all writing as mellifluous as possible. Indeed saj originally meant the cooing of a dove. Arabic poetry is poetry composed and written down in the Arabic language either by Arab people or non-Arabs. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Saj‘ is a form of rhymed prose in Arabic literature. ...


Non-fiction literature

Compilations and manuals

 Illustration from Kitab al-aghani (Book of Songs), 1216-20, by Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani, a collection of songs by famous musicians and Arabpoets.
Illustration from Kitab al-aghani (Book of Songs), 1216-20, by Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani, a collection of songs by famous musicians and Arabpoets.

In the late 9th century Ibn al-Nadim, a Baghdadi bookseller, compiled a crucial work in the study of Arabic literature. Kitab al-Fihrist is a catalogue of all books available for sale in Baghdad and it gives a fascinating overview of the state of the literature at that time. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Illustration from Kitab al-aghani (Book fof Songs), 1216-20, by Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani, a collection of songs by famous musicans and Arab poets. ... Illustration from Kitab al-aghani (Book of Songs), 1216-20, by Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani, a collection of songs by famous musicans and Arab poets. ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Islam Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Mizrachi Jews, Sephardi Jews, Ashkenazi Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ‎); is a member of a Non-Semetic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Ibn al-Nadim (Abu al-Faraj Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Muhammad ibn Ishaq), (died September 17, 995 or 998) was an muslim scholar (of either Arab or Persian origin) and bibliographer and the author of the Kitab al-Fihrist. ... Baghdad (Arabic ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ...


One of the most common forms of literature during the Abbasid period was the compilation. These were collections of facts, ideas, instructive stories and poems on a single topic and covers subjects as diverse as house and garden, women, gate-crashers, blind people, envy, animals and misers. These last three compilations were written by al-Jahiz the acknowledged master of the form. These collections were important for any nadim, a companion to a ruler or noble whose role was often involved regaling the ruler with stories and information to entertain or advise. Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون, Abbāsīyūn) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Al-Jahiz (in Arabic الجاحظ) (real name Abu Uthman Amr Ibn Bahr al-Kinani al-Fuqaimi al-Basri) (born in Basra, 776 - 869) was a famous Arab scholar probably of Abyssinian descent. ... ...


A type of work closely allied to the collection was the manual in which writers like ibn Qutaybah offered instruction in subjects like etiquette, how to rule, how to be a bureaucrat and even how to write. Ibn Qutaybah also wrote one of the earliest histories of the Arabs, drawing together biblical stories, Arabic folk tales and more historical events. Abd-Allāh ibn Muslim ibn Qutayba, Abū Muhammad al-Dīnawarī al-Marwazī (213-276) was viewd by sunnis as a hadīth Master, foremost philologist, linguist, and man of letters. ... Abd-Allāh ibn Muslim ibn Qutayba, Abū Muhammad al-Dīnawarī al-Marwazī (213-276) was viewd by sunnis as a hadīth Master, foremost philologist, linguist, and man of letters. ... Folklore is the ethnographic concept of the tales, legends, or superstitions current among a particular ethnic population, a part of the oral history of a particular culture. ...


The subject of sex was frequently investigated in Arabic literature. The ghazal or love poem had a long history being at times tender and chaste and at other times rather explicit. In the Sufi tradition the love poem would take on a wider, mystical and religious importance. Sex manuals were also written such as The Perfumed Garden, Tawq al-hamamah or The Dove's Neckring by ibn Hazm and Nuzhat al-albab fi-ma la yujad fi kitab or Delight of Hearts Concerning What will Never Be Found in a Book by Ahmad al-Tifashi. Countering such works are one like Rawdat al-muhibbin wa-nuzhat al-mushtaqin or Meadow of Lovers and Diversion of the Infatuated by ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah who advises on how to separate love and lust and avoid sin. This article is about the poetic form. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... The Perfumed Garden by Sheikh Nefzaoui is a sex manual and work of erotic literature. ... Abu Muhammad Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Sa`id ibn Hazm (أبو محمد علي بن احمد بن سعيد بن حزم) (November 7, 994 – August 15, 1069) was an Andalusian Muslim philosopher and theologian of Persian descent [1] born in Córdoba, present day Spain. ... Ahmad al-Tifashi (or Ahmad ibn Yusuf al-TÄ«fāchÄ«). Born in Tunisia, died 1253. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Biography, history and geography

Arabic manuscript for the Maqamat Al-Hariri مقامات الحريري back to the 12th century

Aside from the early biographies of Muhammad, the first major biographer to weigh character rather than just producing a hymn of praise was al-Baladhuri with his Kitab ansab al-ashraf or Book of the Genealogies of the Noble, a collection of biographies. Another important biographical dictionary was begun by ibn Khallikan and expanded by al-Safadi and one of the first significant autobiographies was Kitab al-I'tibar which told of Usamah ibn Munqidh and his experiences in fighting in the Crusades. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 604 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2024 × 2009 pixel, file size: 411 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Arabic literature Yahya... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 604 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2024 × 2009 pixel, file size: 411 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Arabic literature Yahya... the 7th Maqama of Maqamat al-HarÄ«rÄ« Arabic مقامات الحريري ,back to mid the 10th century Maqāma (Arabic, assemblies, maqāmātمقامات) are an (originally) Arabic literary genre of rhymed prose with intervals of poetry in which rhetorical extravagance is conspicuous. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... This is an article on biographies. ... Ahmad Ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri was an Arabian historian, a Persian by birth, though his sympathies seem to have been strongly with the Arabs, for Masudi refers to one of his works in. ... Abu-l ‘Abbas Ahmad ibn Khallikan was a Muslim scholar of the 13th century. ... Cover of An autobiography, from the Greek auton, self, bios, life and graphein, write, is a biography written by the subject or composed conjointly with a collaborative writer (styled as told to or with). The term dates from the late eighteenth century, but the form is much older. ... The autobiography of Usāmah ibn-Munqidh Usāmahs autobiography is taken from his Kitāb al Itibār (i. ... Usamah ibn Murshid ibn Munqidh (1095-1188, also Osama, Usama, Ussama, or Usmah; Arabic: ﺃﺳﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﻘﺬ), an Arab historian, politician, and diplomat, was one of the most important contemporary Arab chroniclers during the time of the Crusades. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ...


Ibn Khurradadhbih, apparently an official in the postal service wrote one of the first travel books and the form remained a popular one in Arabic literature with books by ibn Hawqal, ibn Fadlan, al-Istakhri, al-Muqaddasi, al-Idrisi and most famously the travels of ibn Battutah. These give a fascinating view of the many cultures of the wider Islamic world and also offer Muslim perspectives on the non-Muslim peoples on the edges of the empire. They also indicated just how great a trading power the Muslim peoples had become. These were often sprawling accounts that included details of both geography and history. A British pillar box The postal system is a system by which written documents typically enclosed in envelopes, and also small packages containing other matter, are delivered to destinations around the world. ... Travel literature is a record of the events, sights and personal feelings which a traveller experiences as they go from place to place. ... 10th century map of the World by Ibn Hawqal. ... Ahmad ibn-al-Abbas ibn Rashid ibn-Hammad ibn-Fadlan (Aḥmad ʿibn alʿAbbās ʿibn Rasẖīd ʿibn ḥammād ʿibn Fadlān أحمد ابن العبا&#1587... A map by Istakhri from the text Al-aqalim. ... Muhammad ibn Ahmad Shams al-Din Al-Muqaddasi (Arabic: محمد بن امحد شمس الدين المقدسي) (also known as Al-Maqdisi) was a notable medieval Arab geographer, author of Ahsan at-Taqasim fi Ma`rifat il-Aqalim (The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions). ... Al_Idrisis world map from 1154. ... Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Battuta (February 24, 1304 - 1377) was a Moroccan Berber traveller and explorer. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... History studies the past in human terms. ...


Some writers concentrated solely on history like al-Ya'qubi and al-Tabari, whilst others focused on a small portion of history such as ibn al-Azraq, with a history of Mecca, and ibn Abi Tahir Tayfur, writing a history of Baghdad. The historian regarded as the greatest of all Arabic historians though is ibn Khaldun whose history Muqaddimah focuses on society and is a founding text in sociology and economics. Yaqubi (Ahmad Ibn Abu Yaqub Ibn Jafar Ibn Wahb Ibn Wadih Al-yaqubi, 9th century), was an Arab historian and geographer, was a great-grandson of Wadih, the freedman of the caliph Mansur. ... The name al-Tabari means simply from Tabaristan, thus more than one Muslim scholar is known by this designation: Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari, Ali the scholar from Tabiristan (838-870 A.D.) was the writer of a medical encyclopedia and the teacher of the scholar physician Zakariya al... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Baghdad (Arabic ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name Arabic: ‎, ) (May 27, 1332/732AH – March 19, 1406/808AH), was a famous Muslim historian, historiographer, sociologist and economist born in present-day Tunisia. ... The Muqaddimah, or the Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun (Arabic: مقدّمة ابن خلدون), records an early Muslim view of universal history. Many modern thinkers view it as one of the first works of sociology. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ...


Fiction literature

The Arabic version of Arabian Nights Kitab alf Layla wa layla ألف ليلة وليلة
The Arabic version of Arabian Nights Kitab alf Layla wa layla ألف ليلة وليلة
"Bayad plays the oud to the lady",Arabic manuscript for Qissat Bayad wa Reyad tale from the 12th century

There is comparatively little fictional prose in Arabic literature, although many non-fiction works contained short stories a large proportion of which were probably made up or embellished. The lack of wholly fictional works is in part due to a distinction between al-fusha or quality language and al-ammiyyah or the language of the common people. Few writers would bother to write works in this al-ammiyyah or common language and it was felt that literature had to be improving, educational and with purpose rather the just entertainment. This did not stop the common role of the hakawati or story-teller who would retell the entertaining parts of more educational works or one of the many Arabic fables or folk-tales which were not usually written down. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Queen Scheherazade tells her stories to King Shahryar. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 659 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (2024 × 1841 pixel, file size: 412 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Arabic literature Women... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 659 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (2024 × 1841 pixel, file size: 412 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Arabic literature Women... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... For a comparison of fable with other kinds of stories, see Myth, legend, fairy tale, and fable. ... Folklore is the ethnographic concept of the tales, legends, or superstitions current among a particular ethnic population, a part of the oral history of a particular culture. ...


The one significant exception to the lack of fiction is the Thousand and One Nights, easily the best known of all Arabic literature and which still effects many of the ideas non-Arabs have about Arabic culture. Although regarded as primarily Arabic it was in fact developed from a Persian work and the stories in turn may have their roots in India. A good example of the lack of popular Arabic prose fiction is that the stories of Aladdin and Ali Baba, usually regarded as part of the Tales from One Thousand and One Nights, were not actually part of the Tales. They were first included in French translation of the Tales by Antoine Galland who heard them being told by a traditional storyteller and only existed in incomplete Arabic manuscripts before that. The other great character from Arabic literature Sinbad is from the Tales. The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (كتاب ألف ليلة و ليلة in Arabic or هزار و یک شب in Persian), also known as The book of a Thousand Nights and a Night... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Aladdin in the Magic Garden, an illustration by Max Liebert from Ludwig Fuldas Aladdin und die Wunderlampe Aladdin (a corruption of the Arabic name , Arabic: علاء الدين literally nobility of faith) is one of the tales with a Syrian origin[1] in The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, and... Ali Baba by Maxfield Parrish (1909). ... Antoine Galland (April 4, 1646 — February 17, 1715) was a French orientalist and archaeologist, and the first European translator of the Arabian Nights. ... The name Sinbad when used alone refers to more than one personage, place, or thing. ...


The Thousand and One Nights is usually placed in the genre of Arabic epic literature along with several other works. They are usually, like the Tales, collections of short stories or episodes strung together into a long tale. The extant versions were mostly written down relatively late on, after the 14th century, although many were undoubtedly collected earlier and many of the original stories are probably pre-Islamic. Types of stories in these collections include animal fables, proverbs, stories of jihad or propagation of the faith, humorous tales, moral tales, tales about the wily con-man Ali Zaybaq and tales about the prankster Juha. Virtually all societies have developed folk tales encompassing tales of heroes. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... For the music piece by Steve Reich see Proverb (Reich) Look up proverb in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Jihad, sometimes spelled Jahad, Jehad, Jihaad, Jiaad, Djihad, or Cihad, (Arabic: ‎ ) as an Islamic term, literally means struggle or holy war in the way of God or striving hard in Gods cause and is sometimes referred to as the sixth pillar of Islam, although it occupies no official status...


Maqama

Maqamat Badi' al-Zaman al-Hamadhani, a manuscript from the 9th century
Maqamat Badi' al-Zaman al-Hamadhani, a manuscript from the 9th century

Maqama not only straddles the divide between prose and poetry, being instead a form of rhymed prose, it is also part way between fiction and non-fiction. Over a series of short narratives, which are fictionalised versions of real life situations, different ideas are contemplated. A good example of this is a maqama on musk, which purports to compare the feature of different perfumes but is in fact a work of political satire comparing several competing rulers. Maqama also makes use of the doctrine of badi or deliberately adding complexity to display the writer's dexterity with language. Al-Hamadhani is regarded as the originator of the maqama and his work was taken up by Abu Muhammad al-Qasim al-Hariri with one of al_Hariri's maqama a study of al-Hamadhani own work. Maqama was an incredibly popular form of Arabic literature, being one of the few forms which continued to be written during the decline of Arabic in the 17th and 18th century. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Maqamat Badi al-Zaman al-Hamadhani Maqamat Badi al-Zaman al-Hamadhani, (Arabic مقامات بديع الزمان الهمذاني), an Arabic[1] collection from the 9th century of 400 episodic stories of a rogue 52 of them survived. ... Badi al-Zaman al-Hamadhani was a tenth century Arab poet. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... the 7th Maqama of Maqamat al-Harīrī Arabic مقامات الحريري ,back to mid the 10th century Maqāma (Arabic, assemblies, maqāmātمقامات) are an (originally) Arabic literary genre of rhymed prose with intervals of poetry in which rhetorical extravagance is conspicuous. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to the patterns of everyday [[speech. ... The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poiesis, making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... Rhymed prose is a literary form and literary genre, written in unmetrical rhymes. ... March 2004 issue Badi (バデイ) is a monthly Japanese magazine for gay men. ... Badi al-Zaman al-Hamadhani (967 - 1007) was a tenth century Arab writer of prose. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


The decline of Arabic literature

The expansion of the Arab people in the 7th and 8th century brought them into contact with a variety of different peoples who would affect their culture. Most significant for literature was the ancient civilization of Persia. Persia still liked to think of itself as the epitome of culture despite its decline in importance over many centuries. Shu'ubiyya is the name of the conflict between the Arabs and and Non-Arabs. Although producing heated debate amongst scholars and varying styles of literature, this was not a damaging conflict and had more to do with forging a single Islamic cultural identity. Bashshar ibn Burd, of Persian heritage, summed up his own stance in a few lines of poetry: The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... It has been suggested that Shuubiya be merged into this article or section. ... Bashar ibn Burd (714-784) nicknamed al-Muraath meaning the wattled, was a poet in the late Umayyad and the early Abbasid periods. ...

Never did he sing camel songs behind a scabby beast,
nor pierce the bitter colocynth out of sheer hunger
nor dig a lizard out of the ground and eat it...

The cultural heritage of the desert dwelling Arabs continued to show its influence even though many scholars and writers were living in the large Arab cities. When Khalil ibn Ahmad enumerated the parts of poetry he called the line of verse a bayt or tent and sabah or tent-rope for a foot. Even during the 20th century this nostalgia for the simple desert life would appear or at least be consciously revived. Khalil ibn Ahmad ( 718– 791) was an Omani writer and philologist who compiled the first dictionary of the Arabic language, the Kitab al-Ayn. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


A slow resurgence of the Persian language and a re-location of the government and main seat of learning to Baghdad, reduced the production of Arabic literature. Many Arabic themes and styles were taken up in Persian with Omar Khayyam, Attar and Rumi all clearly influenced by the earlier work. The Arabic language still initially retained its importance in politics and administration, although the rise of the Ottoman Empire confined it solely to religion. Alongside Persian, the many variants of the Turkic languages would dominate the literature of the Arab region until the 20th century. Nevertheless, some Arabic influences remained visible. Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Baghdad (Arabic ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Tomb of Omar Khayam, Neishapur, Iran. ... The Conference of the Birds painted by Habib Allah. ... Rumi (born November 29, 1982) is a Persian-Canadian Singer-songwriter and a Photographer who is currently based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with an estimated 140 million native speakers and tens of millions of second-language speakers. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


Modern literature

History of modern literature
Modern Asian literature

Arabic literature
Chinese literature
Indian literature
Japanese literature
Korean literature
Pakistani literature
Vietnamese literature This article is homosexual and should be burned the second in a series of The History of Literature. ... Japanese literature spans a period of almost two millennia. ... Korean literature is the body of literature produced in Korea. ... Vietnamese literature is literature, both oral and written, created by Vietnamese-speaking people. ...

A revival took place in Arabic literature during the 19th century along with much of Arabic culture and it is referred to in Arabic as al-Nahda (النهضة), or Renaissance. This resurgence of writing in Arabic was confined mainly to Egypt until the 20th century when it spread to other countries in the region. This Renaissance was not only felt within the Arab world but also beyond with a great interest in the translating of Arabic works into European languages. Although the use of the Arabic language was revived, many of the tropes of the previous literature which served to make it so ornate and complicated were dropped. Also the western forms of the short story and the novel were preferred over the traditional Arabic forms. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Renaissance Party (Hizb al-Nahda/Parti de la Renaissance) is an illegal opposition political party in Tunisia. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... A trope is a rhetorical figure of speech that consists of a play on words, i. ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative, typically in prose. ...


Just as in the 8th century when a movement to translate ancient Greek and other literature helped vitalise Arabic literature, another translation movement would offer new ideas and material for Arabic. An early popular success was The Count of Monte Cristo which spurred a host of historical novels on Arabic subjects. Two important translators were Rifa'ah al -Tahtawi and Jabra Ibrahim Jabra. (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Count of Monte Cristo (French: Le Comte de Monte-Cristo) is an adventure novel by Alexandre Dumas, père. ... A historical novel is a novel in which the story is set among historical events, or more generally, in which the time of the action predates the lifetime of the author. ... Jabra Ibrahim Jabra (born in 1919 died in 1994) is a Palestinian author. ...


Major political change in the region during the mid-20th century caused problems for writers. Many suffered censorship and some such as Sun'allah Ibrahim and Abdul Rahman Munif were imprisoned. At the same time, others who had written works supporting or praiseworthy of governments were promoted to positions of authority within cultural bodies. Non-fiction writers and academics have also produced political polemics and criticisms aiming to re-shape Arabic politics. Some of the best known are Taha Hussein's The Future of Culture in Egypt which was an important work of Egyptian nationalism and the works of Nawal el-Saadawi who campaigns for women's rights. Abdul Rahman Munif (1933 - January 24, 2004) was one of the most important Arabic novelists of the 20th century. ... Taha Hussein (Arabic: طه حسين ) (November 14, 1889—October 28, 1973) was an Egyptian writer and Arabic literary scholar. ... The Future of Culture in Egypt (Arabic: Mustaqbal al-thaqafah fi Misr) is a 1938 book by the Egyptian writer Taha Hussein. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... Nawal el-Saadawi (Arabic Nawal al-Sa3dâwi) (born October 27, 1931) is an Egyptian feminist writer and activist. ...


Modern Arabic novels

Characteristic of the nahda period of revival were two distinct trends. The Neo-Classical movement sought to rediscover the literary traditions of the past, and was influenced by traditional literary genres such as the maqama and the Thousand and One Nights. In contrast, the Modernist movement began by translating Western works, primarily novels, into Arabic. the 7th Maqama of Maqamat al-HarÄ«rÄ« Arabic مقامات الحريري ,back to mid the 10th century Maqāma (Arabic, assemblies, maqāmātمقامات) are an (originally) Arabic literary genre of rhymed prose with intervals of poetry in which rhetorical extravagance is conspicuous. ... The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (كتاب ألف ليلة و ليلة in Arabic or هزار و یک شب in Persian), also known as The book of a Thousand Nights and a Night...


Individual authors in Syria, Lebanon, and Egypt created original works by imitating the classical maqama. The most prominent of these was al-Muwaylihi, whose book, The Hadith of Issa ibn Hisham (حديث عيسى بن هشام), critiqued Egyptian society in the period of Ismail. This work constitutes the first stage in the development of the modern Arabic novel. This trend was furthered by Georgy Zeidan, a Lebanese Christian writer who immigrated with his family to Egypt following the Damascus riots of 1860. In the early twentieth century, Zeidan serialized his historical novels in the Egyptian newspaper al-Hilal. These novels were extremely popular because of their clarity of language, simple structure, and the author's vivid imagination. Two other important writers from this period were Khalil Gibran and Mikha'il Na'ima, both of whom incorporated philosophical musings into their works. redirect Ismail Pasha ... Damascus at sunset Damascus ( translit: Also commonly: الشام ash-Shām) is the largest city of Syria and is also the capital. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Khalil Gibran (born Gibran Khalil Gibran, Arabic: جبران خليل جبران, Syriac: ܓ̰ܒܪܢ ܚܠܝܠ ܓ̰ܒܪܢ) (January 6, 1883 – April 10, 1931) was an artist, poet and writer. ... Mikhail Naima, born in Mount Sanneen of Lebanon in the year 1889, an author and poet of the Pen League of the earlier century. ...


Nevertheless, literary critics do not consider the works of these four authors to be true novels, but rather indications of the form that the modern novel would assume. Many of these critics point to Zaynab, a novel by Muhammad Husayn Haykal as the first true Arabic-language novel, while others point to Adraa Denshawi by Muhammad Tahir Haqqi. Husayn Haykals Zaynab is the first modern Egyptian novel published in 1914. ... Muhammad Husayn Haykal (Arabic: ) ) was an Egyptian writer, journalist, politician and a former minister of Education in Egypt. ...


A common theme in the modern Arabic novel is the study of family life with obvious resonances with the wider family of the Arabic world. Many of the novels have been unable to avoid the politics and conflicts of the region with war often acting as background to small scale family dramas. The works of Naguib Mahfuz depict life in Cairo, and his Cairo Trilogy, describing the struggles of a modern Cairene family across three generations, won him a Nobel prize for literature in 1988. He was the first Arabic writer to win the prize. Egyptian novelist Naguib Mahfouz Naguib Mahfouz (Arabic: ‎, ) (December 11, 1911 – August 30, 2006) was an Egyptian novelist who won the 1988 Nobel Prize for Literature. ... Nickname: Al Qahirah (The Triumphant City) Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 210 km²  (81. ... The Cairo Trilogy is a trilogy of novels set in Cairo, Egypt. ... The Nobel Prize in literature is awarded annually to an author from any country who has produced the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency. The work in this case generally refers to an authors work as a whole, not to any individual work, though individual works are sometimes... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Plays

Theatre and drama has only been a visible part of Arabic literature in the modern era. There may have been a much longer theatrical tradition but it was probably not regarded as legitimate literature and mostly went unrecorded. There is an ancient tradition of public performance amongst Shi'i Muslims of a play depicting the life and death of al-Husayn at the battle of Karbala in 680 CE. There are also several plays composed by Shams al-din Muhammad ibn Daniyal in the 13th century when he mentions that older plays are getting stale and offers his new works as fresh material. Shia Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 10-15% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ... The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE) [1] [2] in Karbala, in present day Iraq. ... Events October 10 - Battle of Kerbela November 12 - The Sixth Ecumenical Council opens in Constantinople The Bulgars subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria Pippin of Herstal becomes Mayor of the Palace Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I succeeded by Yazid I ibn Muawiyah Erwig deposes Wamba to become king of the... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ...


Drama began to be written in the 19th century chiefly in Egypt and mainly influenced and in imitation of French works. It was not until the 20th century that it began to develop a distinctly Arab flavour and be seen elsewhere. The most important Arab playwright was Tawfiq al-Hakim whose first play was a re-telling of the Qur'anic story of the Seven sleepers and the second an epilogue for the Thousand and One Nights. Other important dramatists of the region include Yusuf al'Ani of Iraq and Sa'dallah Wannus of Syria. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tawfiq al-Hakim (1898-1987) was an Egyptian thinker, author, novelist and dramatist who played a pivotal role in the creation of modern Arabic literature from the 1930s onwards. ... In Christian mythology, the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus is a folktale concerning a number of fictional people who for a time were venerated as saints. ...


Women in Arabic literature

Hanan al-Shaykh contemporary Arab writer
Hanan al-Shaykh contemporary Arab writer

Whilst not playing a major part in Arabic literature women have had a continuing role. The earliest poetesses were al-Khansa and Layla al-Akhyaliyyah of the 7th century. Their concentration on the ritha' or elegy suggests that this was a form designated for women to work in. A later poetess Walladah, Umawi princess of al-Andulus wrote Sufi poetry and was the lover of fellow poet ibn Zaydun. These and other minor women writers suggest a hidden world of female literature. Women still played an important part as characters in Arabic literature with Sirat al-amirah Dhat al-Himmah an Arabic epic with a female warrior as the chief protagonist and Shahrazad cunningly telling stories in the Thousand and One Nights to save her life. Image File history File links Hanan_al-Shaykh. ... Image File history File links Hanan_al-Shaykh. ... Hanan al-Shaykh Hanan al-Shaykh (1945- ) is a Lebanese author of contemporary Arab womens literature. ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Islam Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Mizrachi Jews, Sephardi Jews, Ashkenazi Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ‎); is a member of a Non-Semetic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases... Al-Khansa (600 - 670) was a female Arabic poet of the seventh century, from the nomadic Madar tribe. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Wallada bint al-Mustakfi (born in Cordova in 994 - died March 26 , 1091), was an Al-Andalusian poet of Arabic language. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Virtually all societies have developed folk tales encompassing tales of heroes. ... Scheherazade or Shahrazad (Persian: شهرزاد Shahrzad) is the (fictional) storyteller of The Book of One Thousand and One Nights. ...


Modern Arabic literature has allowed a greater number of female writers' works to be published: Suhayr al-Qalamawi, Ulfat Idlibi, Layla Ba'albakki and Alifa Rifaat are just some of the novelists and short story writers. There has also be a number of significant female academics such as Zaynab al-Ghazali, Nawal el-Saadawi and Fatimah al-Marnisi who amongst other subject wrote of the place of women in Muslim society. Women writers also courted controversy with Layla Ba'albakki charged with insulting public decency with her short story Spaceships of Tenderness to the Moon. Alifa Rifaat (June 5, 1930 - 1996) was a controversial Egyptian author, whose short stories reflect on the life of traditional Muslim women in rural Egypt. ... Nawal el-Saadawi (Arabic Nawal al-Sa3dâwi) (born October 27, 1931) is an Egyptian feminist writer and activist. ...


Literary criticism

Criticism has been inherent in Arabic literature from the start. The poetry festivals of the pre-Islamic period often pitched two poets against each other in a war of verse in which one would be deemed to have won by the audience. The subject adopted a more official status with Islamic study of the Qur'an. Although nothing as crass as literary criticism could be applied to a work which was i'jaz or inimitable and divinely inspired, analysis was permitted. This study allowed for better understanding of the message and facilitated interpretation for practical use, all of which help the development of a critical method important for later work on other literature. A clear distinction regularly drawn between works in literary language and popular works has meant that only part of the literature in Arabic was usually considered worthy of study and criticism.


Some of the first studies of the poetry are Qawa'id al-shi'r or The Rules of Poetry by Tha'lab and Naqd al-shi'r Poetic Criticism by Qudamah ibn Ja'far. Other works tended to continue the tradition of contrasting two poets in order to determine which one best follows the rule of classical poetic structure. Plagiarism also became a significant idea exercising the critcs' concerns. The works of al-Mutanabbi were particularly studied with this concern. He was considered by many the greatest of all Arab poets but his own arrogant self-regard for his abilities did not endear him to other writers and they looked for a source for his verse. Just as there were collections of facts written about many different subjects, numerous collections detailing every possible rhetorical figure used in literature emerged as well as how to write guides. Ahmad ibn al-Husayn al-Mutanabbi (915–965) was an Arab (Iraqi-born) poet. ... A figure of speech, sometimes termed a rhetorical figure or device, or elocution, is a word or phrase that departs from straightforward, literal language. ...


Modern criticism at first compared the new works unfavourably with the classical ideals of the past but these standards were soon rejected as too artificial. The adoption of the forms of European romantic poetry dictated the introduction of corresponding critical standards. Taha Hussayn, himself keen on European thought, would even dare to challenge the Qur'an with modern critical analysis in which he pointed out the ideas and stories borrowed from pre-Islamic poetry. Romantic poetry was part of the Romantic movement of European literature during the 18th-19th centuries. ... Taha Hussein (Arabic: طه حسين ) (November 14, 1889—October 28, 1973) was an Egyptian writer and Arabic literary scholar. ...


Outside views of Arabic literature

Literature in Arabic has been largely unknown outside the Islamic world. Arabic has frequently acted as a time capsule, preserving literature form ancient civilisations to be re-discovered in Renaissance Europe and as a conduit for transmitting literature from distant regions. In this role though it is rarely read but simply re-translated into another standard language like Latin. One of the first important translations of Arabic literature was Robert of Ketton's translation of the Qur'an in the 12th century but it would not be until the early 18th century that much of Arabic's diverse literature would be recognised, largely due to Arabists such as Forster Fitzgerald Arbuthnot and his books such as Arabic Authors: A Manual of Arabian History and Literature.[1] Raphael was famous for depicting illustrious figures of the Classical past with the features of his Renaissance contemporaries. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Robert of Ketton (c. ... The Qurān [1] (Arabic: ‎, literally the recitation; also called ‎ The Noble Qurān; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Forster Fitzgerald Arbuthnot (21 May 1833 – 25 May 1901) was a British Orientalist and translator. ...


Antoine Galland's translation of the Thousand and One Nights was the first major work in Arabic which found great success outside the Muslim world. other significant translators were Friedrich Rückert and Richard Burton, along with many working at Fort William, India. The Arabic works and many more in other eastern languages fuelled a fascination in Orientalism within Europe. Works of dubious 'foreign' morals were particularly popular but even these were censored for content, such as homosexual references, which were not permitted in Victorian society. Most of the works chosen for translation helped confirm the stereotypes of the audiences with many more still untranslated. Few modern Arabic works have been translated into other languages. Antoine Galland (April 4, 1646 — February 17, 1715) was a French orientalist and archaeologist, and the first European translator of the Arabian Nights. ... The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (كتاب ألف ليلة و ليلة in Arabic or هزار و یک شب in Persian), also known as The book of a Thousand Nights and a Night... Friedrich Rückert (May 16, 1788 - January 31, 1866) was a German poet, translator and professor of Oriental languages. ... Richard Burton, portrait by Frederic Leighton, National Portrait Gallery, London. ... Fort William is a British Raj fort in the Indian city of Calcutta and was named after King William of Orange. ... For Orientalist Architecture, see Moorish Revival. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her Ascension to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British industrial revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ...


Noted authors

Poetry

See also: List of Arabic language poets

Ahmad ibn-al-Husayn al-Mutanabbi (915 - 965) was an Arab (Iraqi-born) poet. ... Abu Afak (Arabic: ابو عفك, c. ... Abu Tammam (Habib ibn Aus) (ca. ... A drawing of Abu Nuwas Abu-Nuwas al-Hasan ben Hani al-Hakami (750?–815?) was a renowned Arabic poet. ... Al-Khansa (600 - 670) was a female Arabic poet of the seventh century, from the nomadic Madar tribe. ... Tammam ibn Ghalib Abu Firas, commonly known as al-Farazdaq (Ar. ... Asmā bint Marwān (Arabic: عصماء بنت مروان, namely Asmā the daughter of Marwān) was a poet who lived in Hijaz in medieval Arabia. ... Jarir (Jarir ibn `Atiyah al-Khatfi, died ca. ... Taghribat Bani Hilal (تغريبة بني هلال, also known as Sirat Abu Zeid Al Hilali سيرة ابي زيد الهلالي) is an Arabic epic recounting the Banu Hilals... The epic is a broadly defined genre of poetry, and one of the major forms of narrative literature. ... // F Fadwa Touqan I Ibrahim Touqan M Mahmoud Darwish N Nizar Qabbani Z Zuhair Categories: Lists of poets ...

Prose

Historical

  • Antara Ibn Shaddad al-'Absi, pre-Islamic Arab hero and poet (fl. 580 CE).
  • Muhammad alqasim al-Hariri (1054–1122)
  • Al-Jahiz (776–869)
  • Muhammad al-Nawaji bin Hasan bin Ali bin Othman, Cairene mystic, Sufi and poet (1383?–1455)

Antara Ibn Shaddad al-Absi عنترة بن شداد العبسي, pre-Islamic Arab hero and poet (fl. ... Al-Jahiz (in Arabic الجاحظ) (real name Abu Uthman Amr Ibn Bahr al-Kinani al-Fuqaimi al-Basri) (born in Basra, 776 - 869) was a famous Arab scholar probably of Abyssinian descent. ...

Modern

Egyptian novelist Naguib Mahfouz Naguib Mahfouz (Arabic: ‎, ) (December 11, 1911 – August 30, 2006) was an Egyptian novelist who won the 1988 Nobel Prize for Literature. ... The Nobel Prize in literature is awarded annually to an author from any country who has produced the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency. The work in this case generally refers to an authors work as a whole, not to any individual work, though individual works are sometimes... See also: 1987 in literature, other events of 1988, 1989 in literature, list of years in literature. ... Abbas Mahmoud el-Akkad (Arabic: عباس محمود العقاد) (June 28, 1889–March 12, 1964) was one of the most famous Egyptian writers. ... Zakaria tamer(Arabic: ‎ (born January 2nd, 1931) is a Syrian writer. ... Tayeb Salih is a noted Sudanese writer. ... Abdul Rahman Munif (1933 - January 24, 2004) was one of the most important Arabic novelists of the 20th century. ... Ahlam (or Ahlem) Mosteghanemi (born 13 April 1953), the daughter of Algerian revolutionary leader Mohammed Chérif, is a notable Algerian writer. ... Hanan al-Shaykh Hanan al-Shaykh (1945- ) is a Lebanese author of contemporary Arab womens literature. ... Ghassan Kanafani Ghassan Kanafani (غسان كنفاني, born April 9, 1936 in Acre, Palestine - died July 8, 1972 in Beirut, Lebanon) was a Palestinian writer and a spokesman for the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. ... Elias Khoury (born in Beirut in 1948) is a Lebanese writer and critic. ... Sonallah Ibrahim is an Egyptian novelist and short story writer and one of the Sixties Generation who is known for his leftist and nationalist views which are expressed rather directly in his work. ... Khalil Gibran Gibran Khalil Gibran (January 6, 1883 – April 10, 1931) was a Lebanese poet, artist and Maronite Christian. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ F.F. Arbuthnot, Arabic Authors: A Manual of Arabian History and Literature, originally published London: William Heinemann (1890). Full text online at project Gutenberg.

  • Roger Allen, The Arabic Novel: An Historical and Critical Introduction (1982) ISBN 0-9507885-0-3.
  • Alamgir Hashmi, The Worlds of Muslim Imagination (1986) ISBN 0-00-500407-1.
  • Rasheed El-Enany, Naguib Mahfouz: The Pursuit of Meaning (1993) ISBN 0-415-07395-2
  • Cambridge History of Arabic Literature, multiple authors and editors
    • Arabic Literature to the End of the Umayyad Period (1983) ISBN 0-521-24015-8
    • 'Abbasid Belles Lettres (1990) ISBN 0-521-24016-6
    • Religion, Learning and Science in the 'Abbasid Period (1991) ISBN 0-521-32763-6
    • The Literature of Al-Andalus (2000) ISBN 0-521-47159-1
    • Modern Arabic Literature (1993) ISBN 0-521-33197-8

See also

Virtually all societies have developed folk tales encompassing tales of heroes. ... Fuṣḥa is the standard Arabic language, to be contrasted with spoken varieties of Arabic. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... // Quran Text Surahs Ayah Commentary/Exegesis Tafsir ibn Kathir (by Ibn Kathir) Tafsir al-Tabari (by Tabari) Al Kordobi Tafseer-e-kabir (by Imam Razi) Tafheem-al-Quran (by Maulana Maududi) Sunnah/Hadith Hadith (Traditions of The Prophet) The Siha-e-Sitta al-Bukhari (d. ... The School of Salamanca is the renaissance of thought in diverse intellectual areas by Spanish theologians, rooted in the intellectual and pedagogical work of Francisco de Vitoria. ... Resalat Al-Ghufran ( Arabic رسالة الغفران), meaning The Epistle of Forgiveness, is a famous Arabic book from the 10th century written by Abu alaa al-Tanookhy al-Maarri (Arabic أبو العلاء التنوخي المعري ). It is a book of divine comedy that concentrates on the Arabic poetical civilization but in a way that touches all aspects...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Arabic Literature (751 words)
The earliest known literature emerged in northern Arabia around 500 AD and took the form of poetry which was recited aloud, memorised and handed down from one generation to another.
The birth of Arabic prose as a literary form is attributed to the Persian secretarial class who served under the Abbasid caliphs (750-1256) in Baghdad.
The most outstanding Arabic writer of the 20th century is Naguib Mahfouz, a prolific Egyptian novelist, playwright, and screenwriter who won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1988.
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Arabic Literature, literature written in the Arabic language, from the 6th century to the present.
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