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Encyclopedia > Arabic numerals
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Arabic numerals, known formally as Hindu-Arabic numerals, and also as Indian numerals, Hindu numerals, Western Arabic numerals, European numerals, or Western numerals, are the most common symbolic representation of numbers around the world. They are considered an important milestone in the development of mathematics. Arabic numerals may refer to one of the following: Hindu-Arabic numerals, the colloquial understanding of Arabic numerals in Western scripts. ... Image File history File links Arabic_Numerals. ... Image File history File links Arabic_Numerals. ... In typography, serifs are the small features at the end of strokes within letters. ... This article is about different methods of expressing numbers with symbols. ... I like cream cheese, it tastes good on toast. ... The Eastern Arabic numerals (also called Eastern Arabic numerals, Arabic-Indic numerals, Arabic Eastern Numerals) are the symbols (glyphs) used to represent the Hindu-Arabic numeral system in conjunction with the Arabic alphabet in Egypt, Iran, Pakistan and parts of India, and also in the no longer used Ottoman Turkish... Khmer numerals are the numerals used in the Khmer language of Cambodia. ... India has produced many numeral systems. ... The Brahmi numerals are an indigenous Indian numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens). ... The counting rods (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: chou2) were used by ancient Chinese before the invention of the abacus. ... The Abjad numerals are a decimal numeral system which was used in the Arabic-speaking world prior to the use of the Hindu-Arabic numerals from the 8th century, and in parallel with the latter until Modern times. ... Cyrillic numerals was a numbering system derived from the Cyrillic alphabet, used by South and East Slavic peoples. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. ... Greek numerals are a system of representing numbers using letters of the Greek alphabet. ... The Sanskrit alphabetic numerals were created in about A.D. 510 by Āryabhaa. ... Attic numerals were used by ancient Greeks, possibly from the 7th century BC. They were also known as Herodianic numerals because they were first described in a 2nd century manuscript by Herodian. ... Babylonian numerals were written in cuneiform, using a wedge-tipped reed stylus to make a mark on a soft clay tablet which would be exposed in the sun to harden to create a permanent record. ... The Etruscan numerals were used by the ancient Etruscans. ... Mayan numerals. ... Roman numerals are a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... During the beginning of the Urnfield culture, around 1200 BC, a series of votive sickles of bronze with marks that have been interpreted as a numeral system, appeared in Central Europe. ... This is a list of numeral system topics, by Wikipedia page. ... A positional notation or place-value notation system is a numeral system in which each position is related to the next by a constant multiplier, a common ratio, called the base or radix of that numeral system. ... The radix (Latin for root), also called base, is the number of various unique symbols (or digits or numerals) a positional numeral system uses to represent numbers. ... For other uses, see Decimal (disambiguation). ... The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system, is a numeral system that represents numeric values using two symbols, usually 0 and 1. ... Quaternary is the base four numeral system. ... The octal numeral system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. ... In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal, base-16, or simply hex, is a numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16, usually written using the symbols 0–9 and A–F, or a–f. ... Base32 is a derivation of Base64 with the following additional properties: The resulting character set is all uppercase, which can often be beneficial when using a case-sensitive filesystem. ... Base64 is a positional notation using a base of 64. ... Ternary or trinary is the base-3 numeral system. ... Nonary is a base 9 numeral system, typically using the digits 0-8, but not the digit 9. ... The duodecimal (also known as base-12 or dozenal) system is a numeral system using twelve as its base. ... As there are 24 hours in a day a numbering system based upon 24, and as the base 12 is convenient here some examples of the base 24 (quadrovigesimal) system. ... Base 30 or trigesimal is a positional numeral system using 30 as the radix. ... Base 36 refers to a positional numeral system using 36 as the radix. ... The sexagesimal (base-sixty) is a numeral system with sixty as the base. ... I like cream cheese, it tastes good on toast. ... India has produced many numeral systems. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ... For other uses, see Number (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ...


One may distinguish between the positional system involved, algorism (also known as the Hindu-Arabic numeral system), and the glyphs used to portray the numerals used in that system. The glyphs most commonly used in conjunction with the Latin alphabet since Early Modern times are 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9. Positional notation or place-value notation is a numeral system in which each position is related to the next by a constant multiplier called the base (or radix) of that numeral system. ... Algorism comprises all of the rules of performing arithmetic computations using a decimal system for representing numbers in which numbers written using ten symbols having the values 0 through 9 are combined using a place-value system (positional notation), where each symbol has ten times the weight of the one... I like cream cheese, it tastes good on toast. ... variant glyphs representing the character a (allographs of a) in the Zapfino typeface. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies which spans the two centuries between the Middle Ages and the Industrial Revolution. ... For other senses of this word, see zero or 0. ... This article is about the number one. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up three in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article discusses the number Four. ... Look up five in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up six in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Seven Days of Creation - 1765 book, title page 7 (seven) is the natural number following 6 and preceding 8. ... Look up eight in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the number. ...


These numeral glyphs ultimately derive from the Brahmi numerals, which arose in Maurya period India.[1][2] They were transmitted first to West Asia, where they find mention in the 9th century, and eventually to Europe in the 10th century.[1] Since knowledge of the numerals reached Europe through the work of Arab and Persian mathematicians and astronomers, the numerals came to be called "Arabic numerals." In the Arabic language itself, the Eastern Arabic numerals are called "Indian numerals," أرقام هندية, (arqam hindiyyah) and a different set of symbols are used as numerals. The Brahmi numerals are an indigenous Indian numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens). ... A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... A map showing Southwest Asia - The term Middle East is more often used to refer to both Southwest Asia and some North African countries Southwest Asia, or West Asia, is the southwestern part of Asia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The Eastern Arabic numerals (also called Eastern Arabic numerals, Arabic-Indic numerals, Arabic Eastern Numerals) are the symbols (glyphs) used to represent the Hindu-Arabic numeral system in conjunction with the Arabic alphabet in Egypt, Iran, Pakistan and parts of India, and also in the no longer used Ottoman Turkish...

Contents

History

Origins

Main article: History of the Hindu-Arabic numeral system

The symbols for 1 to 9 in the Hindu-Arabic numeral system evolved from the Brahmi numerals. Buddhist inscriptions from around 300 BC use the symbols which became 1, 4 and 6. One century later, their use of the symbols which became 2, 7 and 9 was recorded. The Hindu-Arabic numeral system originaju from the Hindu numeral system, which is a pure place value system, that requires a zero. ... The system of Hindu-Arabic numerals is a positional decimal numeral system that evolved from the Brahmi numeral system in ancient India, from the 9th century documented to have used a positional notation including a zero symbol. ... The Brahmi numerals are an indigenous Indian numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens). ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by...

  first universally accepted inscription containing the use of the 0 glyph is first recorded in the 9th century, in an inscription at Gwalior dated to 870. However, by this time, the use of the glyph had already reached Persia, and is mentioned in Al-Khwarizmi's descriptions of Indian numerals. Indian documents on copper plates, with the same symbol for zero in them, dated back as far as the sixth century AD, abound.[3] 
Brahmi numerals in India in the first century AD
Brahmi numerals in India in the first century AD
Modern day Arab telephone keypad with two forms of Hindu-Arabic numerals, Arabic and European

The numeral system came to be known to both the Persian mathematician Al-Khwarizmi, whose book On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals written about 825, and the Arab mathematician Al-Kindi, who wrote four volumes, "On the Use of the Indian Numerals" (Ketab fi Isti'mal al-'Adad al-Hindi) about 830, are principally responsible for the diffusion of the Indian system of numeration in the Middle-East and the West [1]. In the 10th century, Middle-Eastern mathematicians extended the decimal numeral system to include fractions, as recorded in a treatise by Syrian mathematician Abu'l-Hasan al-Uqlidisi in 952-953. As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... , Gwalior   is a city in Madhya Pradesh in India. ... Events February 28 - End of the Fourth Council of Constantinople. ... A stamp issued September 6, 1983 in the Soviet Union, commemorating al-KhwārizmÄ«s (approximate) 1200th anniversary. ... Example of a Chola inscription in Tamil from the 12th century C.E. Siyakas Harsola Paramara copper plate of 1005 Indian copper plate inscriptions play an extremely important role in the reconstruction of the history of India. ... Indian Numerals 100AD File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic numerals ... The Brahmi numerals are an indigenous Indian numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens). ... Image File history File links EgyptphoneKeypad. ... Image File history File links EgyptphoneKeypad. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... A stamp issued September 6, 1983 in the Soviet Union, commemorating al-KhwārizmÄ«s (approximate) 1200th anniversary. ... Events Egbert of Wessex defeats Beornwulf of Mercia at Ellandun. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... For the Christian theologian, see Abd al-Masih ibn Ishaq al-Kindi. ... Events Christian missionary Ansgar visits Birka, trade city of the Swedes. ... The traditional Middle East and the G8s Greater Middle East Political & transportation map of the traditional Middle East today The Middle East is a historical and political region of Africa-Eurasia with no clear definition. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... The traditional Middle East and the G8s Greater Middle East Political & transportation map of the traditional Middle East today The Middle East is a historical and political region of Africa-Eurasia with no clear definition. ... Abul Hasan Ahmad ibn Ibrahim Al-Uqlidisi was an Arab mathematician, possibly from Damascus He wrote the earliest surviving book on the Hindu place-value system, known in the west as Arabic numerals, around 952. ... Events Hugh Capet marries Adelaide of Aquitaine Deaths Emperor Suzaku of Japan Hugh, Duke of Burgundy Categories: 952 ... Events First time that Póvoa de Varzim, Portugal appeared in a Roman map. ...


In the Arab World—until modern times—the Arabic numeral system was used only by mathematicians. Muslim scientists used the Babylonian numeral system, and merchants used the Abjad numerals. It was not until Fibonacci that the Arabic numeral system was used by a large population. Babylonian numerals were written in cuneiform, using a wedge-tipped reed stylus to make a mark on a soft clay tablet which would be exposed in the sun to harden to create a permanent record. ... The Abjad numerals are a decimal numeral system which was used in the Arabic-speaking world prior to the use of the Hindu-Arabic numerals from the 8th century, and in parallel with the latter until Modern times. ... For the number sequence, see Fibonacci number. ...


A distinctive "West Arabic" variant of the symbols begins to emerge in ca. the 10th century in the Maghreb and Al-Andalus, called the ghubar ("sand-table" or "dust-table")[citation needed] numerals. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ...


The first mentions of the numerals in the West are found in the Codex Vigilanus of 976 [2]. From the 980s, Gerbert of Aurillac (later, Pope Silvester II) began to spread knowledge of the numerals in Europe. Gerbert studied in Barcelona in his youth, and he is known to have requested mathematical treatises concerning the astrolabe from Lupitus of Barcelona after he had returned to France. The people of Toledo. ... Events January 10 - Basil II becomes Eastern Roman Emperor, see Byzantine Emperors. ... Centuries: 9th century - 10th century - 11th century Decades: 930s - 940s _ 950s - 960s - 970s - 980s - 990s - 1000s - 1010s - 1020s - 1030s Years: 980 981 982 983 984 985 986 987 988 989 Events Kievan Rus accepts Eastern Orthodox Christianity Categories: 980s ... Gerbert of Aurillac, later known as pope Silvester II, (or Sylvester II), (ca. ... Gerbert of Aurillac, later known as pope Silvester II, (or Sylvester II), (ca. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... A 16th century astrolabe. ... Lupitus of Barcelona, identified with a Christian archdeacon called Sunifred, was an astronomer in late 10th century Barcelona, then part of the Marca Hispanica between Islamic Al-Andalus and Christian France (in 985 changing from Christian back into Muslim hands by the conquest of Al-Mansur). ...


Adoption in Europe

A German manuscript page teaching use of Arabic numerals (Talhoffer Thott, 1459). At this time, knowledge of the numerals was still widely seen as esoteric, and Talhoffer teaches them together with the Hebrew alphabet and astrology.
A German manuscript page teaching use of Arabic numerals (Talhoffer Thott, 1459). At this time, knowledge of the numerals was still widely seen as esoteric, and Talhoffer teaches them together with the Hebrew alphabet and astrology.
Woodcut showing the 16th century astronomical clock of Uppsala cathedral, with two clockfaces, one with Arabic and one with Roman numerals.
Woodcut showing the 16th century astronomical clock of Uppsala cathedral, with two clockfaces, one with Arabic and one with Roman numerals.
Late 18th century French revolutionary "decimal" clockface.
Late 18th century French revolutionary "decimal" clockface.

Al-Khwārizmī, the Persian scientist, wrote in 825 a treatise On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals, which was translated into Latin in the 12th century, as Algoritmi de numero Indorum, where "Algoritmi", the translator's rendition of the author's name gave rise to the word algorithm (Latin algorithmus) with a meaning "calculation method". Image File history File links Download high resolution version (560x800, 155 KB) Thalhoffer Thott, AD 1459, fol. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (560x800, 155 KB) Thalhoffer Thott, AD 1459, fol. ... Portrait of Talhoffer (pictured left), and his coat of arms, from the 1459 Fechtbuch Depiction of a judicial duel between a man (standing in a pit) and a woman, (Thott 1459, fol. ... Events September 23 - Battle of Blore Heath. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (858x402, 184 KB) Woodcut from the 16th century History of the Nordic peoples, by Olaus Magnus, supposedly depicting the astronomical clock in Uppsala Cathedral, which was later destryed in a fire. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (858x402, 184 KB) Woodcut from the 16th century History of the Nordic peoples, by Olaus Magnus, supposedly depicting the astronomical clock in Uppsala Cathedral, which was later destryed in a fire. ... Prague astronomical clock Astronomical clock in Lund Cathedral An astronomical clock is a clock with special mechanisms and dials to display the relative positions of the sun, moon, zodiacal constellations, and sometimes major planets. ... Uppsala (older spelling Upsala) is a city in central Sweden, located about 70 km north of Stockholm. ... Image File history File links Horloge-republicaine1. ... Image File history File links Horloge-republicaine1. ... Soviet postage stamp commemorating the 1200th anniversary of Muhammad al‑Khwarizmi in 1983. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Events Egbert of Wessex defeats Beornwulf of Mercia at Ellandun. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related disciplines, an algorithm is a finite list of well-defined instructions for accomplishing some task that, given an initial state, will terminate in a defined end-state. ...


Fibonacci, an Italian mathematician who had studied in Bejaia (Bougie), Algeria, promoted the Arabic numeral system in Europe with his book Liber Abaci, which was written in 1202, still describing the numerals as "Indian" rather than "Arabic". Drawing of Leonardo Pisano Leonardo of Pisa or Leonardo Pisano (Pisa, c. ... Bejaïa is a port in Béjaïa province, Algeria. ... The name Bougie originally comes from France. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Liber Abaci (1202) is an historic book on arithmetic by Leonardo of Pisa, known later by his nickname Fibonacci. ... // Events August 1 - Arthur of Brittany captured in Mirebeau, north of Poitiers Beginning of the Fourth Crusade. ...

"When my father, who had been appointed by his country as public notary in the customs at Bugia acting for the Pisan merchants going there, was in charge, he summoned me to him while I was still a child, and having an eye to usefulness and future convenience, desired me to stay there and receive instruction in the school of accounting. There, when I had been introduced to the art of the Indians' nine symbols through remarkable teaching, knowledge of the art very soon pleased me above all else and I came to understand it.."

The numerals are arranged with their lowest value digit to the right, with higher value positions added to the left. This arrangement was adopted identically into the numerals as used in Europe. The Latin alphabet running from left to right, unlike the Arabic alphabet, this resulted in an inverse arrangement of the place-values relative to the direction of reading. Bugia is either: A western (e. ... Leaning Tower of Pisa. ...


The European acceptance of the numerals was accelerated by the invention of the printing press, and they became commonly known during the 15th century. Early uses in England include a 1445 inscription on the tower of Heathfield Church, Sussex, a 1448 inscription on a wooden lych-gate of Bray Church, Berkshire, a 1470 inscription on the tomb of the first Earl of Huntly in Elgin Cathedral, and a 1487 inscription on the belfry door at Piddletrenthide church, Dorset. [See G.F. Hill, The Development of Arabic Numerals in Europe for more examples.] By the mid 16th century, they were in common use in most of Europe.[3] Roman numerals remained in use mostly for the notation of years Anno Domini, and for numbers on clockfaces. Sometimes, Roman numerals are still used for enumeration of lists (as an alternative to alphabetical enumeration), and numbering pages in prefatory material in books. The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Sussex is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Piddletrenthide is a village in west Dorset, England, situated in the Piddle valley on the dip slope of the Dorset Downs, eight miles north of Dorchester. ... Dorset (pronounced DOR-sit or [dɔ.sət], and sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the south-west of England, on the English Channel coast. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... AD redirects here. ...


Evolution of symbols

Main articles: Algorism and glyphs used with the Hindu-Arabic numeral system

The numeral system employed, known as Algorism, is positional decimal notation. Various symbol sets are used to represent numbers in the Arabic numeral system, all of which evolved from the Brahmi numerals. The symbols used to represent the system have split into various typographical variants since the Middle Ages: Algorism comprises all of the rules of performing arithmetic computations using a decimal system for representing numbers in which numbers written using ten symbols having the values 0 through 9 are combined using a place-value system (positional notation), where each symbol has ten times the weight of the one... Various symbol sets are used to represent numbers in the Hindu-Arabic numeral system, all of which evolved from the Brahmi numerals. ... Algorism comprises all of the rules of performing arithmetic computations using a decimal system for representing numbers in which numbers written using ten symbols having the values 0 through 9 are combined using a place-value system (positional notation), where each symbol has ten times the weight of the one... A positional notation or place-value notation system is a numeral system in which each position is related to the next by a constant multiplier, a common ratio, called the base or radix of that numeral system. ... For other uses, see Decimal (disambiguation). ... The Brahmi numerals are an indigenous Indian numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...

  • The widespread Western "Arabic numerals" used with the Latin alphabet, in the table below labelled "European", descended from the "West Arabic numerals" which were developed in al-Andalus and the Maghreb (There are two typographic styles for rendering European numerals, known as lining figures and text figures).
  • The "Arabic-Indic" or "Eastern Arabic numerals" used with the Arabic alphabet, developed primarily in what is now Iraq. A variant of the Eastern Arabic numerals used in Persian and Urdu languages as shown as "East Arabic-Indic".
  • The "Devanagari numerals" used with Devanagari and related variants grouped as Indian numerals.

Table of numerals The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Typographic work Typography (from the Greek words typos = form and grapho = write) is the art and technique of selecting and arranging type styles, point sizes, line lengths, line leading, character spacing, and word spacing for typeset applications. ... Hoefler Text, a contemporary font, uses hanging or old style text figures. ... The Eastern Arabic numerals (also called Eastern Arabic numerals, Arabic-Indic numerals, Arabic Eastern Numerals) are the symbols (glyphs) used to represent the Hindu-Arabic numeral system in conjunction with the Arabic alphabet in Egypt, Iran, Pakistan and parts of India, and also in the no longer used Ottoman Turkish... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) DevanāgarÄ« (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... India has produced many numeral systems. ... Image File history File links Arabic_numerals-en. ...


The evolution of the numerals in early Europe is shown on a table created by the French scholar J.E.Montucla in his Histoire de la Mathematique, which was published in 1757:


Table of numerals Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1486x917, 25 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Arabic numerals ...


The Arabic numerals are encoded in ASCII (and Unicode) at positions 48 to 57: Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ...

Binary Dec Hex Glyph
0011 0000 48 30 0
0011 0001 49 31 1
0011 0010 50 32 2
0011 0011 51 33 3
0011 0100 52 34 4
0011 0101 53 35 5
0011 0110 54 36 6
0011 0111 55 37 7
0011 1000 56 38 8
0011 1001 57 39 9

See also

I like cream cheese, it tastes good on toast. ... This article is about different methods of expressing numbers with symbols. ... Chinese numerals are characters for writing numbers in Chinese. ... The system of Japanese numerals is the system of number names used in the Japanese language. ... Roman numerals are a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Ifrah, Georges. 1999. The Universal History of Numbers : From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer, Wiley. ISBN 0-471-37568-3.
  2. ^ O'Connor, J.J. and E.F. Robertson. 2000. 'Indian Numerals', MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, Scotland.
  3. ^ Kaplan, Robert. (2000). The Nothing That Is: A Natural History of Zero. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
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