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Encyclopedia > Arabic language
Arabic
العربية al-‘arabiyyah 
al-‘Arabiyyah in written Arabic (Naskh script):  
Pronunciation: /alˌʕa.raˈbij.ja/
Spoken in: Algeria, Bahrain, Chad, Egypt, Eritrea, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestinian territories, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Western Sahara, Yemen as one of the official languages; Iran and Turkey by the local Arab minorities; it is also the liturgical language of Islam.
Total speakers: Estimates of native speakers between 186 and 207 million and as many as 246 million non-native speakers [1]
Ranking: 2 [2] to 6[3] (native speakers)
Language family: Afro-Asiatic
 Semitic
  West Semitic
   Central Semitic
    Arabic 
Writing system: Arabic alphabet 
Official status
Official language in: Official language of 25 countries, the third most after English and French[4]
Regulated by: Egypt: Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo

Syria: Arab Academy of Damascus (the oldest)
Iraq: Iraqi Science Academy
Sudan: Academy of the Arabic Language in Khartum
Morocco: Academy of the Arabic Language in Rabat (the most active)
Jordan: Jordan Academy of Arabic
Libya: Academy of the Arabic Language in Jamahiriya
Tunisia: Beit Al-Hikma Foundation
Israel: Academy of the Arabic Language (first ever in a non-Arab country)[1] Image File history File links Flag_of_the_African_Union. ... Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together [1] Administrative Centre Working languages Arabic English Spanish French Portuguese Swahili Membership 53 African states Leaders  -  Chairman Jakaya Kikwete  -  Jean Ping Establishment  -  as the OAU May 25, 1963   -  as the African Union July 9, 2002  Area  -  Total 29,757,900 km² (1st1... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_League_of_Arab_States. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... Image File history File links Flag_of_OIC.svg Beschreibung The flag of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). ... OIC redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... UN redirects here. ... The Academy of the Arabic Language (مجمع اللغة العربية) is an academy in Cairo founded in 1934 in order to develop and regulate the Arabic language in Egypt and the Arab World. ... Arab Academy of Damascus (Arabic: مجمع اللغة العربية بدمشق) is the oldest academy regulating the Arabic language, established in 1918 during the reign of Faisal I of Syria. ... The Jordan Academy of Arabic (Arabic: ) is one of the Arabic language regulators based in Amman, Jordan. ...

Language codes
ISO 639-1: ar
ISO 639-2: ara
ISO 639-3: ara – Arabic (generic)
see varieties of Arabic for the individual codes 

Distribution of Arabic as sole official language (green) and one of several official languages (blue)

Arabic (الْعَرَبيّة al-ʿarabiyyah or just عَرَبيْ ʿarabī), in terms of the number of speakers, is the largest living member of the Semitic language family. Classified as Central Semitic, it is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic and has its roots in a Proto-Semitic common ancestor. In ISO 639-3, modern Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage with 27 sub-languages. These varieties are spoken throughout the Arab world, and Standard Arabic is widely studied and used throughout the Islamic world. ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... The Arabic language is classified as a Semitic language. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... The Central Semitic languages are an intermediate group of Semitic languages, of which the most prominent members are Arabic, Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Proto-Semitic is the hypothetical proto-language of the Semitic languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... ISO 639-3 defines some languages as macrolanguages. ... The Arabic language is classified as a Semitic language. ... Arab States redirects here. ... Modern Standard Arabic is the dialect of Arabic used in almost all writing and in formal spoken contexts. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ...


Modern Standard Arabic derives from Classical Arabic, the only surviving member of the Old North Arabian dialect group, attested epigraphically since the 6th century. It has been a literary language and the liturgical language of Islam since the 7th century. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Arabic language family consists of The Arabic macrolanguage (ISO 639-3 ara), including the living varieties of Arabic as well as Classical Arabic and Standard Arabic. ... A fairly substantial number of Arabian inscriptions survive from the pre-Islamic era; however, very few are in the Arabic alphabet. ... A literary language is a register of a language that is used in writing, and which often differs in lexicon and syntax from the language used in speech. ... A sacred language is a language, frequently a dead language, that is cultivated for religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Arabic has lent many words to other languages of the Islamic world, as Latin has contributed to most European languages. It has also borrowed from those languages, as well as Persian and Sanskrit from early contacts with their affiliated regions. During the Middle Ages, Arabic was a major vehicle of culture, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy, with the result that many European languages have also borrowed numerous words from it. Arabic influence is especially strong in Spanish and Portuguese due to both the proximity of European and Arab civilization and 700 years of caliphate government in the Iberian peninsula (see Al-Andalus). For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ...

Contents

Literary and Modern Standard Arabic

Main article: Literary Arabic

The term "Arabic" may refer to either literary Arabic ((al-)fuṣḥā الفصحى) or the many localized varieties of Arabic commonly called "colloquial Arabic." Arabs consider literary Arabic as the standard language and tend to view everything else as mere dialects. Literary Arabic (اللغة العربية الفصحى translit: al-luġatu l-ʿarabiyyatu l-fuṣḥā "the most eloquent Arabic language"), refers both to the language of present-day media across North Africa and the Middle East and to the language of the Qur'an. (The expression media here includes most television and radio, and practically all written matter, including books, newspapers, magazines, documents of every kind, and reading primers for small children.) "Colloquial" or "dialectal" Arabic refers to the many national or regional varieties derived from Classical Arabic, spoken across North Africa and the Middle East, which constitute the everyday spoken language. These sometimes differ enough to be mutually incomprehensible. These dialects are typically unwritten, although a certain amount of literature (particularly plays and poetry) exists in many of them. They are often used to varying degrees in informal spoken media, such as soap operas and talk shows. Literary Arabic or classical Arabic is the official language of all Arab countries and is the only form of Arabic taught in schools at all stages. Literary Arabic ( the Eloquent Arabic language) or Standard Arabic is the literary and standard register of Classical Arabic used in writing. ... Literary Arabic ( the Eloquent Arabic language) or Standard Arabic is the literary and standard register of Classical Arabic used in writing. ... The Arabic language is classified as a Semitic language. ... DIN 31635 is a DIN standard for the transliteration of the Arabic language. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Arabic language is classified as a Semitic language. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The first TIME magazine cover devoted to soap operas, dated January 12, 1976. ... A talk show (U.S.) or chat show (Brit. ...


The sociolinguistic situation of Arabic in modern times provides a prime example of the linguistic phenomenon of diglossia, which is the normal use of two separate varieties of the same language, usually in different social situations. In the case of Arabic, educated Arabs of any nationality can be assumed to speak both their local dialect and their school-taught literary Arabic. When speaking with someone from the same country, many speakers switch back and forth between the two varieties of the language (code switching), sometimes even within the same sentence. When educated Arabs of different nationalities engage in conversation (for example, a Moroccan or Saudi speaking with a Lebanese), both switch into Literary Arabic for the sake of communication. Look up Diglossia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Code-switching is a term in linguistics referring to alternation between one or more languages, dialects, or language registers in the course of discourse between people who have more than one language in common. ...


Like other languages, literary Arabic continues to evolve. Classical Arabic (especially from the pre-Islamic to the Abbasid period, including Qur'anic Arabic) can be distinguished from Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) as used today. Classical Arabic is considered normative; modern authors attempt (with varying degrees of success) to follow the syntactic and grammatical norms laid down by Classical grammarians (such as Sibawayh), and to use the vocabulary defined in Classical dictionaries (such as the Lisān al-Arab.) However, many modern terms would have been mysterious to a Classical author, whether taken from other languages (for example, فيلم film) or coined from existing lexical resources (for example, هاتف hātif "telephone" = "caller"). Structural influence from foreign languages or from the colloquial varieties has also affected Modern Standard Arabic. For example, MSA texts sometimes use the format "A, B, C, and D" when listing things, whereas Classical Arabic prefers "A and B and C and D," and subject-initial sentences may be more common in MSA than in Classical Arabic. For these reasons, Modern Standard Arabic is generally treated separately in non-Arab sources. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Modern Standard Arabic is the form of Arabic currently used in Arabic books, newspapers and nearly all written media. ... Sibawayh (سيبويه Sîbawayh in Arabic, سیبویه Sibuyeh in Persian) was a linguist of Persian origin born ca. ...


Influence of Arabic on other languages

The influence of Arabic has been most important in Islamic countries. Arabic is a major source of vocabulary for languages as diverse as Berber, Kurdish, Persian, Swahili, Urdu, Hindi (especially the spoken variety), Turkish, Malay and Indonesian, as well as other languages in countries where these languages are spoken. For example, the Arabic word for book (/kitāb/) has been borrowed in all the languages listed. In addition, Spanish and Portuguese both have large numbers of Arabic loan words, and English has quite a few, some directly but most through the medium of other Mediterranean languages. Other languages such as Maltese[5] and Kinubi derive from Arabic, rather than merely borrowing vocabulary or grammar rules. Arabic has had a great influence on other languages, especially in vocabulary. ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... The Kurdish language (Kurdish: Kurdî or کوردی) is a term used for a range of different dialects of a language spoken by Kurds. ... Farsi redirects here. ... This article is about the language. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Nubi language (also called Ki-Nubi) is a Sudanese Arabic-based creole language spoken in Uganda around Bombo and Kenya around Kibera by the descendants of Emin Pashas Sudanese soldiers, settled there by the British. ...


The terms borrowed range from religious terminology (like Berber taẓallit "prayer" < salat), academic terms (like Uyghur mentiq "logic"), economic items (like English "sugar") to placeholders (like Spanish fulano "so-and-so") and everyday conjunctions (like Urdu and Hindi lekin "but".) Most Berber varieties (such as Kabyle), along with Swahili, borrow some numbers from Arabic. Most Islamic religious terms are direct borrowings from Arabic, such as salat 'prayer' and imam 'prayer leader.' In languages not directly in contact with the Arab world, Arabic loanwords are often transferred indirectly via other languages rather than being transferred directly from Arabic. For example, most Arabic loanwords in Urdu/Hindi entered through Persian, and many older Arabic loanwords in Hausa were borrowed from Kanuri. Some words in English and other European languages are derived from Arabic, often through other European languages, especially Spanish and Italian. Among them are commonly-used words like "sugar" (sukkar), "cotton" (quṭn) and "magazine" (maḫāzin). English words more recognizably of Arabic origin include "algebra", "alcohol", "alchemy", "alkali" and "zenith." Some words in common use, such as "intention" and "information", were originally calques of Arabic philosophical terms. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Uyghur (‎/Uyghurche//, or ‎/Uyghur tili//)[1] is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghurstan), formerly also “Sinkiang” and “Chinese Turkestan,” a Central Asian region administered by China. ... For the World of Warcraft ex-NPC, see Captain Placeholder. ... Kabyle is a Berber language (Kabyle: ,  , pronounced ) spoken by the Kabyle people. ... Hausa is the Chadic language with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by about 24 million people, and as a second language by about 15 million more. ... Kanuri is a Nilo-Saharan language which is spoken by about 4 million people in Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Makhzen (Arabic: ‎) is a Moroccan Arabic term for the governing elite in Morocco, centered around the king and consisting of royal notables, businessmen, wealthy landowners, tribal leaders, top-ranking military personnel, security service bosses, and other well-connected members of the establishment. ... This article is about the branch of mathematics. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Alkaline redirects here. ... In broad terms, the zenith is the direction pointing directly above a particular location (perpendicular, orthogonal). ... // In linguistics, a calque (pronounced ) or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word (Latin: verbum pro verbo) or root-for-root translation. ...


Arabic was also influenced by other languages including Persian, Berber language and Egyptian. The influences from Berber and Egyptian on Arabic happened mainly before Islam, making these influences not directly noticeable by non-linguists. Also many Arab writers make the mistake of identifying most of loan words in Arabic as being of Persian origin. Look up Persian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Afro-Asiatic - Berber The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ...

See also: list of Arabic loanwords in English.

Star names are not included. ...

Arabic and Islam

Arabic is the language of the Qur'an. Traditionally, Muslims deem it impossible to translate the Qur'an in a way that would reflect its exact meaning. Some schools of thought maintain that it should not be translated at all. Arabic is often associated with Islam, but it is also spoken by Arab Christians, Arab Druze, Mizrahi Jews and Iraqi Mandaeans. The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The majority of Arab Christians (Arabic,مسيحيون عرب) live in the Middle East where, although Islam is undoubtedly the preponderant religion, significant religious minorities exist in a number of countries. ... Religions Druzism Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom), Quran Languages Arabic. ... Languages Hebrew, Dzhidi, Judæo-Arabic, Gruzinic, Bukhori, Judeo-Berber, Juhuri and Judæo-Aramaic Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions and Arabs. ... Mandaeanism is a pre-Christian religion which has been classified by scholars as Gnostic. ...


Most of the world's Muslims do not speak Arabic as their native language but can read the script and recite the words of religious texts. A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ...


History

Modern Arabic is considered to be part of the Arabo-Canaanite sub-branch of the central group of West Semitic languages.[6] While Arabic is not the oldest of the Semitic languages, it shares many features with the common ancestor for all Semitic languages in the Afro-Asiatic group of languages, Proto-Semitic whose phonological, morphological, and syntactic features have been determined by linguists.[7] Many linguists consider Arabic to be the most conservative of the modern Semitic languages because of how completely it preserves the features of Proto-Semitic.[7] 12th century Hebrew Bible script The Semitic languages are a family of languages spoken by more than 250 million people across much of the Middle East, where they originated, and North and East Africa. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... Proto-Semitic is the hypothetical proto-language of the Semitic languages. ...


The earliest texts in Proto-Arabic, or Ancient North Arabian, are the Hasaean inscriptions of eastern Saudi Arabia, from the 8th century BC, written not in the modern Arabic alphabet, nor in its Nabataean ancestor, but in variants of the epigraphic South Arabian musnad. These are followed by 6th-century BC Lihyanite texts from southeastern Saudi Arabia and the Thamudic texts found throughout Arabia and the Sinai, and not actually connected with Thamud. Later come the Safaitic inscriptions beginning in the 1st century BC, and the many Arabic personal names attested in Nabataean inscriptions (which are, however, written in Aramaic). From about the 2nd century BC, a few inscriptions from Qaryat al-Faw (near Sulayyil) reveal a dialect which is no longer considered "Proto-Arabic", but Pre-Classical Arabic. Proto-language may refer to either: a language that is the common ancestor of a set of related languages (a language family), or a system of communication during a stage in glottogony that may not yet be properly called a language. ... The Arabic language family consists of The Arabic macrolanguage (ISO 639-3 ara), including the living varieties of Arabic as well as Classical Arabic and Standard Arabic. ... Ash Sharqiyah, known as Eastern Province is the largest province of Saudi Arabia, located in the east of the country on the coasts of the Persian Gulf, and has borders with Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, and Yemen. ... Petra, the Nabataean capital The Nabataeans, a people of ancient Arabia, whose settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the border-land between Syria and Arabia from the Euphrates to the Red Sea. ... The Rosetta Stone in the British Museum. ... The ancient South Arabian alphabet (also known as musnad) branched from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet in ca. ... The Lihyanites were a tribe of northern pre-Islamic Arabia, known from Old North Arabian inscriptions dating to ca. ... The Thamud (Arabic: ثمود) were an early Arabian people. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 The Sinai Peninsula (in Arabic, Shibh Jazirat Sina) is a triangle-shaped peninsula lying between the Mediterranean Sea (to the north) and Red Sea (to the south). ... The Thamud are a people mentioned in the Quran as rejecting their Prophet Saleh. ... Safaitic is the name given to an Old North Arabian dialect, preserved in the form of inscriptions which are written in a type of South Semitic script. ... Petra, the Nabataean capital The Nabataeans, a people of ancient Arabia, whose settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the border-land between Syria and Arabia from the Euphrates to the Red Sea. ... As Sulayyil is a city in Ar Riyad Province, Saudi Arabia. ...


By the fourth century AD, the Arab kingdoms of the Lakhmids in southern Iraq, the Ghassanids in southern Syria the Kindite Kingdom emerged in Central Arabia. Their courts were responsible for some notable examples of pre-Islamic Arabic poetry, and for some of the few surviving pre-Islamic Arabic inscriptions in the Arabic alphabet. The Lakhmids (Arabic: ) less commonly Muntherids (Arabic: ) were a group of Arab Christians who lived in Southern Iraq, and made al-Hirah which was a fabulous city with many castles and bath-houses and Palm gardens their capital in (266). ... language|Arabic]]:الغساسنة) were [[Arab Christian|Arab it is assumed that the Ghassanids adopted the religion of Christianity from the native Aramaeans and Romans. ... A fairly substantial number of Arabian inscriptions survive from the pre-Islamic era; however, very few are in the Arabic alphabet. ...


Dialects and descendants

Main article: Varieties of Arabic

"Colloquial Arabic" is a collective term for the spoken varieties of Arabic used throughout the Arab world, which differ radically from the literary language. The main dialectal division is between the North African dialects and those of the Middle East, followed by that between sedentary dialects and the much more conservative Bedouin dialects. Speakers of some of these dialects are unable to converse with speakers of another dialect of Arabic. In particular, while Middle Easterners can generally understand one another, they often have trouble understanding North Africans (although the converse is not true, due to the popularity of Middle Eastern—especially Egyptian—films and other media). The Arabic language is classified as a Semitic language. ... Arab States redirects here. ... A literary language is a register of a language that is used in writing, and which often differs in lexicon and syntax from the language used in speech. ... Maghrebi Arabic is a cover term for the dialects of Arabic spoken in the Maghreb, including Western Sahara, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, and Libya. ... A Bedouin man in Sinai Peninsula The Bedouin, (from the Arabic (), pl. ...


One factor in the differentiation of the dialects is influence from the languages previously spoken in the areas, which have typically provided a significant number of new words, and have sometimes also influenced pronunciation or word order; however, a much more significant factor for most dialects is, as among Romance languages, retention (or change of meaning) of different classical forms. Thus Iraqi aku, Levantine fīh, and North African kayən all mean "there is", and all come from classical Arabic forms (yakūn, fīhi, kā'in respectively), but now sound very different. The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ...


The major dialect groups are:

Other varieties include: Egyptian Arabic (Marī مصري) is part of the Arabic macrolanguage of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... Maghrebi Arabic is a cover term for the dialects of Arabic spoken in the Maghreb, including Western Sahara, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, and Libya. ... Algerian Arabic is the dialect or dialects of Arabic native to Algeria. ... Moroccan Arabic, also known as Darija, is the language spoken in the Arabic-speaking areas of Morocco, as opposed to the official communications of governmental and other public bodies which use Modern Standard Arabic, as is the case in most Arabic-speaking countries, while a mixture of French and Moroccan... Tunisian Arabic is a Maghrebi dialect of the Arabic language, spoken by some 9 million people. ... Libyan Arabic is a collective term for the closely related spoken varieties of Arabic as spoken in Libya. ... Levantine Arabic (sometimes called Eastern Arabic) is a group of Arabic dialects spoken in the 100 km-wide eastern-Mediterranean coastal strip known as the Levant, i. ... Palestinian Arabic is a Levantine Arabic dialect subgroup spoken by Palestinian Arabs. ... The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, commonly called Jordan, is a country in the Middle East. ... Probably the most divergent of all Arabic dialects is Cypriot Maronite Arabic, still spoken by most of the 130 elderly Maronite Catholics in Kormakiti (Korucam) in Northern Cyprus, overlooking the Mediterranean Sea. ... Iraqi Arabic is a dialect of Arabic used in Iraq. ... Khuzestani Arabic is a dialect of Arabic spoken in the Iranian province of Khuzestan. ... Baharna Arabic is a dialect of the Arabic language spoken by the Baharna Shia of Bahrain and the Saudi Eastern Province, and also in Oman. ... Gulf Arabic (also known as Khaliji, Qatari) is a variety of the Arabic language spoken around both shores of the Persian Gulf, mainly in Kuwait, eastern and central Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and parts of Oman. ...

  • Ḥassānīya حساني (in Mauritania, Mali and Western Sahara)
  • Sudanese Arabic سوداني (with a dialect continuum into Chad)
  • Hijazi Arabic حجازي (western Saudi Arabia)
  • Najdi Arabic نجدي (Najd region of central Saudi Arabia)
  • Yemeni Arabic يمني (Yemen to southern Saudi Arabia)
  • Andalusi Arabic أندلسي (Iberia until 17th century)
  • Siculo Arabic صقلي (Sicily, South Italy until 14th century)
  • Maltese مالطي, which is spoken on the Mediterranean island of Malta, is the only one to have established itself as a fully separate language, with independent literary norms. Apart from its phonology, Maltese bears considerable similarity to urban varieties of Tunisian Arabic, however in the course of history, the language has adopted numerous loanwords, phonetic and phonological features, and even some grammatical patterns, from Italian, Sicilian, and English. It is also the only Semitic tongue written in the Latin alphabet.

Ḥassānīya is a Bedouin dialect derived from the Arabic dialect spoken by the Beni Hassān tribes, who extended their authority over most of the Mauritanian Sahara between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries. ... Sudanese Arabic, as spoken throughout much of northern Sudan, is the result of a mixing of Egyptian Arabic and Arabic from the Arabian peninsula with local languages (El Rutana). ... A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ... Hezaji Arabic is a variety of the Arabic language spoken in the cregions of western Saudi Arabia . ... Najdi Arabic (Arabic: ‎) is a variety of the Arabic language spoken in the desert regions of central and eastern Saudi Arabia. ... Yemeni Arabic is the variety of Arabic spoken in Yemen. ... Andalusi Arabic was a dialect of the Arabic language spoken in Al-Andalus, the regions of Spain under Muslim rule. ... Siculo-Arabic was a dialect of Arabic spoken in Sicily between the ninth and the fourteenth centuries. ... Tunisian Arabic is a Maghrebi dialect of the Arabic language, spoken by some 9 million people. ... Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ...

Sounds

Main article: Arabic phonology

The phonemes below reflect the pronunciation of Standard Arabic. There are minor variations from country to country. Modern Standard Arabic is the dialect of Arabic used in almost all writing and in formal spoken contexts. ...


Vowels

Arabic has three vowels, with long and short forms of /a/, /i/, and /u/. There are also two diphthongs: /aj/ and /aw/. In phonetics, a diphthong (in Greek δίφθογγος) is a vowel combination usually involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ...


Consonants

Standard Arabic consonant phonemes
  Bilabial Labio-
dental
Inter-dental Dental (incl. alveolar) Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn-
geal
Glottal
 plain  emphatic
Plosive voiceless       ت طt̪ˁ     كk قq   ء ʔ
voiced بb     د ضd̪ˁ ج¹          
Fricative voiceless   ف f ث θ سs ص شʃ   خx   حħ هh
voiced     ذ ð ز z ظ ðˁ     غ ɣ   ع ʕ  
Nasal م m     ن n              
Lateral       ل l ²          
Trill       ر r              
Approximant و w           ي j        

See Arabic alphabet for explanations on the IPA phonetic symbols found in this chart. In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Interdental consonants are produced by placing the blade of the tongue against the upper incisors. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. ... A pharyngeal consonant is a type of consonant which is articulated with the root of the tongue against the pharynx. ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... Emphatic consonant is a somewhat imprecise term commonly used in Semitic linguistics to describe pharyngealized or velarized, and ejective consonants, or consonants that historically had one of these properties. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that does not have voicing. ... Hamza () is a letter in the Arabic alphabet, representing the glottal stop . ... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that does not have voicing. ... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...

  1. [dʒ] is pronounced as [ɡ] by some speakers. This is especially characteristic of the Egyptian and southern Yemeni dialects. In many parts of North Africa and in the Levant, it is pronounced as [ʒ].
  2. /l/ is pronounced [lˁ] only in /ʔalːaːh/, the name of God, i.e. Allah, when the word follows a, ā, u or ū (after i or ī it is unvelarized: bismi l-lāh /bismilːaːh/).
  3. /ʕ/ is usually a phonetic approximant.
  4. In many varieties, /ħ, ʕ/ are actually epiglottal [ʜ, ʢ] (despite what is reported in many earlier works).
  5. /x/ is considered to be a uvular sound (/χ/) by some linguists[citation needed].

Arabic has consonants traditionally termed "emphatic" /tˁ, dˁ, sˁ, ðˁ/ are both velarized [tˠ, dˠ, sˠ, ðˠ] and pharyngealised [tˁ, dˁ, sˁ, ðˁ]. This simultaneous velarization and pharyngealization is deemed "Retracted Tongue Root" by phonologists.[8] In some transcription systems, emphasis is shown by capitalizing the letter, for example, /dˁ/ is written ‹D›; in others the letter is underlined or has a dot below it, for example, ‹›. The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... An epiglottal consonant is a consonant that is articulated with the aryepiglottal folds (see larynx) against the epiglottis. ... Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant. ... Pharyngealisation is a secondary feature of phonemes in a language. ...


Vowels and consonants can be phonologically short or long. Long (geminate) consonants are normally written doubled in Latin transcription (i.e. bb, dd, etc.), reflecting the presence of the Arabic diacritic mark shaddah, which indicates doubled consonants. In actual pronunciation, doubled consonants are held twice as long as short consonants. This consonant lengthening is phonemically contrastive: qabala "he accepted" vs. qabbala "he kissed."


Syllable structure

Arabic has two kinds of syllables: open syllables (CV) and (CVV) - and closed syllables (CVC). Every syllable begins with a consonant, except in the case where the phrase begins with the definite article, for example, "the director" would be pronounced [al mudiːr]. When a word ends in a vowel and the following word is the definite article, then the initial vowel of the article is elided and the consonant closes the final syllable of the preceding word, for example, baytu –l mudiir “house (of) the director”, which becomes [baytul mudi:r].


Stress

Although word stress is not phonemically contrastive in Standard Arabic, it does bear a strong relationship to vowel length. The basic rules are:

  • Only one of the last three syllables may be stressed.
  • Given this restriction, the last "superheavy" syllable (containing a long vowel or ending in a consonant) is stressed.
  • If there is no such syllable, the pre-final syllable is stressed if it is 'heavy.' Otherwise, the first allowable syllable is stressed.
  • In Standard Arabic, a final long vowel may not be stressed. (This restriction does not apply to the spoken dialects, where original final long vowels have been shortened and secondary final long vowels have arisen.)

For example: ki-TAA-bun "book", KAA-ti-bun "writer", MAK-ta-bun "desk", ma-KAA-ti-bu "desks", mak-TA-ba-tun "library", KA-ta-buu (MSA) "they wrote" = KA-ta-bu (dialect), ka-ta-BUU-hu (MSA) "they wrote it" = ka-ta-BUU (dialect), ka-TA-ba-taa (MSA) "they (dual, fem) wrote", ka-TAB-tu (MSA) "I wrote" = ka-TABT (dialect). Doubled consonants count as two consonants: ma-JAL-la "magazine", ma-HALL "place".


Some dialects have different stress rules. In the Cairo (Egyptian Arabic) dialect, for example, a heavy syllable may not carry stress more than two syllables from the end of a word, hence mad-RA-sa "school", qaa-HI-ra "Cairo". In the Arabic of Sana, stress is often retracted: BAY-tayn "two houses", MAA-sat-hum "their table", ma-KAA-tiib "desks", ZAA-rat-hiin "sometimes", mad-RA-sat-hum "their school". (In this dialect, only syllables with long vowels or diphthongs are considered heavy; in a two-syllable word, the final syllable can be stressed only if the preceding syllable is light; and in longer words, the final syllable cannot be stressed.) Egyptian Arabic (Marī مصري) is part of the Arabic macrolanguage of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... Sana may refer to San‘a’ Sana (Lollywood), a Pakistani actress Category: ...


Dialectal variations

Main article: Varieties of Arabic

In some dialects, there may be more or fewer phonemes than those listed in the chart above. For example, non-Arabic [v] is used in the Maghrebi dialects as well in the written language mostly for foreign names. Semitic [p] became [f] extremely early on in Arabic before it was written down; a few modern Arabic dialects, such as Iraqi (influenced by Persian and Turkish) distinguish between [p] and [b]. The Arabic language is classified as a Semitic language. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Turkish ( IPA ) is a language spoken by 65–73 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. ...


Interdental fricatives ([θ] and [ð]) are rendered as stops [t] and [d] in some dialects (such as Levantine, Egyptian, and much of the Maghreb); some of these dialects render them as [s] and [z] in "learned" words from the Standard language. Early in the expansion of Arabic, the separate emphatic phonemes [dˁ] and [ðˁ] coallesced into a single phoneme, becoming one or the other. Predictably, dialects without interdental fricatives use [dˁ] exclusively, while those with such fricatives use [ðˁ]. Again, in "learned" words from the Standard language, [ðˁ] is rendered as [zˁ] (in the Middle East) or [dˁ] (in North Africa) in dialects without interdental fricatives.


Another key distinguishing mark of Arabic dialects is how they render the original velar and uvular stops /q/, /ʤ/ (Proto-Semitic /g/), and /k/: Proto-Semitic is the hypothetical proto-language of the Semitic languages. ...

  • /q/ retains its original pronunciation in widely scattered regions such as Yemen, Morocco, and urban areas of the Maghreb. But it is rendered as a voiced velar stop [ɡ] in Gulf Arabic, Iraqi Arabic, Upper Egypt, much of the Maghreb, and less urban parts of the Levant (e.g. Jordan); as a voiced uvular constrictive [ʁ] in Sudanese Arabic; and as a glottal stop [ʔ] in several prestige dialects, such as those spoken in Cairo, Beirut and Damascus. Some traditionally Christian villages in rural areas of the Levant render the sound as [k], as do Shia Bahrainis. In some Gulf dialects, it is palatalized to [ʤ] or [ʒ]. Many dialects with a modified pronunciation for /q/ maintain the /q/ pronunciation in certain words (often with religious or educational overtones) borrowed from the Classical language.
  • /ʤ/ retains its pronunciation in Iraq and much of the Arabian Peninsula, but is pronounced /g/ in Cairo and parts of Yemen, /ʒ/ in Morocco and the Levant, and /j/ in some words in much of Gulf Arabic.
  • /k/ usually retains its original pronunciation, but is palatalized to /ʧ/ in many words in Palestine, Iraq and much of the Arabian Peninsula. Often a distinction is made between the suffixes /-ak/ (you, masc.) and /-ik/ (you, fem.), which become /-ak/ and /-iʧ/, respectively. In Sana Arabic, /-ik/ is pronounced /-iʃ/.

The Arab Maghreb Union This article is about the region. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... Sana may refer to San‘a’ Sana (Lollywood), a Pakistani actress Category: ...

Grammar

Main article: Arabic grammar

Nouns in Literary Arabic have three grammatical cases (nominative, accusative, and genitive [also used when the noun is governed by a preposition]); three numbers (singular, dual and plural); two genders (masculine and feminine); and three "states" (indefinite, definite, and construct). The cases of singular nouns (other than those that end in long ā) are indicated by suffixed short vowels (/-u/ for nominative, /-a/ for accusative, /-i/ for genitive). The feminine singular is often marked by /-at/, which is reduced to /-ah/ or /-a/ before a pause. Plural is indicated either through endings (the sound plural) or internal modification (the broken plural). Definite nouns include all proper nouns, all nouns in "construct state" and all nouns which are prefixed by the definite article /al-/. Indefinite singular nouns (other than those that end in long ā) add a final /-n/ to the case-marking vowels, giving /-un/, /-an/ or /-in/ (which is also referred to as nunation or tanwīn). Arabic is a Semitic language. ... In linguistics, declension is a feature of inflected languages: generally, the alteration of a noun to indicate its grammatical role. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun, which generally marks the subject of a verb, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments. ... The accusative case (abbreviated ACC) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses of number, see number (disambiguation). ... In linguistics, grammatical genders, also called noun classes, are classes of nouns reflected in the behavior of associated words; every noun must belong to one of the classes and there should be very few which belong to several classes at once. ... The status constructus or construct state is a noun form occurring in Afro-Asiatic languages. ... Look up Suffix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In linguistics, broken plurals is a grammatical phenomenon typical in many Semitic languages of the Middle East and Ethiopia in which a singular noun is broken to form a plural by having its root consonant embedded in a different frame, rather than by merely adding a prefix or suffix to... A prefix is the initial portion of some object or term (typically in text or speech) with a distinct and he base semantics for a word. ... A Semitic noun can take one of three states of definiteness: definite, indefinite or construct state. ...


Verbs in Literary Arabic are marked for person (first, second, or third), gender, and number. They are conjugated in two major paradigms (termed perfective and imperfective, or past and non-past); two voices (active and passive); and five moods in the imperfective (indicative, imperative, subjunctive, jussive and energetic). There are also two participles (active and passive) and a verbal noun, but no infinitive. As indicated by the differing terms for the two tense systems, there is some disagreement over whether the distinction between the two systems should be most accurately characterized as tense, aspect or a combination of the two. The perfective aspect is constructed using fused suffixes that combine person, number and gender in a single morpheme, while the imperfective aspect is constructed using a combination of prefixes (primarily encoding person) and suffixes (primarily encoding gender and number). The moods other than imperative are primarily marked by suffixes (/u/ for indicative, /a/ for subjunctive, no ending for jussive, /an/ for energetic). The imperative has the endings of the jussive but lacks any prefixes. The passive is marked through internal vowel changes. Plural forms for the verb are only used when the subject is not mentioned, or is preceding it, and the feminine singular is used for all non-human plurals. Conjugate can be: in mathematics in terms of complex numbers, the complex conjugate; more generally see conjugate element (field theory). ... The perfective aspect is a grammatical aspect. ... The perfective aspect is a grammatical aspect. ... The past is the portion of the timeline that has already occurred; it is the opposite of the future. ... In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood (or mode), which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood, which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... Imperative programming, as opposed to functional programming, is a sort of programming employing side-effect as central execution feature. ... The subjunctive mood (sometimes referred to as the conjunctive mood) is a grammatical mood of the verb that expresses wishes, commands (in subordinate clauses), and statements that are contrary to fact. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood (or mode), which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood (or mode), which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... In linguistics, a participle (from Latin participium, a calque of Greek μετοχη partaking) is a non-finite verb form that can be used in compound tenses or voices, or as a modifier. ... A verbal noun is a noun formed directly as an inflexion of a verb or a verb stem, sharing at least in part its constructions. ... In grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages. ... Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... In linguistics, the grammatical aspect of a verb defines the temporal flow (or lack thereof) in the described event or state. ... In grammar, the perfective aspect is an aspect that exists in many languages. ... The perfective aspect is a grammatical aspect. ... A prefix is the initial portion of some object or term (typically in text or speech) with a distinct and he base semantics for a word. ... Look up Suffix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Adjectives in Literary Arabic are marked for case, number, gender and state, as for nouns. However, the plural of all non-human nouns is always combined with a singular feminine adjective, which takes the /-ah/ or /-at/ suffix. In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ...


Pronouns in Literary Arabic are marked for person, number and gender. There are two varieties, independent pronouns and enclitics. Enclitic pronouns are attached to the end of a verb, noun or preposition and indicate verbal and prepositional objects or possession of nouns. The first-person singular pronoun has a different enclitic form used for verbs (/-ni/) and for nouns or prepositions (/-ī/ after consonants, /-ya/ after vowels). In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase with or without a determiner, such as you and they in English. ... In linguistics, a clitic is a morpheme that functions syntactically like a word, but does not appear as an independent phonological word; instead it is always attached to a following or preceding word. ...


Nouns, verbs, pronouns and adjectives agree with each other in all respects. However, non-human plural nouns are grammatically considered to be feminine singular. Furthermore, a verb in a verb-initial sentence is marked as singular regardless of its semantic number when the subject of the verb is explicitly mentioned as a noun. Numerals between three and ten show "chiasmic" agreement, in that grammatically masculine numerals have feminine marking and vice-versa.


The spoken dialects have lost the case distinctions and make only limited use of the dual (it occurs only on nouns and its use is no longer required in all circumstances). They have lost the mood distinctions other than imperative, but many have since gained new moods through the use of prefixes (most often /bi-/ for indicative vs. unmarked subjunctive). They have also mostly lost the indefinite "nunation" and the internal passive. Modern Standard Arabic maintains the grammatical distinctions of Literary Arabic except that the energetic mood is almost never used; in addition, Modern Standard Arabic sometimes drop the final short vowels that indicate case and mood.


As in many other Semitic languages, Arabic verb formation is based on a (usually) triconsonantal root, which is not a word in itself but contains the semantic core. The consonants k-t-b, for example, indicate 'write', q-r-ʾ indicate 'read', ʾ-k-l indicate 'eat', etc. Words are formed by supplying the root with a vowel structure and with affixes. (Traditionally, Arabic grammarians have used the root f-ʿ-l 'do' as a template to discuss word formation.) From any particular root, up to fifteen different verbs can be formed, each with its own template; these are referred to by Western scholars as "form I", "form II", ... up through "form XV". These forms, and their associated participles and verbal nouns, are the primary means of forming vocabulary in Arabic. Forms XI to XV are extremely rare. In the terminology used to discuss the grammar of the Semitic and some other Afro-Asiatic languages, a triliteral (Arabic: جذر ثلاثي, ǧaḏr thalathi) is a root containing a sequence of three consonants (so also known as a triconsonantal root). ... The root is the primary lexical unit of a word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents. ...


Writing system

Main article: Arabic alphabet
An example of a text written in Arabic calligraphy.
An example of a text written in Arabic calligraphy.

The Arabic alphabet derives from the Aramaic script (through Syriac and then Nabatean), to which it bears a loose resemblance like that of Coptic or Cyrillic script to Greek script. Traditionally, there were several differences between the Western (North African) and Middle Eastern version of the alphabet—in particular, the fa and qaf had a dot underneath and a single dot above respectively in the Maghreb, and the order of the letters was slightly different (at least when they were used as numerals). However, the old Maghrebi variant has been abandoned except for calligraphic purposes in the Maghreb itself, and remains in use mainly in the Quranic schools (zaouias) of West Africa. Arabic, like all other Semitic languages (except for the Latin-written Maltese, and the languages with the Ge'ez script), is written from right to left. There are several styles of script, notably Naskh which is used in print and by computers, and Ruq'ah which is commonly used in handwriting.[9] The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 291 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Qalam Islamic calligraphy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 291 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Qalam Islamic calligraphy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... The stylized signature of Sultan Abdul Hamid I of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Bilingual inscription (Greek and Aramaic) by the Indian emperor Ashoka the Great, 3rd century BC. The Aramaic alphabet is an abjad alphabet designed for writing the Aramaic language. ... 11th century book in Syriac Serto. ... The Nabatean alphabet is a consonantal alphabet (abjad) that was used by the Nabateans in the 2nd century BC. Important inscriptions are found in Petra. ... The Coptic alphabet is an alphabet used for writing the Coptic language. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... This page contains special characters. ... The Arab Maghreb Union This article is about the region. ... Zaouia (Arabic زاوية corner), also spelled zawiya or zawiyah, is a Maghrebi and West African term for an Islamic religious school cum monastery, roughly corresponding to the Eastern term madrassa. In precolonial times, these were the primary sources for education in the area, and taught basic literacy to a large... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... Geez (also spelt Giiz, translitered Gə‘əz, and pronounced ) is an ancient language that developed in the Ethiopian Highlands of the Horn of Africa as the language of the peasantry. ... Naskh (نسخ, also known as Naskhi or by its Turkish name Nesih) is a specific calligraphic style for writing in the Arabic alphabet. ... Ruqah or Riqa (Arabic: الرقعة) is a calligraphic variety of Arabic script. ... Penmanship is the art of writing clearly and quickly. ...


Calligraphy

Main article: Arabic calligraphy

After the definitive fixing of the Arabic script around 786, by Khalil ibn Ahmad al Farahidi, many styles were developed, both for the writing down of the Qur'an and other books, and for inscriptions on monuments as decoration. The stylized signature of Sultan Abdul Hamid I of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... some islamic king leader guy or something This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


Arabic calligraphy has not fallen out of use as calligraphy has in the Western world, and is still considered by Arabs as a major art form; calligraphers are held in great esteem. Being cursive by nature, unlike the Latin alphabet, Arabic script is used to write down a verse of the Qur'an, a Hadith, or simply a proverb, in a spectacular composition. The composition is often abstract, but sometimes the writing is shaped into an actual form such as that of an animal. Two of the current masters of the genre are Hassan Massoudy and Khaled Al Saa’i. Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... Ayah ( , plural Ayat ) is the Arabic word for sign or miracle. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Look up proverb in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hassan Massoudy is an Iraqi calligrapher who has published many collections of his work. ...


Transliteration

Further information: Arabic transliteration, Arabic Chat Alphabet

There are a number of different standards of Arabic transliteration: methods of accurately and efficiently representing Arabic with the Latin alphabet. There are multiple conflicting motivations for transliteration. Scholarly systems are intended to accurately and unambiguously represent the phonemes of Arabic, generally supplying making the phonetics more explicit than the original word in the Arabic alphabet. These systems are heavily reliant on diacritical marks such as "š" for sound equivalently written sh in English. In some cases, the sh or kh sounds can be represented by italicizing or underlining them -- that way, they can be distinguished from separate s and h sounds or k and h sounds, respectively. (Compare gashouse to gash.) At first sight, this may be difficult to recognize. Less scientific systems often use digraphs (like sh and kh), which are usually more simple to read, but sacrifice the definiteness of the scientific systems. Such systems may be intended to help readers who are neither Arabic speakers nor linguists to intuitively pronounce Arabic names and phrases. An example of such a system is the Bahá'í orthography. A third type of transliteration seeks to represent an equivalent of the Arabic spelling with Latin letters, for use by Arabic speakers when Arabic writing is not available (for example, when using an ASCII communication device). An example is the system used by the US military, Standard Arabic Technical Transliteration System or SATTS, which represents each Arabic letter with a unique symbol in the ASCII range to provide a one-to-one mapping from Arabic to ASCII and back. This system, while facilitating typing on English keyboards, presents its own ambiguities and disadvantages. During the last few decades and especially since the 1990s, Western-invented text communication technologies have become prevalent in the Arab world, such as personal computers, the World Wide Web, email, Bulletin board systems, IRC, instant messaging and mobile phone text messaging. Most of these technologies originally had the ability to communicate using the Latin alphabet only, and some of them still do not have the Arabic alphabet as an optional feature. As a result, Arabic speaking users communicated in these technologies by transliterating the Arabic text using the Latin script, sometime known as IM Arabic. Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals: A desire to stay consistent with traditional usage... The Arabic chat alphabet or Arabesh (Arabizi or عربيزي) is used to communicate in the Arabic language over the Internet or for sending messages via cellular phones when the actual Arabic alphabet is unavailable for technical reasons. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals: A desire to stay consistent with traditional usage... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritic or diacritical mark, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Baháí orthography uses certain accents when writing Baháí terms. ... SATTS is the Standard Arabic Technical Transliteration System, a US military standard for the mapping of Arabic letters to the Latin alphabet. ... Arab States redirects here. ... The tower of a personal computer. ... The World Wide Web and WWW redirect here. ... E-mail, or email, is short for electronic mail and is a method of composing, sending, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems. ... Ward Christensen and the computer that ran the first public Bulletin Board Systems, CBBS A Bulletin board system, or BBS, is a computer system running software that allows users to dial into the system over a phone line (or Telnet) and, using a terminal program, perform functions such as downloading... This article is about Internet Relay Chat. ... // Instant messaging (IM) is a form of real-time communication between two or more people based on typed text. ... A received SMS being announced on a Nokia phone. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Arabic Chat Alphabet. ...


To handle those Arabic letters that cannot be accurately represented using the Latin script, numerals and other characters were appropriated. For example, the numeral "3" may be used to represent the Arabic letter "ع", ayn. There is no universal name for this type of transliteration, but some have named it Arabic Chat Alphabet. Other systems of transliteration exist, such as using dots or capitalization to represent the "emphatic" counterparts of certain consonants. For instance, using capitalization, the letter "د", or daal, may be represented by d. Its emphatic counterpart, "ض", may be written as D. The Arabic chat alphabet or Arabesh (Arabizi or عربيزي) is used to communicate in the Arabic language over the Internet or for sending messages via cellular phones when the actual Arabic alphabet is unavailable for technical reasons. ...


Numerals

Main article: Arabic numerals

In most of present-day North Africa, the Western Arabic numerals (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) are used. However in Egypt and Arabic-speaking countries to the east of it, the Eastern Arabic numerals (٠.١.٢.٣.٤.٥.٦.٧.٨.٩) are in use. The lowest-valued digit appears on the right, so the order of digits on the page is the same as in Latin script; this reflects the way in which Arabic numbers are traditionally read (i.e. increasing order, so 1234 is "four and thirty and two hundred and one thousand"), though this reading has declined of late. Also sequences of digits such as telephone numbers are read from left to right. For other uses, see Arabic numerals (disambiguation). ... The Eastern Arabic numerals (also called Eastern Arabic numerals, Arabic-Indic numerals, Arabic Eastern Numerals) are the symbols (glyphs) used to represent the Hindu-Arabic numeral system in conjunction with the Arabic alphabet in Egypt, Iran, Pakistan and parts of India, and also in the no longer used Ottoman Turkish...


Language-standards regulators

Academy of the Arabic Language is the name of a number of language-regulation bodies formed in Arab countries. The most active are in Damascus and Cairo. They review language development, monitor new words and approve inclusion of new words into their published standard dictionaries. They also publish old and historical Arabic manuscripts. Academy of the Arabic Language in Damascus (Syria) (oldest) Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo (Egypt) Academy of the Arabic Language in Amman (Jordan) Academy of the Arabic Language in Khartum (Sudan) Academy of the Arabic Language in Rabat (Morroco) Beit Al-Hikma Foundation (Tunisia) Iraqi Science Academy (almost... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ...


Studying Arabic

Arabic language interests millions of non-Arab Muslims, who do not speak it as a native language, to learn it to different levels, mainly because it is the language of their holy book, the Quran, and all Islamic terms are Arabic. Arabic has been taught in many elementary and secondary schools, especially Muslim schools, worldwide. Many universities in the world today have classes for studying Arabic as a foreign language, as part of their foreign languages, Middle Eastern studies, religious studies, area studies departments, and even stand-alone Arabic language departments. Many Arabic language schools exist today to assist students in gaining Arabic language skills outside academic education. Most of the Arabic language schools are located in the Arab world and some Muslim world countries. Software and books with tapes are also important part of Arabic learning, as many of Arabic learners may live in places where there are no academic or Arabic language school classes available. Radio series of Arabic language classes are also provided from some radio stations. A number of websites on the Internet provide online classes for all levels as a means of distance education. The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... The following list consists of concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. ... Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... Secondary school is a term used to describe an institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling, known as secondary education, takes place. ... A foreign language is a language not spoken by the indigenous people of a certain place: for example, English is a foreign language in Japan. ... Middle Eastern Studies is a name given to a number of academic programs associated with the study of the culture, politics, economy, and geography of the Middle East, an area that is generally interpreted to cover a range of nations extending from North Africa in the west to the Chinese... Religious studies is the designation commonly used in the English-speaking world for a multi-disciplinary, secular study of religion that dates to the late 19th century in Europe (and the influential early work of such scholars as Friedrich Max Müller, in England, and Cornelius P. Tiele, in the... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Arabic language schools are Language schools specialized in teaching Arabic as a foreign language to speakers of other languages. ... This is a list of academic disciplines (and academic fields). ... A language school is where one can learn a foreign language. ... Arab States redirects here. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Arabic language schools are Language schools specialized in teaching Arabic as a foreign language to speakers of other languages. ...


See also

Wikiversity
At Wikiversity, you can learn about:
Arabic language
Wikipedia
Arabic language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiversity logo Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation beta project[1], devoted to learning materials and activities, located at www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... The Arabic language is classified as a Semitic language. ... The Arabic word ( ) designates the system of nominal and adjectival suffixes of Classical Arabic. ... Arabic literature (Arabic ,الأدب العربي ) Al-Adab Al-Arabi, is the writing produced, both prose and poetry, by speakers of the Arabic language. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... The stylized signature of Sultan Abdul Hamid I of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... The following list consists of concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. ... Star names are not included. ... This list of replaced loanwords in Turkish includes Ottoman Turkish loanwords mostly of Arabic and Persian, but also French, Greek, and Italian origin, which were replaced with their Turkish counterparts suggested by the Turkish Language Association (Turkish: Türk Dil Kurumu - TDK) as a part of the cultural reforms - in... Words of Arabic origin have entered the French language and many European languages. ... Açafate (assafat) Açafrão (azzafaran) Acéquia (assekyah) Achaque (ashshaka) Acicate (ashshukat) Açoite (assaut) Açorda (athurda) Açoteia (assutaiha) Açougue (assok) Açude (assudd) Açúcar (assukar derived from Sanskrit çarkara) Adarga (addarka) Aduana (addwana) Allah (al + ilâh) Alabão (allabban) Alambique Alarife (alarif... // Estimates of the number of Arabic loanwords in the Spanish language range from 3000 to 5000 words. ... Greeting is a way for human beings (as well as other members of the animal kingdom) to intentionally communicate awareness of each others presence, to show attention to, and/or to affirm or suggest a type of relationship or social status between individuals or groups of people coming in... The Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic by Hans Wehr is widely regarded as the foremost Arabic-English bilingual or translation dictionary and has particular usefulness for students of Modern Standard Arabic. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Three lists, Ethnologue, Encarta, Languages Spoken by More Than 10 Million People. Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2006. Retrieved on 2007-02-18.
  2. ^ Languages Spoken by More Than 10 Million People. Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2006. Retrieved on 2007-02-18.
  3. ^ Most Widely Spoken Languages
  4. ^ John W. Wright (2001). The New York Times Almanac 2002. Routledge. ISBN 1579583482. 
  5. ^ Maltese language - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  6. ^ Brian Bishop (April 1998). [? A History of the Arabic Language]. The Center for Arabic Culture.
  7. ^ a b Brian Bishop (April 1998). [? A History of the Arabic Language]. The Center for Arabic Culture.
  8. ^ Thelwall, 52
  9. ^ Hanna, Sami A., Naguib Greis (1972). Writing Arabic: A Linguistic Approach, from Sounds to Script. Brill Archive, p. 2. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Edward William Lane, Arabic English Lexicon, 1893, 2003 reprint: ISBN 81-206-0107-6, 3064 pages (online edition).
  • R. Traini, Vocabolario di arabo, I.P.O., Rome
  • Hans Wehr, Arabisches Wörterbuch für die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart: Arabisch-Deutsch, Harassowitz, 1952, 1985 reprint: ISBN 3-447-01998-0, 1452 pages; English translation: Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, Harassowitz, 1961.
  • Thelwall, Robin; M. Akram Sa'adeddin (2003). "Arabic", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-63751-1. 
  • Kees Versteegh, The Arabic Language, Edinburgh University Press (1997).
  • Mumisa, Michael, Introducing Arabic, Goodword Books (2003).
  • Haywood and Nahmad, A new Arabic grammar: London 1965, ISBN 0 85331 585 X
  • Laura Veccia Vaglieri, Grammatica teorico-pratica della lingua araba, I.P.O., Rome.
  • George Grigore, (2007). L'arabe parlé à Mardin. Monographie d'un parler arabe périphérique. Bucharest: Editura Universitatii din Bucuresti, ISBN (13) 978-973-737-249-9 [2]

Title page of the first volume The Arabic English Lexicon of 1893 by Edward William Lane in eight volumes is the monumental standard work of reference for Classical Arabic in western scholarship. ... Hans Wehrs Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, English-language U.S. edition. ... George Grigore (b. ...

External links

The Arabic language is classified as a Semitic language. ... Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... The Arabic language family consists of The Arabic macrolanguage (ISO 639-3 ara), including the living varieties of Arabic as well as Classical Arabic and Standard Arabic. ... Safaitic is the name given to an Old North Arabian dialect, preserved in the form of inscriptions which are written in a type of South Semitic script. ... The Lihyanites (Arabic,اللحيانيين )were a tribe of northern pre-Islamic Arabia, known from Old North Arabian inscriptions dating to ca. ... The Thamud (Arabic: ثمود) were an early Arabian people. ... Hasaitic is an Old North Arabian dialect attested in inscriptions in the al-Hasa region of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia and at Mileiha. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Literary Arabic ( the Eloquent Arabic language) or Standard Arabic is the literary and standard register of Classical Arabic used in writing. ... Maghrebi Arabic is a cover term for the dialects of Arabic spoken in the Maghreb, including Western Sahara, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, and Libya. ... Moroccan Arabic, also known as Darija, is the language spoken in the Arabic-speaking areas of Morocco, as opposed to the official communications of governmental and other public bodies which use Modern Standard Arabic, as is the case in most Arabic-speaking countries, while a mixture of French and Moroccan... Algerian Arabic is the dialect or dialects of Arabic native to Algeria. ... Tunisian Arabic is a Maghrebi dialect of the Arabic language, spoken by some 9 million people. ... Andalusian Arabic (also known as Andalusi Arabic and Spanish Arabic) was a dialect of the Arabic language spoken in Al-Andalus, the regions of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal) under Muslim rule. ... Libyan Arabic is a collective term for the closely related spoken varieties of Arabic as spoken in Libya. ... HassānÄ«ya is an Arabic dialect originally spoken by the Beni Hassān Bedouin tribes, who extended their authority over most of Mauritania and the Western Sahara between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries. ... Maltese is the national language of Malta[1], and an official language of the European Union. ... Siculo-Arabic was a dialect of Arabic spoken in Sicily between the ninth and the fourteenth centuries. ... Levantine Arabic (sometimes called Eastern Arabic) is a group of Arabic dialects spoken in the 100 km-wide eastern-Mediterranean coastal strip known as the Levant, i. ... Lebanese or Lebanese Arabic is the colloquial form of Arabic spoken in Lebanon. ... Syrian Arabic is the variety of Arabic spoken in Syria, classified as a Levantine dialect. ... North Syrian Arabic (Arabic: ) is the variety of Arabic spoken in Northern Syria. ... Palestinian Arabic is a Levantine Arabic dialect subgroup spoken by Palestinian Arabs. ... Probably the most divergent of all Arabic dialects is Cypriot Maronite Arabic, still spoken by most of the 130 elderly Maronite Catholics in Kormakiti (Korucam) in Northern Cyprus, overlooking the Mediterranean Sea. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Iraqi Arabic is a dialect of Arabic used in Iraq. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Arabian Arabic is a term used to refer to several Arabic dialects and dialect-groups spoken in modern-day Saudi Arabia. ... Gulf Arabic (also known as Khaliji, Qatari) is a variety of the Arabic language spoken around both shores of the Persian Gulf, mainly in Kuwait, eastern and central Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and parts of Oman. ... Bahrani Arabic is a dialect of the Arabic language spoken by the Bahranis Shia of Bahrain and some parts of Saudi Eastern Province, and also in Oman. ... Najdi Arabic (Arabic: ‎) is a variety of the Arabic language spoken in the desert regions of central and eastern Saudi Arabia. ... Hejazi Arabic is a term used to describe the variety of the Arabic language spoken in the western region of Saudi Arabia. ... Yemeni Arabic is the variety of Arabic spoken in Yemen. ... Hadhrami Arabic [also spelt (HA) is an Arabic dialect spoken by the people living in the Governorate in Yemen. ... ... Egyptian Arabic (MarÄ« مصري) is part of the Arabic macrolanguage of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... Sudanese Arabic, as spoken throughout much of northern Sudan, is the result of a mixing of Egyptian Arabic and Arabic from the Arabian peninsula with local languages (El Rutana). ... Nigerian Arabic is a variety of Arabic spoken in the furthest nothern-eastern part of Nigeria. ... Chadian Arabic is the variety of Arabic spoken in Chad. ... Khuzestani Arabic is a dialect of Arabic spoken in the Iranian province of Khuzestan. ... Shirvani Arabic was a dialect of Arabic that was once spoken in what is now central and northwestern Azerbaijan (historically known as Shirvan) and Dagestan (southern Russia). ... Central Asian Arabic is a variety of Arabic spoken in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and currently facing extinction. ... Central Asian Arabic is a variety of Arabic spoken in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and currently facing extinction. ... The Judeo-Arabic languages are a collection of Arabic dialects spoken by Jews living or formerly living in Arabic-speaking countries; the term also refers to more or less classical Arabic written in the Hebrew script, particularly in the Middle Ages. ... // Widely used in the Jewish community during its long history there, the Moroccan dialect of Judeo-Arabic has many influences from languages other than Arabic, including Spanish (due to the close proximity of Spain), Haketia or Moroccan Judeo-Spanish, due to the influx of Sephardic refugees from Spain after the... Yemenite Jews (תֵּימָנִי, Standard Hebrew Temani, Tiberian Hebrew Têmānî; plural תֵּימָנִים, Standard Hebrew Temanim, Tiberian Hebrew Têmānîm) are those Jews who live, or whose recent ancestors lived, in Yemen (תֵּימָן far south, Standard Hebrew Teman, Tiberian Hebrew Têmān), on the southern tip of the Arabian peninsula. ... Baghdad Arabic Jewish is the Arabic dialect spoken by the Jews of Baghdad and other towns of Southern Iraq. ... Jewish Baghdad Arabic is the Arabic dialect spoken by the Jews of Baghdad and other towns of Southern Iraq. ... The Nubi language (also called Ki-Nubi) is a Sudanese Arabic-based creole language spoken in Uganda around Bombo and Kenya around Kibera by the descendants of Emin Pashas Sudanese soldiers, settled there by the British. ... Juba Arabic is a lingua franca spoken mainly in Equatoria Province in Southern Sudan, and derives its name from the town of Juba, Sudan. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... The East Semitic languages are one of the two major subdivisions of Semitic languages, the other being West Semitic. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Eblaite is an extinct East Semitic language which was spoken in the 3rd millennium BC in the ancient city Ebla, in modern Syria. ... The West Semitic languages are a proposed major sub-grouping of Semitic languages. ... The Central Semitic languages are an intermediate group of Semitic languages, of which the most prominent members are Arabic, Hebrew and Aramaic. ... The Northwest Semitic languages form a medium-level division of the Semitic language family. ... The Amorite language is the term used for the early (North-)West Semitic language, spoken by the north Semitic Amorite tribes prominent in early Middle Eastern history. ... The Ugaritic language is only known in the form of writings found in the lost city of Ugarit in Syria since its discovery by French archaeologists in 1928. ... The Canaanite languages are a subfamily of the Semitic languages, spoken by the ancient peoples of the Canaan region, including Canaanites, Hebrews, Phoenicians, and eventually Philistines. ... The Ammonite language is the extinct Canaanite language of the Ammonite people mentioned in the Bible, who used to live in modern-day Jordan, and after whom its capital Amman is named. ... The Moabite language is an extinct Hebrew Canaanite dialect, spoken in Moab (modern-day northwestern Jordan) in the early first millennium BC. Most of our knowledge about Moabite comes from the Mesha Stele, as well as the El-Kerak Stela; this is sufficient to show that it was extremely similar... The Edomite language is the extinct Hebrew Canaanite language of the Edomites in southwestern Jordan in the first millennium BC. It is known only from a very small corpus. ... Hebrew language most commonly refers to Modern Hebrew; in historical contexts, it commonly refers to the Biblical Hebrew language. ... This article describes the Biblical dialects of Hebrew. ... The Mishnaic Hebrew language or Rabbinic Hebrew language is the ancient descendant of Biblical Hebrew as preserved by the Jews after the Babylonian captivity, and definitively recorded by Jewish sages in writing the Mishnah and other contemporary documents. ... Medieval Hebrew has many features that distinguish it from older forms. ... The Mizrahi Hebrew language or Oriental Hebrew language refers to any one of the pronunciation systems for Biblical Hebrew used liturgically by Mizrahi Jews, that is, Jews living in Arab countries or further east, and typically speaking Arabic, Persian, Hindi, Turkish, or other languages of the Middle East and Asia. ... The Yemenite Hebrew language or Temani Hebrew language is a descendant of Biblical Hebrew traditionally used by Yemenite Jews. ... The Sephardi Hebrew language is the pronunciation system for Biblical Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Sephardi Jewish practice. ... Ashkenazi Hebrew is the pronunciation system for Biblical and Mishnaic Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Ashkenazi Jewish practice. ... The Samaritan Hebrew language is a descendant of Biblical Hebrew as pronounced and written by the Samaritans. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal region of what is now Lebanon. ... Punic was a Roman contraction of Phoenician, and was used by the Romans after the Punic wars as an adjective meaning treacherous. In archaeological and linguistic usage, it refers to the later culture and dialect of Carthage and its empire, as distinct from their Phoenician originals. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Al Khazneh, Petra (the Nabataean capital) Shivta The Nabataeans, Arabic (الأنباط) Al-Anbaat, were an ancient trading people of southern Jordan, Canaan and the northern part of Arabia- whose oasis settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the borderland between Syria and Arabia, from the Euphrates... Western Neo-Aramaic is a Modern Aramaic language. ... Samaritan Aramaic, or Samaritan, is the dialect of Aramaic used by the Samaritans in their sacred and scholarly literature. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Biblical Aramaic is the form of the Aramaic language that is used in the books of Daniel, Ezra and a few other places in the Hebrew Bible. ... In 1912, W. Andrae published some inscriptions from the site of Hatra, which were studied by S. Ronzevalle and P. Jensen. ... Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Chaldean Neo-Aramaic is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... The Senaya language is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Koy Sanjaq Surat is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... The Hértevin language is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Turoyo is a Modern West Syriac language, a dialect of Aramaic. ... Mlahsô is a Modern West Syriac language, a dialect of Aramaic. ... The Mandaic language is the liturgical language of the Mandaean religion; a vernacular form is still spoken by a small community in Iran around Ahwaz. ... Judæo-Aramaic is a collective term used to describe several Hebrew-influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages. ... Arabic is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... The Arabic language family consists of The Arabic macrolanguage (ISO 639-3 ara), including the living varieties of Arabic as well as Classical Arabic and Standard Arabic. ... Literary Arabic ( the Eloquent Arabic language) or Standard Arabic is the literary and standard register of Classical Arabic used in writing. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Literary Arabic ( the Eloquent Arabic language) or Standard Arabic is the literary and standard register of Classical Arabic used in writing. ... The Arabic language is classified as a Semitic language. ... Hejazi Arabic is a term used to describe the variety of the Arabic language spoken in the western region of Saudi Arabia. ... Najdi Arabic (Arabic: ‎) is a variety of the Arabic language spoken in the desert regions of central and eastern Saudi Arabia. ... The Judeo-Yemenite language is the form of Judeo-Arabic spoken by Yemenite Jews. ... Central Asian Arabic is a variety of Arabic spoken in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and currently facing extinction. ... Khuzestani Arabic is a dialect of Arabic spoken in the Iranian province of Khuzestan. ... Shirvani Arabic was a dialect of Arabic that was once spoken in what is now central and northwestern Azerbaijan (historically known as Shirvan) and Dagestan (southern Russia). ... Egyptian Arabic (MarÄ« مصري) is part of the Arabic macrolanguage of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... Baharna Arabic is a dialect of the Arabic language spoken by the Baharna Shia of Bahrain and some parts of Saudi Eastern Province, and also in Oman. ... Gulf Arabic (also known as Khaliji, Qatari) is a variety of the Arabic language spoken around both shores of the Persian Gulf, mainly in Kuwait, eastern and central Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and parts of Oman. ... Levantine Arabic (sometimes called Eastern Arabic) is a group of Arabic dialects spoken in the 100 km-wide eastern-Mediterranean coastal strip known as the Levant, i. ... Probably the most divergent of all Arabic dialects is Cypriot Maronite Arabic, still spoken by most of the 130 elderly Maronite Catholics in Kormakiti (Korucam) in Northern Cyprus, overlooking the Mediterranean Sea. ... Palestinian Arabic is a Levantine Arabic dialect subgroup spoken by Palestinian Arabs. ... Iraqi Arabic is a dialect of Arabic used in Iraq. ... Jewish Baghdad Arabic is the Arabic dialect spoken by the Jews of Baghdad and other towns of Southern Iraq. ... Maghrebi Arabic is a cover term for the dialects of Arabic spoken in the Maghreb, including Western Sahara, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, and Libya. ... Chadian Arabic is the variety of Arabic spoken in Chad. ... HassānÄ«ya is an Arabic dialect originally spoken by the Beni Hassān Bedouin tribes, who extended their authority over most of Mauritania and the Western Sahara between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries. ... Andalusian Arabic (also known as Andalusi Arabic and Spanish Arabic) was a dialect of the Arabic language spoken in Al-Andalus, the regions of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal) under Muslim rule. ... Libyan Arabic is a collective term for the closely related spoken varieties of Arabic as spoken in Libya. ... Siculo-Arabic was a dialect of Arabic spoken in Sicily between the ninth and the fourteenth centuries. ... Moroccan Arabic, also known as Darija, is the language spoken in the Arabic-speaking areas of Morocco, as opposed to the official communications of governmental and other public bodies which use Modern Standard Arabic, as is the case in most Arabic-speaking countries, while a mixture of French and Moroccan... // Widely used in the Jewish community during its long history there, the Moroccan dialect of Judeo-Arabic has many influences from languages other than Arabic, including Spanish (due to the close proximity of Spain), Ladino, or Judeo-Spanish, due to the influx of Sephardic refugees from Spain after the 1492... Tunisian Arabic is a Maghrebi dialect of the Arabic language, spoken by some 9 million people. ... The Semitic languages are the northeastern subfamily of the Afro-Asiatic languages, and the only family of this group spoken in Asia. ... Old South Arabian is a geographic term for four closely related languages spoken in the southern portion of the Arabian Peninsula. ... The Sabey language was a language and alphabet used in Ethiopia up until the 8th Century AD. The Sabay language was replaced by the Geez language and writing system. ... The Minaean language was an Old Arabic Language spoken in Yemen between 100 BC and 600 AD. http://linguistlist. ... One of the four known dialects of Old South Arabian, Qatabian was spoken in Yemen between 100 BC and 600 AD. http://linguistlist. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Tigrinya (Geez ትግርኛ tigriññā, also spelled Tigrigna) is a Semitic language spoken by the Tigray-Tigrinya people in central Eritrea (there referred to as the Tigrinya people), where it is one of the main working languages (Eritrea does not have official languages), and in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia (whose... Tigre (Geez ትግረ tigre or ትግሬ tigrÄ“; sometimes written as Tigré, also known as Xasa in Sudan; Arabic ألخاصية ) is a Semitic language that closely speaks the Geez in its purest form and it is also closely related to Tigrinya. ... Dahlik (Dahaalik, Dahalik, Dahlak) is a newly discovered language spoken exclusively in Eritrea off the coast of Massawa, on three islands in the Dahlak Archipelago: Dahlak Kebir, Nora and Dehil. ... Not to be confused with the Aramaic language. ... Argobba is an Ethiopic language that was spoken in an area north-east of Addis Ababa. ... aman be dejqho ... The Silte language (Selti, Silti; ISO/DIS 639-3: xst) is an South Semitic (East Gurage) language of Ethiopia, with some 830,000 speakers (1998 census), spoken in the region about 150 km south of Addis Abeba. ... The Zay language is one of the Ethiopic languages. ... The Silte language (Selti, Silti; ISO/DIS 639-3: xst) is an South Semitic (East Gurage) language of Ethiopia, with some 830,000 speakers (1998 census), spoken in the region about 150 km south of Addis Abeba. ... The Gafat language is an extinct Semitic language that was once spoken along the Abbay River in Ethiopia. ... Soddo (autonym kəstane Christian; formerly called Aymälläl in Western sources, after a particular dialect of it) is a Gurage language spoken by about 300,000 people in southeastern Ethiopia. ... Muher is a Semitic [2] language belonging to Ethiopia. ... Chaha (in Chaha and Amharic: ቸሃ čehā or čexā) is a Semitic language spoken in central Ethiopia, mainly within the Gurage Zone in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region and by speakers of the language who have settled in Ethiopian cities, especially Addis Ababa. ... South Arabian is a technical designation within Semitic linguistics for one of two main branches of South Semitic. ... Bathari is a language spoken in Yemen and Oman by about 200 speakers. ... Harsusi is a Semitic language closely related to Mehri. ... Jibbali (Alternate names: Ehkili, Geblet, Jibali, Qarawi, Shahari, Shehri, Sheret) is a dialect of Oman, interesting to philologists as one of the oldest of Semitic tongues. ... Mehri or Mahri is a Semitic language spoken by minority populations in the eastern part of Yemen and western Oman and is a remnant of the ancient indigenous language group spoken in the southern Arabian Peninsula before the spread of Arabic along with the Islamic religion in the 7th century... Soqotri is the native language of the island of Socotra off the southern coast of Yemen. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Arabic language (639 words)
As the language of the Qur'an, the holy book of Islam, it is also widely used throughout the Muslim world.
Arabic words are constructed from three-letter "roots" which convey a basic idea.
Arabic has many regional dialects, and if you want to master one of these the only really effective way is to spend a few years in the place of your choice.
Arabic (744 words)
Arabic is used as the principle language in most countries covered by the Encyclopaedia of the Orient: Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Israel (as one of the official languages), Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Sudan, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.
Arabic also has a dimension of being a sacred language, as it is the only language from which the Koran is believed to be fully understood — all translations will reduce the quality of the revelations of God.
Arabic writing is an alphabetic script, based upon distinct characters, adjoined to other characters, which in most cases change their looks depending on where they stand in the word.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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