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Encyclopedia > Arabian horse
Arabian horse
An Arabian stallion
An Arabian stallion
Distinguishing features: finely chisled bone structure, concave profile, arched neck, comparatively level croup, high-carried tail.
Alternative names: Arabian, Arab
Country of origin: Middle East, including Syria, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Iraq
Breed standards
Arabian Horse Association (AHA) (United States): Stds
The Arabian Horse Society of Australia: Stds
World Arabian Horse Organisation: Stds

The Arabian horse is a breed of horse with a reputation for intelligence, high spirit, and outstanding stamina. With a distinctively chiseled head and high tail carriage, the Arabian is one of the most easily recognizable horse breeds in the world. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ...


Arabians are one of the oldest horse breeds. There is archaeological evidence of horses that resemble modern Arabians dating back 4,500 years. Throughout history, Arabian horses from the Middle East spread around the world by both war and trade, used to improve other breeds by adding speed, refinement, endurance, and good bone. Today, Arabian bloodlines are found in almost every modern breed of riding horse.[1] // This page is a list of horse and pony breeds, and also includes terms used to describe types of horses that are not breeds but are commonly mistaken for breeds. ... Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek: αρχαίος, archae, ancient; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


The Arabian developed in a desert climate and was prized by the nomadic Bedouin people, often being brought inside the family tent for shelter and protection.[2] This close relationship with humans created a horse breed with a good disposition, quick to learn, and willing to please. But the Arabian also developed the high spirit and alertness needed in a horse used for raiding and war. This combination of willingness and sensitivity requires modern Arabian horse owners to handle their horses with competence and respect.[3] This article is about arid terrain. ... A Bedouin man resting on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic ( ‎), a generic name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via... War horses are horses specially trained for use in battle or individual combat (see also: Jousting). ...


"The Versatile Arabian" is a slogan of the breed. Arabians compete today in many fields of equestrian activity, making it one of the top ten most popular horse breeds in the world. Arabian horses are now found worldwide, including the United States and Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, continental Europe, South America (especially Brazil), and its land of origin, the Middle East. A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...

Contents

Breed characteristics

A yearling Arabian horse, showing "dished" profile, arched neck, level croup and high-carried tail.
A yearling Arabian horse, showing "dished" profile, arched neck, level croup and high-carried tail.

Arabian horses have refined, wedge-shaped heads, a broad forehead, large eyes, large nostrils, and small muzzles. Most display a distinctive concave or "dished" profile. Many Arabians also have a slight forehead bulge between their eyes, called the "jibbah" by the Bedouin, that adds additional sinus capacity, believed to have helped the Arabian horse in its native dry desert climate.[4][5] Another breed characteristic is an arched neck with a large, well-set windpipe set on a fine, clean throatlatch. This structure of the poll and throatlatch was called the mitbah or mitbeh by the Bedouin, and in the best Arabians is long and somewhat straight, allowing flexibility in the bridle and room for the windpipe.[5] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1634x1261, 2017 KB) Descrição Exposição do cavalo Árabe (julgamento) - Avaré Fonte Autor: José Reynaldo da Fonseca Licença File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Arabian... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1634x1261, 2017 KB) Descrição Exposição do cavalo Árabe (julgamento) - Avaré Fonte Autor: José Reynaldo da Fonseca Licença File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Arabian... A Bedouin man resting on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic ( ‎), a generic name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via... The anatomy of the horse comes with a large number of horse specific terms. ... The anatomy of the horse comes with a large number of horse specific terms. ... A bridle is a piece of equipment used to control a horse. ...


Other distinctive features are a relatively long, level croup and naturally high tail carriage. Well-bred Arabians have a deep, well-angled hip and well laid-back shoulder. Most have a compact body with a short back. Some, though not all, have 5 lumbar vertebrae instead of the usual 6, and 17 rather than 18 pairs of ribs.[4] Thus, even a small Arabian can carry a heavy rider with ease. The anatomy of the horse comes with a large number of horse specific terms. ... In anatomy, lumbar is an adjective that means of or pertaining to the abdominal segment of the torso, between the diaphragm and the sacrum (pelvis). ... A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ... The human rib cage. ...


Arabians usually possess dense, strong bone, sound feet, and good hoof walls. They are especially noted for endurance. Arabians have natural balance, nimbleness and impulsion, qualities originally essential in a desert warhorse, and today seen in various competitive disciplines. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Size

The breed standard for Arabian horses, as stated by the United States Equestrian Federation, describes the Arabians as standing between 14.1 and 15.1 hands tall, "with the occasional individual over or under."[6] Thus, all Arabians, regardless of height, are classified as "horses," even though 14.2 hands is the traditional cutoff height between a horse and a pony. Because many horse owners in Europe and the Americas prefer taller animals, the Arabian has been bred for increased height, and many Arabians today are between 15 and 16 hands (60-64 inches at the withers). The United States Equestrian Federation (USEF) is the national governing body for most equestrian sports in the United States, including dressage, driving, endurance riding, eventing, hunt seat equitation, hunter, jumper, paralympic, reining, roadster, saddleseat equitation, vaulting, and western riding. ... A hand (or handbreadth) is a unit of length measurement, usually based on the breadth of a male human hand and thus around 1 dm, i. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... A Shetland Pony A pony is any of several horse breeds with a specific conformation and temperament. ... The withers is the highest point on an animals back, on the ridge between its shoulder blades. ...


Temperament

For centuries, Arabian horses lived in the desert in close association with humans.[7] Prized war mares were sometimes kept in the family tent, along with children. [4] Only horses with a naturally good disposition were allowed to reproduce. Arabians today are one of the few breeds where the United States Equestrian Federation allows children to exhibit stallions in show ring classes limited to riders under 18.[8] 13 year old Peruvian Paso mare A broodmare and foal In English, a mare (an old Germanic word) is a female horse; the word is also an etymological root of marshal (originally marescalcus horse servant). Mares are considered easier to handle than males, which are called stallions or after castration... The United States Equestrian Federation (USEF) is the national governing body for most equestrian sports in the United States, including dressage, driving, endurance riding, eventing, hunt seat equitation, hunter, jumper, paralympic, reining, roadster, saddleseat equitation, vaulting, and western riding. ... This Trakehner would be most appropriate to sire horses for the discipline of dressage. ...


On the other hand, the Arabian is also classified as a "hot-blooded" breed, a category that includes other refined, spirited horses bred for speed, such as the Thoroughbred and the Barb. Like other hot-bloods, Arabians' sensitivity and intelligence enable quick learning and greater communication with their riders. However, their intelligence also allows them to learn bad habits as quickly as good ones. They also can quickly lose trust in a poor rider and do not tolerate inept or abusive training practices. (see also: Controversies section, below) Thoroughbred race horses The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known as a race horse. ... The word barb can have many meanings: Look up barb in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Colors

Main article: Equine coat color

The Arabian Horse Association recognizes purebred horses with the coat colors bay, gray, chestnut, black, and roan. Bay is the most common color, followed by gray, and then chestnut. Wild horses on the range, showing a wide range of coat colors Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colors and distinctive markings. ... There are currently two theories of equine coat color genetics: Dr. Ann Bowlings and Dr. Phillip Sponenbergs. ... A blood bay horse. ... Gray is a coat color of horses, consisting of black skin, a white to dark gray coat, and a mane the same color or darker than the body coat. ... Chestnuts. ... Friesian horses are one of the best-known breeds of black-colored horse Black is a relatively uncommon coat color in horses, though not so unusual as to be considered rare. ... A red roan horse Roan is a type of coat color in horses (and, occasionally, in other animals, such as dogs and cattle) that is a mixture of white hairs with a base coat of another color. ...


All Arabians, no matter the coat color, have black skin, except under white markings. Black skin provided protection from the hot desert sun. Wild horses on the range, showing a wide range of coat colors Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colors and distinctive markings. ... These young horses, though all the same color, exhibit uniquely different markings, which can be used to identify individual horses Note: This article is about markings on any type or color of horse and does not discuss horse coat colors generally. ...


Although many Arabians appear "white," this is the natural action of the gray gene. Gray horses are born bay, black or chestnut, then get progressively lighter as they age, until their hair coat eventually turns pure white or becomes "flea-bitten." Their skin is black and remains so throughout their life. Therefore, all "white" Arabians are actually grays. There is no such thing as a genetically "white" Arabian, although there have been an extremely small number of Arabians registered as "white" for other reasons. Gray is a coat color of horses, consisting of black skin, a white to dark gray coat, and a mane the same color or darker than the body coat. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... Gray is a coat color of horses, consisting of black skin, a white to dark gray coat, and a mane the same color or darker than the body coat. ... A truly white horse has pink skin under their white hair coat True white horses, especially those that carry the White or W gene, are rare. ...


Black Arabians are somewhat rare. There are assorted and contradictory myths alleged to come from the Bedouin. Some areas considered black Arabians to be a bad omen, in other areas they were a valued treasure. One scientific reason that black is not common is that the black gene is genetically suppressed by the more dominant Agouti gene that creates the black points of a bay horse. Some breeding farms now use DNA testing to increase the probability of producing black Arabians. Agouti refers to a number of species of rodents, as well as a number of genes affecting coat coloration in several different animals. ... Bay is a color of the hair coats of horses, characterized by a body color of dark red (known as blood bay) to deep brown, with black points (mane, tail, lower legs, and sometimes the muzzle and tip of the ears). ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ...


The Bedouin had other assorted beliefs about color. It is also said that a particular type of flea-bitten gray with localized aggregations of pigment, known as a "bloody-shouldered" horse, was prized as a superior animal, particularly if a mare. Yet another myth is that the first "bloody shouldered" horse was a mare who mourned her rider, killed in war, and forever kept the stains left from the blood of her long-lost companion. It is also thought that the mare wandered the deserts, hoping to find her rider still alive. Gray is a coat color of horses, consisting of black skin, a white to dark gray coat, and a mane the same color or darker than the body coat. ...


Colors that do not exist in purebreds

Arabians are crossed with other breeds to produce half-Arabians with additional colors. Purebred Arabians never carry dilution genes such as the dun gene, nor the cream gene. Because they do not carry any dilution genes, purebred Arabians cannot be cremello, perlino, palomino or buckskin. Arabians also never carry the proposed "dominant white" (W) gene that produces a true white horse (with pink skin and blue or light-colored eyes). The genetics of cat coat length and coloration is a complex subject, and many different genes are involved. ... Dun is a yellow-brown color, sometimes seen in the hair coats of horses, characterized by a body color ranging from sandy yellow to reddish-brown. ... The cream gene is a dilution gene expressed in horses, and produces lighter colors. ... Cremello is a color of horse consisting of a cream-colored body with a cream mane and tail. ... Perlino is a color in horses created by a dilution gene, also known as the creme gene acting on an underlying Bay coat color. ... Palomino is a coat color in horses, consisting of a gold coat and white or flaxen mane and tail. ... Buckskin New Forest pony A Buckskin Quarter Horse Mare Buckskin is a color of horses; it also refers to other things that are the color of a buckskin horse, such as the color of some breeds of dogs. ... A truly white horse has pink skin under their white hair coat True white horses, especially those that carry the White or W gene, are rare. ...


Purebred Arabians today do not possess genes for spotting patterns, such as pinto or Appaloosa, except for sabino, discussed below. White spotting patterns were once thought by some to be a sign of "impure" blood. Until the development of DNA testing to verify parentage, an Arabian foal with blatant body spots or excessive white markings could not be registered. Nonetheless, there is pictorial evidence from depictions of chariot horses in Ancient Egypt and some later artwork that suggests that some of these patterns may have existed in antiquity.[4] Pinto is a horse coloring that consists of large patches of white and another color. ... An Appaloosa horse The Appaloosa is a horse breed with a color preference. ... This Clydesdale horse has classic Sabino belly spots, white above its hocks, a chin spot and wide white facial markings. ... Hittite chariot (drawing of an Egyptian relief) Approximate historical map of the spread of the chariot, 2000 –500 BCE. A chariot is a two-wheeled, horse-drawn vehicle. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ...


Thus, though the purebred Arabian produces a limited range of potential colors, there is also a positive result: because they never carry the white gene ("W") or the frame overo gene ("O"), they can never produce foals with lethal albino or lethal white syndrome. (Though a partbred could carry these genes if the non-Arabian parent was a carrier) Overo is the name of a coloration pattern in American Paint Horses in which the horses head is bald or nealy bald. ... Albinism is a genetic condition resulting in a lack of pigmentation in the eyes, skin and hair. ... Lethal white syndrome (LWS) is a common genetic disorder primarily associated with American Paint Horses. ...


Sabino

Main article: Sabino horse

One spotting pattern, sabino, does exist in purebred Arabians. The sabino gene (or gene-complex), produces white markings that may include any of the following, singly or in combination: "high white" on the legs (above the knees and hocks), irregular body spotting on the legs, belly and face, white markings on the face that extend beyond the eyes or under the chin and jaw, and occasionally, roaning.[9] Many Arabians meet the definition of having minimal to moderately expressed sabino characteristics.[10] Sabino Arabians, particularly those that appear to be nearly white, are controversial. For decades, even minimal sabino spotting disqualified horses for registration until the development of DNA testing allowed verification of parentage. This Clydesdale horse has classic Sabino belly spots, white above its hocks, a chin spot and wide white facial markings. ... This Clydesdale horse has classic Sabino belly spots, white above its hocks, a chin spot and wide white facial markings. ... These young horses, though all the same color, exhibit uniquely different markings, which can be used to identify individual horses Note: This article is about markings on any type or color of horse and does not discuss horse coat colors generally. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ...


Today, some researchers call "Sabino-white" horses - those that are over 90% white (with pink skin) - "maximum" sabinos.[11] On the other hand, other groups consider a "Maximum" Sabino to be a horse that is over 50% white.[10] In either case, studies at the University of California, Davis indicate that the gene (or genes) which produces sabino in Arabians does not appear to be the autosomal dominant gene "SB1" or "Sabino1," that often produces completely white horses. Though SB1 is relatively common in some breeds, to date Arabians do not appear to carry it.[12] The University of California, Davis, commonly known as UC Davis, is one of the ten campuses of the University of California, and was established as the University Farm in 1905. ... An autosome is a non-sex chromosome. ... In genetics, the term dominant gene refers to the allele that causes a phenotype that is seen in a heterozygous genotype. ... A truly white horse has pink skin under their white hair coat True white horses, especially those that carry the White or W gene, are rare. ...


"Sabino-white" is exceedingly uncommon, possibly exhibited by as few as eleven Arabians worldwide.[13] and there is no evidence to date that any of these horses carry the SB1 gene.[14]


Rabicano or roan?

An extensively expressed rabicano Arabian horse
An extensively expressed rabicano Arabian horse

Another unusual color pattern seen on rare occasions in Arabians is rabicano. This is a partial roaning pattern, often slight, usually limited to the belly, flanks, legs, tailhead, or any combination of these areas. Some geneticists suggest that roaning patterns on purebred Arabians are actually the action of the rabicano or sabino genes. There is scientific debate over whether roan Arabians actually exist. There are very few Arabians registered as "roan," and fewer, if any, have been DNA tested for the roan gene. Unlike a true roan, a rabicano horse's body does not have intermingled white and solid hairs over the entire body, nor are the legs or head significantly darker. Another area of potential confusion is that some people confuse a young grey horse with a roan because of the intermixed hair colors common to both. However, a roan does not change color with age, while a gray does. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Rabicano is a horse coat color that appears to be a type of partial roaning. ... A red roan horse Roan is a type of coat color in horses (and, occasionally, in other animals, such as dogs and cattle) that is a mixture of white hairs with a base coat of another color. ... A geneticist is a scientist who studies genetics, the science of heredity and variation of organisms. ... Rabicano is a horse coat color that appears to be a type of partial roaning. ... This Clydesdale horse has classic Sabino belly spots, white above its hocks, a chin spot and wide white facial markings. ... A red roan horse Roan is a type of coat color in horses (and, occasionally, in other animals, such as dogs and cattle) that is a mixture of white hairs with a base coat of another color. ...


Influence on other horse breeds

Because of the genetic strength of the desert-bred Arabian horse, Arabian bloodlines have played a part in the development of nearly every modern light horse breed, including the Thoroughbred, American Quarter Horse, Morgan, American Saddlebred, Appaloosa and Warmblood breeds such as the Oldenburg and the Trakehner. Arabian bloodlines have also influenced the development of the Welsh Pony, the Marwari and the Percheron draft horse. Thoroughbred race horses The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known as a race horse. ... A palomino Quarter Horse shown in-hand. ... The Morgan is one of the first horse breeds developed in the United States. ... The American Saddlebred, formerly known as the American Saddle Horse, is a breed of horse that was developed in Kentucky by plantation owners. ... An Appaloosa horse The Appaloosa is a horse breed with a color preference. ... Warmbloods are a group of sport horse breeds and the term simply distinguishes this type of horse from the cold bloods (draft horses) and the hot bloods (Thoroughbreds and Arabians). ... Oldenburg (Low German: Ollnborg) is an Independent City in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... A Trakehner can also refer to a type of Cross country jump The Trakehner Trakehner is a horse breed. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Marwari (also variously Marvari, Marwadi, Marvadi) is a language originating in the Western Indian state of Rajasthan, but is also found in the neighboring state of Gujarat and in Eastern Pakistan. ... A pair of typical dapple grey Percheron Horses Percheron draft horse at the Maryland State Fair The Percheron is a breed of powerful rugged draft horses that originated in the Perche region of France. ... Two pairs of Shire horses and a pair of Suffolk Punches A draft horse, draught horse, or harness horse is a large, strong horse bred for heavy work rather than speed. ...


Today, people cross Arabians on other breeds to add refinement, endurance and soundness. In the USA, Half-Arabians have their own registry within the Arabian Horse Association, which includes a special section for Anglo-Arabians, an Arabian-Thoroughbred cross. Some crosses originally registered only as Half-Arabians became popular enough to have their own breed registry, including the National Show Horse, an Arabian-Saddlebred cross; the Quarab (Arabian-Quarter Horse); the Welara (Arabian-Welsh Pony); and the Morab (Arabian-Morgan). In addition, some Arabians and Half Arabians have been approved for registration by some Warmblood registries, particularly the Trakehner registry. The Anglo-Arabian horse is just what its name implies: a Thoroughbred (prefix Anglo) crossed with an Arabian horse. ... The National Show Horse, founded in the 1980s, is a cross between an American Saddlebred and an Arabian. ... The Quarab is a cross between a American Quarter Horse and an Arabian. ... The Welara is an American pony breed established in 1981. ... The Morab horse is a saddle type horse originally created by cross breeding Arabian and Morgan breed horses. ... Warmbloods are a group of sport horse breeds and the term simply distinguishes this type of horse from the cold bloods (draft horses) and the hot bloods (Thoroughbreds and Arabians). ...


Mythology

Arabian horses are the topic of many romantic legends. The most popular are those told about their origins.


One creation myth tells how the Islamic prophet Muhammad chose his foundation mares by a test of their courage and loyalty. It is said that after a long journey through the desert, Muhammad turned his herd of horses loose to race to an oasis for a desperately-needed drink of water. Before the herd reached the water, he blew his war horn, summoning the animals to return to him. Only five mares responded. Because they faithfully returned to their master, even though desperate with thirst, these mares became his favorites and were called Al Khamsa, meaning, the five. These mares thus became the legendary founders of the five choice "strains" of the Arabian horse.[15] Although the Al Khamsa are probably fictional horses of legend,[5] some breeders today claim the modern Bedouin Arabian actually descended from these mares. The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... Al Khamsa is an Arabic term that is applied to specific Bedouin bloodlines of the Arabian horse. ...


Another tale claims that King Solomon of Ancient Israel was said to have been given a pure Arabian-type mare named Safanad ("the pure") by the Queen of Sheba.[5] Another version says that Solomon gave his renowned stallion, Zad el-Raheb or Zad-el-Rakib ("Gift to the Rider") to the Banu Azd people when they came to pay tribute to the king. This legendary stallion was said to be faster than the zebra and the gazelle, and every hunt with him was successful, thus the Arabs put him to stud and he became a founding sire of legend.[5][16] King Solomon Latin name (Hebrew: שְׁלֹמֹה, (Shelomo) (Shlomo pronounced with Yiddish accent)Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: سليمان, Sulayman; all essentially meaning peace) is a figure described in Middle Eastern scriptures as a wise ruler of an empire centred on the united Kingdom of Israel. ... The Kingdom of Israel (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yisraʾel, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yiśrāʾēl) according to the Bible, was the nation... Depiction of the Queen of Sheba arriving in Israel. ...


Yet another creation myth puts the origin of the Arabian in the time of Ishmael, the son of Abraham. In this story, the Angel Jibril (also known as Gabriel) descended from Heaven and awakened Ishmael with a "wind-spout" that whirled toward him. The Angel then commanded the thundercloud to stop scattering dust and rain, and so it gathered itself into a prancing, handsome creature--a horse--that seemed to swallow up the ground. Hence, the Bedouins bestowed the title "Drinker of the Wind" to the first Arabian horse, a stallion named Kuhaylah.[17] Expulsion of Ishmael and His Mother. ... The angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1634) Abraham (Hebrew: , Standard Avraham Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Geez: , ) is a figure in the Bible and Quran who is by believers regarded as the founding patriarch of the Israelites and of the Nabataean people in Jewish, Christian and... 12th-century icon of Archangel Gabriel from Novgorod In Abrahamic religions, Gabriel (גַּבְרִיאֵל, Standard Hebrew Gavriʼel, Latin Gabrielus, Greek , Tiberian Hebrew Gaḇrîʼēl, Arabic جبريل JibrÄ«l or Jibrail, literally Master, of God, i. ... 12th-century icon of Archangel Gabriel from Novgorod In Abrahamic religions, Gabriel (גַּבְרִיאֵל, Standard Hebrew Gavriʼel, Latin Gabrielus, Greek , Tiberian Hebrew Gaḇrîʼēl, Arabic جبريل JibrÄ«l or Jibrail, literally Master, of God, i. ...


Another Bedouin story states that Allah created the Arabian horse from the four winds; spirit from the North, strength from the South, speed from the East, and intelligence from the West. (Other versions of this myth claim Allah used only the south wind) While doing so, he exclaimed, "I create thee, Oh Arabian. To thy forelock, I bind Victory in battle. On thy back, I set a rich spoil and a Treasure in thy loins. I establish thee as one of the Glories of the Earth... I give thee flight without wings."[18] Other versions of the story claim Allah said: "I call you Horse; I make you Arabian and I give you the chestnut color of the ant; I have hung happiness from the forelock which hangs between your eyes; you shall be the Lord of the other animals. Men shall follow you wherever you go; you shall be as good for flight as for pursuit; riches shall be on your back and fortune shall come through your meditation."[citation needed] A Bedouin man resting on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic ( ‎), a generic name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ...


History

An Arabian horse in the desert. Antoine-Jean Gros, c. 1810

Arabians are one of the oldest human-developed breeds in the world. The original wild progenitors, "Proto-Arabian" horses with oriental characteristics similar to the modern Arabian, appeared in rock paintings and inscriptions in the Arabian Peninsula as far back as 2,500 B.C.[19] In ancient history, throughout the Ancient Near East, horses with refined heads and high-carried tails were depicted in artwork, particularly that of Ancient Egypt. Proto-Arabians may have been brought to Egypt by the Hyksos invaders.[4] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 786 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2024 × 1544 pixel, file size: 339 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Arabian horse ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 786 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2024 × 1544 pixel, file size: 339 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Arabian horse ... An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor. ... The Arabian Peninsula Emirets towers in United Arab Emirates; the eastern part of Arabian Penisula The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية, or جزيرة العرب) is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia consisting mainly of desert. ... The times before writing belong either to protohistory or to prehistory. ... Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... The Hyksos (Egyptian heqa khasewet, foreign rulers; Greek , ) were an Asiatic, likely Semitic people who invaded the eastern Nile Delta, initiating the Second Intermediate Period of ancient Egypt. ...


Desert origins

There are different theories about where the wild ancestor of the Arabian originally lived. Most evidence suggests the "proto Arabian" or "Oriental" horse came from the area along the northern edge of the Fertile Crescent. [20] Others argue for the southwestern corner of the Arabian peninsula, in modern-day Yemen, where three now-dry riverbeds suggest good natural pastures existed long ago, though perhaps as far back as the Ice Age.[4][1][21] Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ...


Some scholars of the Arabian horse theorized that the Arabian came from a separate subspecies of horse, called Equus agilus.[4] However, Gladys Brown Edwards, a noted Arabian researcher, as well as other scholars, believe that the "dry" oriental horse of the desert, from which the modern Arabian developed, was more likely one of the four foundation subtypes of Equus caballus that had specific characteristics based on the environments in which they lived, rather than being a separate subspecies.[22][20][4] Horses with similar, though not identical, physical characteristics include the now-extinct Turkoman Horse, the Barb of North Africa and the Akhal-Teke of western Asia. Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... horse, see Horse (disambiguation). ... The Turkoman horse, or Turkmene, was an ancient breed from Turkmenistan, now extinct. ... Developed on the Barbary Coast of North Africa, the Barb is a desert horse, with great hardiness and stamina. ... Akhal-Teke The Akhal-Teke, Ahalteke in the Turkmen language, horse breed (pronounced ) is a breed from Turkmenistan, where they are the national emblem. ...


The Arabian horse prototype may have been domesticated by the people of the Arabian peninsula known today as the Bedouin, sometime after they learned to use the camel, approximately 4,000-5,000 years ago.[22][1][23] However, other scholars, noting that horses were common in the Fertile Crescent but rare in the Arabian peninsula prior to the rise of Islam, theorize that the breed as it is known today only developed in large numbers when the conversion of the Persians to Islam in the 6th century A.D. brought knowledge of horse breeding and horsemanship to the Bedouin.[24] There are a number of theories regarding the domestication of the horse. ... The Arabian Peninsula Emirets towers in United Arab Emirates; the eastern part of Arabian Penisula The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية, or جزيرة العرب) is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia consisting mainly of desert. ... A Bedouin man resting on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic ( ‎), a generic name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... The Fertile Crescent is a historical crescent-shape region in the Middle East incorporating the Levant, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... For information about all peoples of Iran, see Demographics of Iran; for Central Asian Persians, see Tajiks. ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ...


Regardless of origins, climate and culture ultimately created the Arabian. The desert environment required a domesticated horse to cooperate with humans to survive. Humans were the only providers of food and water in certain areas, and even hardy Arabian horses needed far more water than camels in order to survive (most horses can only live about 72 hours without water). Where there was no pasture or water, the Bedouin fed their horses dates and camel's milk.[4] The desert horse needed to thrive on very little food, and possess anatomical traits to compensate for life in a dry climate with wide temperature extremes from day to night. Weak individuals were weeded out of the breeding pool, and the animals that remained were honed by centuries of human warfare. The term date can refer to: A day according to a calendar; see calendar date. ...


In return, the Bedouin way of life depended on camels and horses: Arabians were bred to be war horses with speed, endurance, soundness, and intelligence. Because many raids required stealth, mares were preferred over stallions because they were quieter and would not give away the position of the fighters. A good disposition was critical; prized war mares were often brought inside family tents to prevent theft and for protection from weather and predators. Though appearance was not necessarily a survival factor, the Bedouin bred for refinement and beauty in their horses as well as for more practical features. A modern-day knight on a draft horse in late medieval plate armor jousting at a Renaissance Fair War Horses have been used in human warfare for millennia, probably since the time of domestication of the horse. ...


For centuries, the Bedouin tracked the ancestry of each horse through an oral tradition. The first written pedigrees in the middle east that specifically used the term "Arabian" date to 1330 A.D.[25] Horses of the purest blood were known as Asil and crossbreeding with non-Asil horses was forbidden. Mares were the most valued, both for riding and breeding, and pedigree families were traced through the female line. The Bedouin did not believe in gelding male horses, and considered stallions too intractable to be good war horses, thus they kept very few male foals (colts), selling most, and culling those of poor quality. Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... Asil or Aseel in India, means a breed of cockerel used for cock fighting, It has a distinctive upright stance, drooping tail, and powerful musculature. ... 13 year old Peruvian Paso mare A broodmare and foal In English, a mare (an old Germanic word) is a female horse; the word is also an etymological root of marshal (originally marescalcus horse servant). Mares are considered easier to handle than males, which are called stallions or after castration... A gelding is a castrated animal—in English, a castrated male horse. ... This Trakehner would be most appropriate to sire horses for the discipline of dressage. ... A foal is a young horse of either gender; a female foal is called a filly, while a male foal is called a colt. ...


Over time, the Bedouin developed several sub-types or strains of Arabian horse, each with unique characteristics. According to the Arabian Horse Association, the five primary strains were known as the Keheilan, Seglawi, Abeyan, Hamdani and Hadban. [26] There were also lesser strains, sub-strains, and regional variations in strain names. Thus, many Arabian horses were not only Asil, of pure blood, but also bred to be pure in strain as well, with crossbreeding between strains discouraged, though not forbidden, by some tribes. Purity of bloodline was very important to the Bedouin, and they also believed in telegony, believing if a mare was ever bred to a stallion of "impure" blood, the mare herself and all future offspring would be "contaminated" by the stallion and hence no longer Asil.[4] The Arabian Horse Association (AHA) is the single national organization that registers Arabian horses in the United States. ... Telegony is the alleged phenomenon of infection in heredity. ...


This complex web of bloodline and strain was an integral part of Bedouin culture. The Bedouin knew the pedigrees and history of their best war mares in detail, via an oral tradition that also tracked the breeding of their camels, Saluki dogs, and their own family or tribal history.[27] Eventually, written records began to be kept; the first written pedigrees in the middle east that specifically used the term "Arabian" date to 1330 A.D.[25] The Saluki is a breed of dog that is a member of the sighthound family, that is, hounds that hunt by sight rather than scent. ...


Important as strain was to the Bedouin, studies of mitochondrial DNA suggest that modern Arabian horses recorded to be of a given strain may not necessarily share a common maternal ancestry. [28] // Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA that is located in mitochondria. ...


Role in the ancient world

Hittite chariot (drawing of an Egyptian relief)
Hittite chariot (drawing of an Egyptian relief)

Fiery war horses with dished faces and high-carried tails were popular artistic subjects in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, often depicted pulling chariots in war or for hunting. Horses with oriental characteristics appear in artwork as far north as that of Ancient Greece and the Roman Empire. While the horse wasn't called an "Arabian" in the Ancient Near East until later, (the word "Arabia" itself only first appeared in writings by the ancient Persians, circa 500 B.C.,[4]) these "proto-Arabian" or "Oriental" horses shared many characteristics with the modern Arabian, including speed, endurance, and refinement. For example, a horse skeleton unearthed in the Sinai peninsula, dated to 1700 B.C., is considered the earliest physical evidence of the horse in Ancient Egypt. It was probably brought by the Hyksos invaders. This horse had a wedge-shaped head, large eye socket and small muzzle, all characteristics of the Arabian horse.[5] drawing from an egyptian relief, from Paul Volz: Die biblischen Altertümer (1914), p. ... drawing from an egyptian relief, from Paul Volz: Die biblischen Altertümer (1914), p. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite empire was... War horses are horses specially trained for use in battle or individual combat (see also: Jousting). ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... The Temple to Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around three thousand years. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ... Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise... For information about all peoples of Iran, see Demographics of Iran; for Central Asian Persians, see Tajiks. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 The Sinai Peninsula (in Arabic, Shibh Jazirat Sina) is a triangle-shaped peninsula lying between the Mediterranean Sea (to the north) and Red Sea (to the south). ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... The Hyksos (Egyptian heqa khasewet, foreign rulers; Greek , ) were an Asiatic, likely Semitic people who invaded the eastern Nile Delta, initiating the Second Intermediate Period of ancient Egypt. ...


Arabian horses in Islamic history

Battle of Higueruela, 1431. Spanish fighting the Moorish forces of Sultan Muhammed IX of Granada. Note the differences in tail carriage of the various horses in the painting. The Arabian's high-carried tail is a distinctive trait that is seen even in partblooded offspring.

Following the Hijra in A.D. 622 (also sometimes spelled Hegira), the Arabian horse spread across the known world of the time, became recognized as a distinct, named breed, and played a significant role in the History of the Middle East and of Islam.[20] By A.D. 630, Muslim influence expanded across the Middle East and North Africa. By A.D. 711, Muslim warriors had reached Spain, and controlled most of the Iberian peninsula by 720. Their mounts were of various oriental types, including both Arabians and the Barb horse of North Africa. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2135x2377, 1228 KB) Summary Jewish soldiers fighting with the forces of Muhammed IX, Nasrid Sultan of Granada, at the Battle of Higueruela 1431, as depicted in a series of fresco paintings by Fabrizio Castello, Orazio Cambiaso and Lazzaro Tavarone in the... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2135x2377, 1228 KB) Summary Jewish soldiers fighting with the forces of Muhammed IX, Nasrid Sultan of Granada, at the Battle of Higueruela 1431, as depicted in a series of fresco paintings by Fabrizio Castello, Orazio Cambiaso and Lazzaro Tavarone in the... The Battle of Higueruela as depicted in the Gallery of Battles. ... The Nasrid dynasty was the last Muslim dynasty in Spain, founded by Mohammed ben Nasar. ... Coordinates: Country Spain Autonomous community Andalusia Settled since 7th century BC Area  - City 88 km²  (34 sq mi) Elevation 738 m (2,421. ... For other uses, see Hijra. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided politically from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Iberia can mean: The Iberian peninsula of southwest Europe; That part of it inhabited by the Iberians, speaking the Iberian language. ... The word barb can have many meanings: Look up barb in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Muslim invaders reached as far north as France, where they were stopped by Charles Martel at the Battle of Tours in 732. Arabian and other oriental horses captured in the wake of this defeat were crossed with local stock, adding agility to the heavier animals, influencing the development of the Percheron.[29] For the 13th century titular King of Hungary, see Charles Martel dAnjou. ... Combatants Carolingian Franks Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Charles Martel ‘Abd-al-Raḥmān al-Ghāfiqī† Strength Unknown, possibly 20,000 to 30,000 [1] Unknown, but the earliest Muslim sources, still after the era of the battle[2] mention a figure of 80,000. ... A pair of typical dapple grey Percheron Horses Percheron draft horse at the Maryland State Fair The Percheron is a breed of powerful rugged draft horses that originated in the Perche region of France. ...


From the Middle East to Europe

Muslim invasions were not the only way Arabians reached Europe. During the Crusades, beginning in 1095, European armies invaded Palestine and many knights returned home with Arabian horses as spoils of war. As development of the longbow and gunpowder made knights and the heavy, armored war horses who carried them obsolete, these Arabians and their descendants were used to develop faster, agile light cavalry horses that were used in warfare into the 20th century. World map showing the location of Europe. ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... Lemonwood, purpleheart and hickory longbow, 45 lbf draw force. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Blackpowder. ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... War horses are horses specially trained for use in battle or individual combat (see also: Jousting). ... French Republican Guard - May 8, 2005 celebrations Cavalry (from French cavalerie) were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat. ... A modern-day knight on a draft horse in late medieval plate armor jousting at a Renaissance Fair War Horses have been used in human warfare for millennia, probably since the time of domestication of the horse. ...


Another way Arabian horses spread to the rest of the world was through the Ottoman Empire, which rose in 1299, and came to control much of the Middle East. Though it never fully dominated the heart of the Arabian Peninsula, this Turkish empire obtained many Arabian horses through trade, diplomacy and war. Ottoman nobility, such as Muhammad Ali of Egypt also collected pure, desert-bred Arabian horses. These horses often were sold, traded, or given as diplomatic gifts to Europeans and, later, to Americans. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Events Osman I declares the independence of the Ottoman Principality The County of Holland is annexed by the County of Hainaut April 1, 1299 Kings Towne on the River Hull granted city status by Royal Charter of King Edward I of England. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Arabian Peninsula Emirets towers in United Arab Emirates; the eastern part of Arabian Penisula The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية, or جزيرة العرب) is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia consisting mainly of desert. ... This article is about the viceroy of Egypt. ...


One major infusion of Arabian horses into Europe occurred when the Ottoman Turks sent 300,000 horsemen into Hungary in A.D. 1522. Many Turks were mounted on pure-blooded Arabians, captured during raids into Arabia. By 1529, the Ottomans reached Vienna, where they were stopped by the Polish and Hungarian armies, who captured Arabians from the defeated Ottoman cavalry. Some of these horses provided foundation stock for the major studs of eastern Europe.[30] The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ... Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ...


Polish and Russian breeding programs

Several noble families of Poland became major breeders of Arabian horses. Eustachy Sanguszko (1768-1844), painted by Juliusz Kossak
Several noble families of Poland became major breeders of Arabian horses. Eustachy Sanguszko (1768-1844), painted by Juliusz Kossak

With the rise of light cavalry, the stamina and agility of horses with Arabian blood gave an enormous military advantage to any army who possessed them. Thus, many European monarchs began to support large breeding establishments that crossed Arabians on local stock. One example was the Imperial Russian Stud of Peter the Great, and another was Knyszyna, the royal stud of Polish king Zygmunt II August.[30] Image File history File links Evstafy_Sangushka. ... Image File history File links Evstafy_Sangushka. ... An army unit consisting of mounted soldiers are commonly known as cavalry. ... Peter I Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia Peter I (Pyotr Alekseyvich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... Reign From April 1, 1548 until July 6, 1572 Coronation On September 15, 1697 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Jagiellon Parents Zygmunt I the Old Bona Sforza Consorts Elizabeth of Habsburg (Elżbieta Habsburżanka) Barbara RadziwiÅ‚Å‚ Catherine of Habsburg (Katarzyna Habsburżanka) Barbara Giżycka...


European horse breeders also obtained Arabian stock directly from the desert or via trade with the Ottomans. For example, Count Alexey Orlov of Russia obtained many Arabians, including Smetanka, an Arabian stallion who was a foundation sire of the Orlov trotter.[31] Orlov provided Arabian horses to Catherine the Great, who in 1772 owned 12 pure Arabian stallions and 10 mares. Eventually, to meet the need to breed purebred Arabians as a source of pure bloodstock, the renowned stud farm that came to be known as the Tersk Stud of Russia was established in 1889.[31] Count Grigory Orlov Orlov (Орлов) is the name of a Russian noble family which produced several distinguished statesmen, diplomatists and soldiers. ... Smetanka Smetanka was an Arabian stallion who was a foundation sire of the Orlov trotter. ... Orlov trotter (also known as Orlov; Russian: орловский рысак) is a horse breed with a hereditary fast trot credited for its outstanding speed and stamina. ... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from... A stud farm or stud in animal husbandry, is an establishment for selective breeding. ...


Notable imports from Arabia to Poland included those of Prince Hieronymous Sanguszko (1743-1812) of Poland, who founded the Slawuta stud. Poland's first state-run Arabian stud farm, Janow Podlaski, was established by the decree of Alexander I of Russia in 1817.[32]By 1850, the great stud farms of Poland were well-established, including Antoniny, owned by the Polish Count Potocki (who had married into the Sanguszko family); later notable as the farm that produced the stallion Skowronek. Prince Eustachy Sanguszko (1768-1844) Sanguszko is a typical Polish Gedyminid family of Ruthenian stock. ... Aleksandr I Pavlovich (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825?), was Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801-1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815–1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... Potocki family coat of arms: Pilawa. ... Lady Wentworth and her prized Arabian stallion, Skowronek Skowronek as a young horse Skowronek (a name meaning lark or skylark in Polish) was an Arabian stallion foaled in 1909. ...


Arabians in 18th and 19th century Europe

The Darley Arabian

The 18th century marked the establishment of most of the great Arabian studs of Europe, dedicated to preserving "pure" Arabian bloodstock. One example was the Babolna Stud of Hungary, set up in 1789, and the Weil stud in Germany (now known as Marbach), founded in 1817 by King Wilhelm I of Wurttemberg.[33] Arabians were also introduced into European racehorse breeding, especially in England via the Darley Arabian, Byerly Turk, and Godolphin Arabian, the three foundation stallions of the modern Thoroughbred breed, who were each brought to England in the 1700s. Other monarchs obtained Arabian horses, often as personal mounts. One of the most famous Arabian stallions in Europe was Marengo, the war horse ridden by Napoleon Bonaparte. Image File history File links Darley_Arabian. ... Image File history File links Darley_Arabian. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Wilhelm I of Germany Wilhelm I, (March 22, 1797 - March 9, 1888), German Emperor (Kaiser), ruled January 18, 1871-1888 and king of Prussia, ruled 1861-1888. ... Württemberg (often spelled Wurttemberg in English) refers to an area and a former state in Swabia, a region in south-western Germany. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... The Darley Arabian was one of three horses which were the founders of the modern thoroughbred horse racing broodstock. ... The Byerly Turk was one of three horses which were the founders of the modern thoroughbred horse racing broodstock. ... The Godolphin Arabian (ca 1724 - 1754), also known as the Godolphin Barb, was one of three horses which were the founders of the modern thoroughbred horse racing broodstock. ... Thoroughbred race horses The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known as a race horse. ... Several places have the name Marengo: Marengo, Indiana Marengo, Illinois Marengo, Iowa Marengo, Ohio Marengo County, Alabama There was a battle called the Battle of Marengo (1800). ... A modern-day knight on a draft horse in late medieval plate armor jousting at a Renaissance Fair War Horses have been used in human warfare for millennia, probably since the time of domestication of the horse. ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des...


This period also marked a period of considerable travel to the Middle East by Europeans, and in the process, some travelers noticed that the Arabian horse as a pure breed of horse was under threat due to modern forms of warfare, crossbreeding and other problems that were reducing the horse population at a rapid rate.[4] By the late 1800s, the most farsighted began in earnest to collect the finest Arabian horses they could find in order to preserve the blood of the pure desert horse for future generations. The most famous example was Lady Anne Blunt, the daughter of Ada Lovelace and granddaughter of Lord Byron.[34] This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... Anne Isabella (Annabella) Noel Blunt, née King-Noel, 15th Baroness Wentworth (22 September 1837-15 December 1917), known for most of her life as Lady Anne Blunt, was co-founder with her husband the poet Wilfrid Scawen Blunt of the Crabbet Arabian Stud. ... Ada Lovelace Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (December 10, 1815 – November 27, 1852), born Augusta Ada Byron, is mainly known for having written a description of Charles Babbages early mechanical general-purpose computer, the analytical engine. ... Lord Byron, English poet Lord Byron (1803), as painted by Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, (January 22, 1788 – April 19, 1824) was the most widely read English language poet of his day. ...


The rise of the Crabbet Park Stud

Main article: Crabbet Arabian Stud
See also: Judith Blunt-Lytton, 16th Baroness Wentworth, Lady Anne Blunt, and Wilfred Scawen Blunt

Perhaps the most famous of all Arabian breeding operations founded in Europe was the Crabbet Park Stud of England, founded 1878.[35] The Crabbet Arabian Stud was established on 2 July 1878 when the first Arabian horses brought to England by Wilfrid Scawen Blunt and Lady Anne Blunt arrived at Crabbet Park, their Queen Anne house in Sussex. ... Lady Wentworth and her prized Arabian stallion, Skowronek Judith Anne Dorothea Blunt-Lytton, 16th Baroness Wentworth also known as Lady Wentworth (6 February 1873–8 August 1957) was a British peeress, Arabian horse breeder and tennis player. ... Anne Isabella (Annabella) Noel Blunt, née King-Noel, 15th Baroness Wentworth (22 September 1837-15 December 1917), known for most of her life as Lady Anne Blunt, was co-founder with her husband the poet Wilfrid Scawen Blunt of the Crabbet Arabian Stud. ... Wilfrid Scawen Blunt (1840–1922) was a British poet and writer. ... The Crabbet Arabian Stud was established on 2 July 1878 when the first Arabian horses brought to England by Wilfrid Scawen Blunt and Lady Anne Blunt arrived at Crabbet Park, their Queen Anne house in Sussex. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area...


Starting in 1877, Wilfrid Scawen Blunt and Lady Anne Blunt made repeated journeys to the Middle East, including visits to the stud of Ali Pasha Sherif in Egypt and to Bedouin tribes in the Nejd, bringing the best Arabians they could find to England. Lady Anne also purchased and maintained the Sheykh Obeyd stud farm in Egypt, near Cairo. Upon Lady Anne's death in 1917, the Blunts' daughter, Judith, Lady Wentworth, inherited the Wentworth title and Lady Anne's portion of the estate. She obtained the remainder of the Crabbet Stud following a protracted legal battle with her father, Wilfrid.[34] Lady Wentworth expanded the stud, added new bloodstock, and exported Arabian horses worldwide. Upon Lady Wentworth's death in 1957, the stud passed to her manager, Cecil Covey, who ran Crabbet until 1971, when a freeway was cut through the property, forcing the sale of the land and dispersal of the horses.[36][4] Wilfrid Scawen Blunt (1840–1922) was a British poet and writer. ... Anne Isabella (Annabella) Noel Blunt, née King-Noel, 15th Baroness Wentworth (22 September 1837-15 December 1917), known for most of her life as Lady Anne Blunt, was co-founder with her husband the poet Wilfrid Scawen Blunt of the Crabbet Arabian Stud. ... Ali Pasha Sherif is known as a renowned breeder of Arabian horses in Egypt during the late 1800s. ... Najd or Nejd (Arabic: Naǧd) is a region in central Saudi Arabia and the location of the nations capital, Riyadh. ... Sheykh Obeyd was a stud farm that raised Arabian horses, located near Cairo, Egypt. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Lady Wentworth and her prized Arabian stallion, Skowronek Judith Anne Dorothea Blunt-Lytton, 16th Baroness Wentworth also known as Lady Wentworth (6 February 1873–8 August 1957) was a British peeress, Arabian horse breeder and tennis player. ...


Egypt

Historically, Egypt was known for importing horses bred in the deserts of Palestine and the Arabian peninsula rather than as a source of native bloodstock.[34] However, the Egyptians had been doing so for milennia, dating at least as far back as the refined, high-tailed, dish-faced chariot horses of the Hyksos invaders.[4] By the time that the Ottoman Empire dominated Egypt, the political elites of the region still recognized the need for quality bloodstock for both war and for horse racing, and some continued to return to the deserts to obtain pure-blooded Arabians. One of the most famous was Muhammad Ali of Egypt, also known as Muhammad Ali Pasha, who established an extensive stud farm in the 19th Century.[4] After his death, some of his stock was bred on by Abbas I of Egypt, also known as Abbas Pasha. When Abbas Pasha was assassinated in 1854, his heirs sold most of his horses, often for crossbreeding, and gave away many others as diplomatic gifts.[34] A remnant was obtained by Ali Pasha Sherif, who then went back to the desert to bring in new bloodstock. At its peak, the stud of Ali Pasha Sherif had over 400 purebred Arabians.[37] Unfortunately, an epidemic of African horse sickness in the 1870s killed thousands of horses and decimated much of his herd, wiping out several irreplacable bloodlines.[34] Late in his life, he sold several horses to Wilfred and Lady Anne Blunt, who exported them to Crabbet Park Stud in England. After his death, Lady Anne was able to gather many remaining horses at her Sheykh Obeyd stud.[34] The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... The Arabian Peninsula Emirets towers in United Arab Emirates; the eastern part of Arabian Penisula The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية, or جزيرة العرب) is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia consisting mainly of desert. ... Hittite chariot (drawing of an Egyptian relief) Approximate historical map of the spread of the chariot, 2000 –500 BCE. A chariot is a two-wheeled, horse-drawn vehicle. ... The Hyksos (Egyptian heqa khasewet, foreign rulers; Greek , ) were an Asiatic, likely Semitic people who invaded the eastern Nile Delta, initiating the Second Intermediate Period of ancient Egypt. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... This article is about the viceroy of Egypt. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Abbas I (Arabic: عباس الأول ) (1913-1854), Pasha of Egypt, was a son of Tusun Pasha and grandson of Mehmet Ali, founder of the reigning dynasty of Egypt at the time. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Ali Pasha Sherif is known as a renowned breeder of Arabian horses in Egypt during the late 1800s. ... African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly infectious, and deadly disease. ... Wilfrid Scawen Blunt (1840–1922) was a British poet and writer. ... Anne Isabella (Annabella) Noel Blunt, née King-Noel, 15th Baroness Wentworth (22 September 1837-15 December 1917), known for most of her life as Lady Anne Blunt, was co-founder with her husband the poet Wilfrid Scawen Blunt of the Crabbet Arabian Stud. ... The Crabbet Arabian Stud was established on 2 July 1878 when the first Arabian horses brought to England by Wilfrid Scawen Blunt and Lady Anne Blunt arrived at Crabbet Park, their Queen Anne house in Sussex. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... Sheykh Obeyd was a stud farm that raised Arabian horses, located near Cairo, Egypt. ...


Meanwhile, the passion brought by the Blunts to saving the pure horse of the desert helped Egyptian horse breeders convince their government of the need to preserve the best of their own remaining pure Arabian bloodstock that descended from the horses collected over the past century by Muhammad Ali Pasha, Abbas Pasha and Ali Pasha Sherif. Therefore, the government of Egypt formed the Royal Agricultural Society (RAS) in 1908. Today, the RAS is known as the Egyptian Agricultural Organization (EAO).[38] This article is about the viceroy of Egypt. ... Abbas I (Arabic: عباس الأول ) (1913-1854), Pasha of Egypt, was a son of Tusun Pasha and grandson of Mehmet Ali, founder of the reigning dynasty of Egypt at the time. ... Ali Pasha Sherif is known as a renowned breeder of Arabian horses in Egypt during the late 1800s. ...


To rebuild some bloodlines that had been lost, RAS representatives traveled to England during the 1920s and purchased eighteen pure-blooded descendants of the original Blunt exports from Lady Wentworth at Crabbet Park and returned these bloodlines to Egypt.[34] Other than several horses purchased by Henry Babson for importation to the United States in the 1930s, and one other small group exported to the USA in 1947, relatively few Egyptian-bred Arabian horses were exported until the overthrow of King Farouk I in 1952. After that, as oil development brought more foreign investors to Egypt, some of whom were horse fanciers, Arabians were exported to Germany and the United States, as well as to the former Soviet Union, then an ally of Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser. Following the death of Nasser in 1970 and the rise of a less Soviet-oriented government, even more Egyptian-bred Arabians were exported. Today, the designation "Straight Egyptian" or "Egyptian Arabian" is popular with some Arabian breeders, and the distinct "dry" look of the modern Egyptian-bred Arabian is an outcross used to add refinement in some breeding programs. Lady Wentworth and her prized Arabian stallion, Skowronek Judith Anne Dorothea Blunt-Lytton, 16th Baroness Wentworth also known as Lady Wentworth (6 February 1873–8 August 1957) was a British peeress, Arabian horse breeder and tennis player. ... Farouk of Egypt King Farouk of Egypt (February 11, 1920 – March 18, 1965) was the penultimate King of Egypt, succeeding his father, Fuad I, in 1936. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Outcrossing is the practice of introducing unrelated genetic material into a breeding line. ...


20th-century warfare and its impact on European studs

Following the end of World War I and the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, the historic European stud farms that survived the war re-established their breeding operations and added to their studs with new imports of desert-bred Arabian horses from the Middle East. Notable among the survivors was the Janow Podlaski Stud of Poland, the Veragua Stud of Spain, and the Tersk Stud of the then-Soviet Union. “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


The Spanish Civil War and World War II had a devastating impact on horse breeding throughout Europe. The Veragua stud was destroyed, though studs such as Crabbet Park, Tersk, and Janow Podlaski survived. Both the Soviet Union and the United States obtained valuable Arabian bloodlines as spoils of war, which they used to strengthen their breeding programs; the Soviets at Tersk, and the Americans at Kellogg U.S. Army Remount station, the former W.K. Kellogg Ranch in California.[5] Combatants Spanish Republic With the support of: Soviet Union[1] Nationalist Spain With the support of: Italy Germany Commanders Manuel Azaña Francisco Largo Caballero Juan Negrín Francisco Franco Gonzalo Queipo de Llano Emilio Mola José Sanjurjo Casualties 500,000[2] The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Will Keith Kellogg, usually referred to as W. K. Kellogg (April 7, 1860 – October 6, 1951) was a U.S. industrialist in food manufacturing. ...


In the postwar era, nations such as Poland, Spain, The Netherlands, Sweden and Germany developed or re-established many well-respected Arabian stud farms. The studs of Poland in particular were decimated by both the Nazis and the Soviets, but were able to reclaim some of their breeding stock and became particularly world-renowned for their quality Arabian horses, tested rigorously by racing and other performance standards. Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... National Socialism redirects here. ...


After the Cold War

While only a few Arabians were exported from behind the Iron Curtain during the Cold War, those who did come to the west caught the eye of breeders worldwide. Improving relations between eastern Europe and the west led to major imports of Polish and Russian-bred Arabian horses to western Europe and the United States in the 1970s and 1980s. The collapse of the former Soviet Union in 1989, greater political stability in Egypt, and the rise of the European Union all increased international trade in Arabian horses. Organizations such as the World Arabian Horse Association (WAHO) created consistent standards for transferring the registration of Arabian horses between different nations. Today, Arabian horses are traded all over the world.[39] Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


The Arabian horse in America

Coronado Sets out to the North. Frederic Remington, 1861-1909.
Coronado Sets out to the North. Frederic Remington, 1861-1909.

The first horses on the American mainland since the end of the Ice Age arrived with the Spanish Conquistadors. Hernán Cortés brought 16 horses of assorted Andalusian, Barb, and Arabian ancestry with him to Mexico in 1519. Others followed, such as Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, who brought 250 horses of similar breeding to America in 1540. [40] More horses followed with each new arrival of Conquistadors, missionaries, and settlers. Many horses escaped or were stolen, becoming the foundation stock of the American Mustang. Image File history File links Coronado-Remington. ... Image File history File links Coronado-Remington. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Conquistador (Spanish: kōn-kÄ“-stŏ-dōr) (meaning Conqueror in the Spanish language) is the term used to refer to the soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who brought much of the Americas and Asia Pacific under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 17th centuries, starting with the 1492 settlement... Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... Andalusian horse The Andalusian horse or Spanish horse is one of the purest breeds of horses in the world today. ... The word barb can have many meanings: Look up barb in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A missionary is traditionally defined as a propagator of religion who works to convert those outside that community; someone who proselytizes. ... Free-roaming mustangs (Utah, 2005) Mustangs at the Palomino Valley Adoption Center A mustang is a hardy, free-roaming horse of the North American west, descended primarily from horses brought to the Americas by the Spanish conquistadores. ...

Early purebred imports

Washington Taking Control of the American Army, at Cambridge, Mass. July 1775. Copy of lithograph by Currier & Ives, 1876.

American colonists from England also brought horses of Arabian breeding to the eastern seaboard. One example was Nathaniel Harrison, who imported a horse of Arabian, Barb and Turkish ancestry to America in 1747.[40] Image File history File links GeorgeWashington1775. ... Image File history File links GeorgeWashington1775. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area...


George Washington used two horses as his primary mounts during the Revolutionary War. One was a gray half-Arabian horse named "Blueskin." The horse was sired by the stallion "Ranger," also known as "Lindsay's Arabian," said to have been obtained from the Sultan of Morocco.[41][42] Other Presidents are linked to ownership of Arabian horses. In 1840, President Martin Van Buren received two Arabians from the Sultan of Oman,[40] and in 1877, President Ulysses S. Grant obtained two Arabian stallions, Leopard and Linden Tree, as diplomatic gifts from the "Sultan of Turkey."[43] Both of these stallions appear today in the pedigrees of Appaloosa horses.[44] George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen of her North American colonies. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the 8th President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... Ulysses S. Grant[2] (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American general and the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... An Appaloosa horse The Appaloosa is a horse breed with a color preference. ...


A. Keene Richard was the first American known to have specifically bred Arabian horses. He traveled to the desert in 1853 and 1856 to obtain breeding stock, which he used both to cross on thoroughbreds and to breed purebred Arabians. Unfortunately, his horses were lost during the Civil War and have no known purebred Arabian descendants today. [4] The Thoroughbred is a horse breed developed in 18th century England when English mares were bred with imported Arabian stallions to create a distance racer. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


Leopard is the only stallion among the early imports who left known purebred descendants in America. [45] This was because Randolph Huntington imported the desert-bred Arabian mare *Naomi in 1888, and bred her to Leopard, producing Leopard's only purebred Arabian son, Anazeh. Anazeh then sired eight purebred Arabian foals, four of whom still appear in pedigrees today.[45][4] Leopard is also a foundation sire of the Colorado Ranger Horse.[46] The Colorado Ranger Horse Association is one of the oldest horse registries in the United States. ...


Development of purebred Arabian breeding in America

In 1893, the Hamidie Society exhibited 45 Arabian horses at the World Fair in Chicago, some of whom remained in the United States and caught the interest of some American breeders, who traveled abroad to obtain more.[43] As a result, by 1908, the Arabian Horse Registry of America was established, recording 71 animals.[43] By 1994, the number had reached half a million. There are now more Arabians registered in North America than in the rest of the world put together.[47] Worlds Fair is the generic name for various large expositions held since the mid 19th century. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in Chicagoland and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Cook & DuPage Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...


Major Arabian importations to the United States in the 20th century were made by breeders such as Homer Davenport and Peter Hingham of the Hingham Stock Farm, who purchased several stallions and mares directly from the desert Bedouin in 1906.[48] Davenport was not alone; Spencer Borden of the Interlachen Stud, made several importations between 1898 and 1911;[43] and W.R. Brown of the Maynesboro Stud, who had a particular interest in the Arabian as a cavalry mount, imported many Arabians over a period of years, starting in 1918.[49][43] Another wave of imports came in the 1920s and 30s when breeders such as W.K. Kellogg, Henry Babson, Roger Selby, James Draper, and others imported Arabian bloodstock from Crabbet Park Stud in England, as well as from Poland, Spain and Egypt.[43] Several Arabians, mostly of Polish breeding, were captured from Nazi Germany and imported to the U.S.A. following World War II.[4] As the tensions of the Cold War eased, more Arabians were imported to America from Poland and Egypt. In the late 1970s, as political issues surrounding import regulations and the recognition of stud books were resolved, Arabian horses were also imported in greater numbers from Spain and Russia.[27] Homer C. Davenport - 1898 Homer Calvin Davenport (March 8, 1867 – 1912) was a political cartoonist from the United States. ... Will Keith Kellogg, usually referred to as W. K. Kellogg (April 7, 1860 – October 6, 1951) was a U.S. industrialist in food manufacturing. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Modern breeding

By the 1980s, popularity of the Arabian horse had risen to unsustainable heights. Arabians became a popular status symbol for celebrities and other wealthy people, many of whom were inexperienced with horses and considered them "living art." Prices skyrocketed, especially in the United States, with a record-setting public auction price for a mare named NH Love Potion, who sold for $2.55 million in 1984, and the largest syndication in history for an Arabian stallion, *Padron, at $11,000,000.[50] The potential for profit led to over-breeding of the Arabian. When the Tax Reform Act of 1986 closed the tax-sheltering "passive investment" loophole, limiting the use of horse farms as tax shelters,[51][52] the Arabian market was particularly vulnerable due to over-saturation and artificially inflated prices, and thus it collapsed, forcing many breeders into bankruptcy and sending many purebred Arabians to slaughter.[53][51] Prices recovered slowly, with many breeders moving away from producing "living art" and towards a horse more suitable for amateur owners in many different riding disciplines. Today, the vast majority of Arabian horses in America are owned for recreational riding purposes.[54]


The Arabian horse in Australia

Early imports

Arabian horses were introduced to Australia in the earliest days of European Settlement. Early horse imports included both purebred Arabians as well as light Spanish “jennets” from Andalusia. Many Arabians also came from India. Based on records describing stallions "of Arabic and Persian blood," the first Arabian horses were probably imported to Australia in several groups between 1788 and 1802. [5] In 1803, a merchant named Robert Campbell imported an Arabian from India and in 1804 two additional Arabians, also from India, arrived in Tasmania one of whom, White William, sired the first purebred Arabian foal born in Australia, a stallion named Derwent.[5] Motto: Andalucía por sí, para España y la humanidad (Andalusia by herself, for Spain, and for humankind) Capital Seville Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 2nd  87,268 km²  17. ... Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $16,114 (7th)  - Product per capita  $33,243/person (8th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  489,600 (6th)  - Density  7. ...


Purebred Arabians were used to improve racehorses and some of them became quite famous as such. About 100 Arabian sires are included in the Australian Stud Book (for Thoroughbred Racehorses).[citation needed] They were part of the foundation of several breeds considered uniquely Australian, including the Australian Pony, the Waler and the Australian Stock Horse.[55] Thoroughbred race horses The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known as a race horse. ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... The Australian Pony developed, as its namesake suggests, in Australia. ... The Waler is an Australian working horse breed that originated from the horse stock that was bought to the Australian colonies in the 1800s. ... The Australian Stock Horse (or Stockhorse), has been especially bred for Australian climatic conditions. ...


Throughout the 19th century, many more Arabians came to Australia, though most were used to produce crossbred horses and left no recorded purebred descendants. The first significant imports to be permanently recorded with offspring still appearing in modern purebred pedigrees were those of James Boucaut, who in 1888 imported several Arabians from the Blunt's Crabbet Arabian Stud in England.[5] Anne Isabella (Annabella) Noel Blunt, née King-Noel, 15th Baroness Wentworth (22 September 1837-15 December 1917), known for most of her life as Lady Anne Blunt, was co-founder with her husband the poet Wilfrid Scawen Blunt of the Crabbet Arabian Stud. ... The Crabbet Arabian Stud was established on 2 July 1878 when the first Arabian horses brought to England by Wilfrid Scawen Blunt and Lady Anne Blunt arrived at Crabbet Park, their Queen Anne house in Sussex. ...


Australian Arabians in the 20th and 21st centuries

In the early 20th century, more Arabian horses, mostly of Crabbet bloodlines, arrived in Australia. The first Arabians of Polish breeding arrived in 1966, and Egyptian lines were first imported in 1970. Arabian horses from the rest of the world followed, and today the Australian Arabian horse registry is the second largest in the world, next to that of the United States.[5][56]


Arabians today

Arabian horses today are found all over the world. They are no longer classified by Bedouin strain, but are informally classified by the nation of origin of famed horses in a given pedigree. Popular types of Arabians are labeled "Polish," "Spanish," "Crabbet," "Russian," "Egyptian", and "Domestic" (describing horses whose ancestors were imported to the United States prior to 1944, including those from programs such as Kellogg, Davenport, Maynesboro, Babson, Dickenson and Selby). In the USA, a specific mixture of Crabbet, Maynesboro and Kellogg bloodlines has acquired the copyrighted designation "CMK."


Each set of bloodlines has its own devoted followers, with the virtues of each hotly debated. Most debates are between those who value the Arabian most for its refined beauty and those who value the horse for its stamina and athleticism. There are also various controversies over the relative "purity" of certain bloodlines. (See "Controversies" section, below)


Uses

A purebred Arabian in jumping competition.

Arabians are versatile horses that compete in many equestrian fields, including Horse racing, the horse show disciplines of Saddle Seat, Western Pleasure, and Hunt seat, as well as Dressage, Cutting, Reining, Endurance riding, Show jumping, Eventing, youth events such as equitation, and others. They make reliable pleasure, trail, and working ranch horses for those who are not interested in competition. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (690x976, 163 KB) Summary This is a purebred Arabian horse in show jumping competition Fair use for Arabian horse the photo is only being used for informational/educational purposes. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (690x976, 163 KB) Summary This is a purebred Arabian horse in show jumping competition Fair use for Arabian horse the photo is only being used for informational/educational purposes. ... A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... A horse show is a judged exhibition of horses and ponies. ... Saddle seat is a form of riding that is found in the United States, and to a lesser extent in Canada, Europe, Africa and Australia. ... Western Pleasure is an equestrian show event that tests a the suitability of the horse for appropriate gait cadence and speed, along with suitable disposition traits. ... Hunt seat is terminology used in the United States and Canada to refers to a style of forward seat riding commonly found at American horse shows. ... An upper-level dressage competitor performing an extended trot Dressage (a French term meaning training) is a path and destination of competitive horse training, with competitions held at all levels from amateur to the Olympics. ... Cutting is the separation of a physical object, or a portion of a physical object, into two portions, through the application of an acutely directed force. ... Reining is a Western horseback riding competition. ... Endurance riding is an extremely strenuous form of horse racing, requiring the horse to complete, at the top levels, up to 100 miles. ... Show jumping is a form of competition in which horses are jumped over a course of fences, low walls, and other obstacles (e. ... Eventing is an equestrian event which comprises dressage, cross-country and show-jumping. ... A riders equitation is her/his ability to ride correctly with a strong, supple position and effective aids. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ranching. ...


Competition

See also: Arabian Horse Association and Endurance riding

Arabians dominate the sport of Endurance riding because of their stamina, where they are the leading breed in competitions such as the Tevis Cup that can cover up to 100 miles in a day. They also participate in FEI-sanctioned endurance events worldwide, including the World Equestrian Games. The Arabian Horse Association (AHA) is the single national organization that registers Arabian horses in the United States. ... Endurance riding is an extremely strenuous form of horse racing, requiring the horse to complete, at the top levels, up to 100 miles. ... Endurance riding is an extremely strenuous form of horse racing, requiring the horse to complete, at the top levels, up to 100 miles. ... Rider goes over Cougar Rock on the Tevis Trail The Western States Trail Ride, popularly called The Tevis Cup is a 100 mile endurance horse race. ... The Fédération Equestre Internationale (commonly known as the FEI, or informally in English as the International Equestrian Federation) is the international governing body of equestrian (horse) sports. ... The World Equestrian Games are the world championship for Equestrianism, administrered by the Fédération Equestre Internationale. ...


"Sport Horse" events for Arabian horses are newly popular in the USA, though Arabians have participated in this type of competition for a long time in Europe and Australia. The Arabian Horse Association began hosting an Arabian and Half Arabian Sport Horse National Championship in 2003 that within two years grew to draw over 1900 entries competing in Hunter, Jumper, Sport Horse Under Saddle, Sport Horse In Hand, Dressage, and Driving competition. The Arabian Horse Association (AHA) is the single national organization that registers Arabian horses in the United States. ... The show hunter is a type of show horse that is judged on its movement, manners, and way of going. ... Show jumping is a form of competition in which horses are jumped over a course of fences, low walls, and other obstacles (e. ... An upper-level dressage competitor performing an extended trot Dressage (a French term meaning training) is a path and destination of competitive horse training, with competitions held at all levels from amateur to the Olympics. ... Combined driving also known as Horse Driving Trials is an equestrian sport involving carriage driving. ...


Arabians have an extensive series of horse shows around the United States for Arabians, Half-Arabians, and Anglo-Arabian Horses only. Wins in regular shows sanctioned by the USEF and Arabian Horse Association qualify exhibitors to go to larger regional shows and ultimately to National competitions such as the U.S. Nationals, Youth Nationals, Sport Horse Nationals and Canadian Nationals. Major events include Western pleasure, reining, both hunt seat and saddle seat English pleasure classes, and the very popular "Native" costume class.[57] A horse show is a judged exhibition of horses and ponies. ... The Anglo-Arabian horse is just what its name implies: a Thoroughbred (prefix Anglo) crossed with an Arabian horse. ... The United States Equestrian Federation (USEF) is the national governing body for most equestrian sports in the United States, including dressage, driving, endurance riding, eventing, hunt seat equitation, hunter, jumper, paralympic, reining, roadster, saddleseat equitation, vaulting, and western riding. ... The Arabian Horse Association (AHA) is the single national organization that registers Arabian horses in the United States. ... Western Pleasure is an equestrian show event that tests a the suitability of the horse for appropriate gait cadence and speed, along with suitable disposition traits. ... Reining is a Western horseback riding competition. ... Hunt seat is terminology used in the United States and Canada to refers to a style of forward seat riding commonly found at American horse shows. ... Saddle seat is a form of riding that is found in the United States, and to a lesser extent in Canada, Europe, Africa and Australia. ... English pleasure is a class seen at horse shows, ridden in either hunt seat or, more often seen in the United States, saddle seat tack. ...


Arabians have excelled in open events against other breeds. The most famous example was the Arabian mare Ronteza, who defeated 50 horses of all breeds to win the 1961 Reined Cow Horse championship at the Cow Palace in San Francisco, CA.[58] The Arabian stallion Aaraf won an all-breed cutting horse competition at the Quarter Horse Congress in the 1950s.[59] At the 1936 Olympics, the French, with two Anglo-Arabians on their team, won the Silver team medal in Dressage. The 14.2hand gelding Russian Roulett is currently noted for winning amateur jumping classes against horses of all breeds on the Southern California open jumping circuit.[60] Cutting is an equestrian event in the western riding style where a horse and rider are judged on their ability to separate a calf away from a cattle herd and keep it away for a short period of time. ... The Equestrian Events at the 1936 Berlin Summer Olympics included Dressage, Eventing, and Show Jumping. ... A hand is a unit of length measurement, usually based on the breadth of a male human hand and thus around 1 dm. ...


Other activities

Arabians are involved in a wide variety of activities, including fairs, movies, parades, circuses and other places where horses are showcased.

Rudolph Valentino and Jadaan. Publicity shot for The Son of the Sheik

Arabians have been popular in movies, dating back to the silent film era when Rudolph Valentino rode the Kellogg Arabian stallion Jadaan in 1926's Son of the Sheik.[61] Other Arabian horse film stars include the stallions Cass Ole in The Black Stallion and El Mokhtar in The Black Stallion Returns. Arabian horses also appeared in Lawrence of Arabia, The 13th Warrior, Hidalgo, and other films. Image File history File links ValentinoandJadaan. ... Image File history File links ValentinoandJadaan. ... Rudolph Valentino (May 6, 1895 – August 23, 1926) was an Italian actor. ... Cass Ole and co-star Kelly Reno Cass Ole (March 6, 1969 - June 29, 1993) was an Arabian horse best known for his role as The Black in The Black Stallion and The Black Stallion Returns. ... The Black Stallion is a 1979 film adapted by Melissa Mathison, Jeanne Rosenberg and William D. Wittliff from the 1941 classic childrens novel by Walter Farley. ... El Mokhtar (foaled on February 9, 1971, died December 31, 1983) was an Arabian horse, and one of three black Arabian stallions used to portray The Black in the second Black Stallion film, The Black Stallion Returns. ... The Black Stallion Returns is a 1983 movie adaptation of the book of the same name by Walter Farley, and is a sequal to The Black Stallion. ... Lawrence of Arabia is an award-winning 1962 film based on the life of T. E. Lawrence. ... The 13th Warrior DVD cover The 13th Warrior is a 1999 action film based on Michael Crichtons novel Eaters of the Dead, directed by John McTiernan and an uncredited Crichton, and starring Antonio Banderas as Ahmad ibn Fadlan and Vladimir Kulich as Buliwyf (Beowulf). ... Hidalgo is a 2004 film based on the life and tales of former horse rider Frank Hopkins and his endurance horse Hidalgo, a mustang. ...


Arabians are mascots for football teams, performing crowd-pleasing activities on the field and sidelines. Traveler, the mascot for the University of Southern California Trojans, is currently a purebred Arabian. "Thunder", a stage name for the purebred Arabian stallion J B Kobask, was mascot for the Denver Broncos from 1993 until his retirement in 2004, when the Arabian gelding Winter Solstyce took over as "Thunder II".[62] Cal Poly Pomona's W.K. Kellogg Arabian Horse Center Equestrian Unit and many other Arabian organizations have made Arabian horses a regular sight at the annual Tournament of Roses Parade held each New Year's day in Pasadena, California. The University of Southern California (commonly referred to as USC, SC, Southern California, and incorrectly as Southern Cal),[4] located in the University Park neighborhood in Los Angeles, California, USA, was founded in 1880, making it Californias oldest private research university. ... Head Coach Pete Carroll 6th Year, 65-12 Home Stadium Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum Capacity 92,500 - Grass Conference Pac-10 First Year 1888 Athletic Director Mike Garrett Website USCTrojans. ... Bold textA stage name, or a screen name, is a pseudonym used by performers and entertainers (such as actors, comedians, musicians, clowns, and professional wrestlers. ... City Denver, Colorado Other nicknames Orange Crush Team colors Orange, Broncos Navy Blue, and White[1] Head Coach Mike Shanahan Owner Pat Bowlen General manager Ted Sundquist Mascot Miles League/Conference affiliations American Football League (1960-1969) Western Division (1960-1969) National Football League (1970–present) American Football Conference (1970... Cal Poly may mean: California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo (Cal Poly SLO _ The Original Campus) California State Polytechnic University, Pomona (Cal Poly Pomona or CSU Pomona _ The Former Satellite Campus) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... A float from the 2004 Rose Parade A close up of roses used to create a rose bowl parade float. ...


Arabians also are used on search and rescue teams and occasionally for police work. Some Arabians are also used in polo in the USA and Europe, in the Turkish equestrian sport of Cirit (pronounced Jee-rit), as well as circuses, therapeutic horseback riding programs, and on dude ranches. Search and Rescue (acronym SAR) is an operation mounted by emergency services, often well-trained volunteers, to find someone believed to be in distress, lost, sick or injured either in a remote or difficult to access area, such as mountains, desert or forest (Wilderness search and rescue), or at sea... A game of polo. ... The Big Top of Billy Smarts Circus Cambridge 2004. ... Therapeutic horseback riding, also known as equine-assisted activity, is for individuals with a range of physical, emotional, cognitive, and social special needs. ... Dude Ranch is a Blink-182 album that was released on June 17, 1997 by Cargo Music/MCA. This was Blink-182s second album, containing songs such as Dammit and Josie that helped the group gain popularity. ...


Controversies

Misunderstandings and myths plague the Arabian breed. Through, as noted above, purebred Arabians are competitive against other breeds, Arabians are relatively uncommon at some high-level all-breed competitions. There are many reasons, some justifiable, others due to misunderstandings and inaccurate information.


"Hot blooded" controversy

Firm but gentle and patient handling is especially important for hot-blooded horses such as the Arabian.
Firm but gentle and patient handling is especially important for hot-blooded horses such as the Arabian.

Some people believe that it is more difficult to train a hot-blooded horse. It is true that rough training methods are unsuitable for hot-blooded breeds. Most Arabians have a natural tendency to cooperate with humans, but when treated badly can become excessively nervous or anxious, though seldom become vicious unless seriously spoiled or subjected to extreme abuse. With proper handling, Arabians are suitable riding horses for riders at all levels. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x784, 145 KB) Etalon pur sang arabe pendant un représentation File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Arabian horse ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x784, 145 KB) Etalon pur sang arabe pendant un représentation File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Arabian horse ...


"Weakness" controversies

Some people confuse the refinement of Arabians with having weak or too-light bone.[63] However, the USEF breed standard requires Arabians have solid bone and correct conformation,[64] and the superiority of the breed in endurance competition clearly demonstrates that well-bred Arabians are strong, sound horses with good bone and superior stamina. At international levels of FEI-sponsored endurance events, Arabians and half-Arabians are the dominant performers in distance competition worldwide. Endurance riding is an extremely strenuous form of horse racing, requiring the horse to complete, at the top levels, up to 100 miles. ... The Fédération Equestre Internationale (commonly known as the FEI, or informally in English as the International Equestrian Federation) is the international governing body of equestrian (horse) sports. ...


Physical size

Another myth is that Arabians are not strong because of their size. However, the smaller size of the Arabian is not a physical liability. The Arabian horse is noted for dense, strong bone, short cannons, sound feet, and a broad, short back; all of which give the breed physical strength comparable to many taller animals. Clearly, for tasks where the sheer weight of the horse matters, such as farm work done by a draft horse, or team roping, any lighter-weight horse is at a disadvantage, but for most purposes, the Arabian is a strong and hardy breed of light horse able to carry any type of rider in most equestrian pursuits. The anatomy of the horse comes with a large number of horse specific terms. ... Two pairs of Shire horses and a pair of Suffolk Punches A draft horse, draught horse, or harness horse is a large, strong horse bred for heavy work rather than speed. ... Team roping also known as heading and heeling is a rodeo event that features a steer (typically a Corriente) and two mounted cowboys. ... A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ...


Hip angle

Another misconception confuses the skeletal structure of the spine with the angle of the hip, implying that the comparatively horizontal croup and high-carried tail of Arabians make it difficult for them to use their hindquarters properly. However, the correlation of spine and hip is in length, not angle. All horses need a good length of croup and good length of hip, and the two go together as a rule. The hip angle, on the other hand, is not necessarily correlated to the line of the croup. (If it were, then a goose rump would not be considered a conformation flaw). The croup is formed by the sacral vertebrae. The hip angle is determined by the attachment of the illium to the spine, the structure and length of the femur, the relationship to the cannon bone, and other aspects of hindquarter anatomy. A good-quality Arabian has both a relatively horizontal croup and a properly angled pelvis with good length of croup and depth of hip to allow impulsion. The anatomy of the horse comes with a large number of horse specific terms. ... See Equine conformation ... For the record label, see Sacrum Torch The sacrum is a large, triangular bone at the base of the spine and at the upper and back part of the pelvic cavity, where it is inserted like a wedge between the two hip bones. ... The ilium of the pelvis is divisible into two parts, the body and the ala; the separation is indicated on the internal surface by a curved line, the arcuate line, and on the external surface by the margin of the acetabulum. ... The femur or thigh bone is the longest, most voluminous, and strongest bone of the mammalian bodies. ... The equine forelimb is the front, or thoracic limb of the horse. ... The pelvis (pl. ...

see also Horse conformation

See Equine conformation ...

"Arabians are magic" beliefs

Arabians are sometimes plagued by excessively romantic myths that give them near-human intelligence, mystical or psychic powers, telepathy, and other miraculous abilities. Though well-intentioned, such myths sometimes lead people who know little about horses to purchase an Arabian and expect them not to act like ordinary horses. However, like any horse, Arabians have natural horse behaviors and instincts, so people must never forget the basic rules of horse safety when handling them. Horse behavior is best understood from the perspective that horses are prey animals with a well-developed Fight-or-flight instinct. ... The suckling of a newborn at its mothers nipple is an example of an instinctive behavior. ...


Ancestry in other breeds

There is intense debate over the role the Arabian played in the development of other light horse breeds. While the complete tale will not be verified until the horse genome is mapped, it is thought that all modern domesticated horse breeds descended from one of four Wild prototypes, one of which was the light, "dry," oriental horse adapted to the desert climate, the prototype of the modern Arabian. Because of the location of the Middle East as a crossroads of the ancient world, as well as one of the earliest locations of domestication of the horse, oriental horses spread throughout Europe and Asia both in ancient and modern times. In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... There are a number of theories regarding the domestication of the horse. ...


Thus, there is little doubt that "oriental" blood was crossed on that of other wild prototypes to create light riding horses; the only actual controversy is at what point the "oriental" prototype could be called an "Arabian," how much Arabian blood was mixed with local animals, and at what point in history. For some breeds, such as the Thoroughbred, Arabian influence of specific animals is documented in written stud books. For older breeds, dating the influx of Arabian ancestry is more difficult. Thoroughbred race horses The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known as a race horse. ...


For example, Mitochondrial DNA studies of the modern Andalusian horse of the Iberian peninsula and Barb horse of North Africa, present convincing evidence that both breeds crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and influenced one another. [65] While outside cultures, and the horses they brought with them, influenced the predecessor to the Iberian horse in both the time of Ancient Rome and again with the Islamic invasions of the 8th century, it is difficult to precisely trace the details of the journeys taken by waves of conquerors and their horses as they traveled from the Middle East to North Africa and across Gibraltar to southern Europe. Though the studies did not compare Andalusian and Barb mDNA to that of Arabian horses, there is evidence that horses resembling Arabians, whether before or after the breed was called an "Arabian," were part of this genetic mix. Arabians and Barbs, though related to one another, are quite different in appearance, particularly in tail carriage,[34] and the historical record illustrates horses of Arabian, not Barb type, fighting against the armies of Europe. There is also historical documentation that Islamic invaders raised Arabian horses in Spain prior to the Reconquista.[66] // Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA that is located in mitochondria. ... Andalusian horse The Andalusian horse or Spanish horse is one of the purest breeds of horses in the world today. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... The word barb can have many meanings: Look up barb in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided politically from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space. ... The Iberian horse is native to the Iberian peninsula. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Conquista redirects here. ...


"Purity" question

One set of hot debates within the Arabian industry are about bloodlines. In particular, breeders argue about the genetic "purity" of various pedigrees, discussing whether some horses descend from "impure" animals that cannot be traced to the desert Bedouin. The major factions are as follows:

  • The Arabian Horse Association (AHA) states, "The origin of the purebred Arabian horse was the Arabian desert, and all Arabians ultimately trace their lineage to this source." In essence, all horses accepted for registration in the United States are deemed to be "purebred" Arabians by AHA.[67]
  • The World Arabian Horse Association (WAHO) has the broadest definition of a purebred Arabian. WAHO states, "A Purebred Arabian horse is one which appears in any purebred Arabian Stud Book or Register listed by WAHO as acceptable." By this definition, over 95% of the known purebred Arabian horses in the world are registered in stud books acceptable to WAHO.[68] WAHO also researched the purity question in general, and its findings are on its web site, describing both the research and the political issues surrounding Arabian horse bloodlines, particularly in America.[27]
  • At the other end of the spectrum, the Al Khamsa organization takes the position that "The horses of primary interest to Al Khamsa, which are called “Al Khamsa Arabian Horses,” are those horses in North America that can reasonably be assumed to descend entirely from bedouin Arabian horses bred by horse-breeding bedouin tribes of the deserts of the Arabian Peninsula without admixture from sources unacceptable to Al Khamsa."[69] By this rigorous definition, only about 2% of all registered Arabian horses qualify as "Al Khamsa Arabian Horses."
  • "Blue Star" designation is the most rigid, accepting only horses who qualify as Al Khamsa, but also as having no lines to the "Mu'niqi" strain, which some claim was "contaminated" by crossbreeding with Turkoman Horses about 300 years ago. Horses who otherwise meet this standard except for Mu'niqi blood are sometimes referred to as "Blue List."[70][71]
  • There are also a number of breeders who specialize in preservation breeding of various bloodlines. However, these breeders generally do not assert that their horses are the only "pure" Arabians.
  • Ironically, some pure-blooded desert-bred Arabians in the Middle East today cannot be registered because the Bedouin who own them see no need to obtain a piece of paper to verify the purity of their horses.[72]

Al Khamsa is an Arabic term that is applied to specific Bedouin bloodlines of the Arabian horse. ... Al Khamsa is an Arabic term that is applied to specific Bedouin bloodlines of the Arabian horse. ... The Turkoman horse, or Turkmene, was an ancient breed from Turkmenistan, now extinct. ... Preservation breeding is an attempt by many animal breeders to preserve bloodlines of animals, either of a rare breed, or of rare pedigrees within a breed. ...

Genetic diseases

There are four known genetic conditions in Arabian horses which usually result in euthansia of the affected animal. All four are thought to be autosomal recessive conditions, which means that the flawed gene is not sex-linked and has to come from both parents for an affected foal to be born. A fifth genetic condition is not usually fatal, but can be disabling if not treated. An autosome is a non-sex chromosome. ... In genetics, the term recessive gene refers to an allele that causes a phenotype (visible or detectable characteristic) that is only seen in a homozygous genotype (an organism that has two copies of the same allele). ...


Arabians are not the only breed of horse to have problems with inherited diseases; fatal or disabling genetic conditions also exist in the American Quarter Horse, American Paint Horse, American Saddlebred, Miniature horse, and Belgian. Lethal white syndrome and dominant white can affect several breeds (though not purebred Arabians). A palomino Quarter Horse shown in-hand. ... It has been suggested that Breeding Stock Paint be merged into this article or section. ... The American Saddlebred, formerly known as the American Saddle Horse, is a breed of horse that was developed in Kentucky by plantation owners. ... AMHA Registered Pinto Miniature Mare. ... Lethal white syndrome (LWS) is a common genetic disorder primarily associated with American Paint Horses. ... A truly white horse has pink skin under their white hair coat True white horses, especially those that carry the White or W gene, are rare. ...

The "genetic lethal" conditions (so called, though two of the four are not invariably lethal) in Arabian horses are:
  • Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID). Similar to the "bubble boy" condition in humans, an affected foal is born with no immune system, and thus generally dies of an opportunistic infection, usually before the age of five months. There is a DNA test that can detect healthy horses who are carriers of the gene causing SCID, thus testing and careful, planned matings can now eliminate the possibility of an affected foal ever being born.[73][74] [75]
  • Cerebellar abiotrophy (CA). An affected foal is usually born without symptoms, but at some point, usually after six weeks of age, develops severe incoordination, a head tremor, wide-legged stance and other symptoms related to the death of the purkinje cells in the cerebellum. Such foals are frequently diagnosed only after they have crashed into a fence or fallen over backwards, and sometimes their symptoms are misdiagnosed as a head injury caused by the accident. The only way to confirm a diagnosis of CA is to examine the brain after euthanasia. The degree of severity varies, with some foals having fast onset of severe coordination problems, others showing milder symptoms. In theory, mildly affected horses could live a full lifespan, but in practice most are euthanized before adulthood because they are so accident-prone as to be a danger to themselves and others. There is currently no genetic test for CA.[76]
  • Lavender Foal Syndrome (LFS), also called Coat Color Dilution Lethal (CCDL). The condition gets it name because most affected foals are born with a coat color dilution that lightens the tips of the coat hairs, or even the entire hair shaft. Foals with LFS are unable to stand at birth, often have seizures, and are usually euthanized within a few days of birth. There is currently no genetic test for LFS.[77][78]
  • Occipital Atlanto-Axial Malformation (OAAM). This is a condition where the cervical vertebrae fuse together in the neck and at the base of the skull. Symptoms range from mild incoordination to the paralysis of both front and rear legs. Some affected foals cannot stand to nurse, in others the symptoms may not be seen for several weeks. This is the only cervical spinal cord disease seen in horses less than 1 month of age, and a radiograph can diagnose the condition. There is no genetic test for OAAM, and the hereditary component of this condition is not well researched at present.[79]
  • Equine juvenile epilepsy, sometimes referred to as "benign" epilepsy or "idiopathic" epilepsy, is not usually fatal. Foals are born normal and appear normal between epileptic seizures, usually outgrowing the condition between 12 and 18 months. [78] Affected foals may show signs of epilepsy anywhere from two days to six months from birth.[80] Symptoms of the condition can be treated with traditional anti-seizure medications, which may reduce the severity of symptoms.[81] Though the condition has been studied since 1985 at the University of California, Davis, the genetic mode of inheritance is unclear, though the cases studied were all of one general bloodline group. [80] Some researchers have suggested that epilepsy may be linked in some fashion to Lavender Foal Syndrome due to the fact that it occurs in similar bloodlines and some horses have produced foals with both conditions.[78]

The organization F.O.A.L. (Fight Off Arabian Lethals) is a clearinghouse for information on these conditions.[82] Severe Combined Immunodeficiency, or SCID, is a genetic disorder in which both arms (B cells and T cells) of the adaptive immune system are crippled, due to a defect in one of several possible genes. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... A foal is a young horse of either gender; a female foal is called a filly, while a male foal is called a colt. ... Cerebellar abiotrophy or CA is a genetic neurological disease best known to affect certain breeds of horses and dogs. ... Drawing of pigeon Purkinje cells (A) by Santiago Ramon y Cajal Purkinje cells are a class of GABAergic neuron located in the cerebellar cortex. ... The cerebellum (Latin: little brain) is a region of the brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor output. ... Euthanasia (from Greek: ευθανασία -ευ, eu, good, θάνατος, thanatos, death) is the practice of terminating the life of a person or animal in a presumably painless or minimally painful way, usually by lethal injection. ... This article is about the medical term, epileptic seizure, as distinct from psychogenic non-epileptic seizure. ... The University of California, Davis, commonly known as UC Davis, is one of the ten campuses of the University of California, and was established as the University Farm in 1905. ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b c "Origin of the Arabian Horse", accessed November 17, 2006
  2. ^ Schlofler, Patti. "Daughters of the Desert," Equestrian, November 2004.
  3. ^ "The Versatile Arabian"
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Edwards, Gladys Brown. The Arabian: War Horse to Show Horse. Arabian Horse Association of Southern California, Rich Publishing, Revised Collector's edition (1973).
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Amirsadeghi, Hossein (editor) and Peter Upton, Rik van Lent, photographer. Arabians. First Chronicle Books, 1998, 2006. ISBN 0811854019
  6. ^ United States Equestrian Federation Rule Book, Rule XVI, Article 1602
  7. ^ "The Arabian Horse Today"
  8. ^ Arabian Horse Association FAQ
  9. ^ "Sabino 1", accessed March 31, 2007
  10. ^ a b Sabino Arabian Horse Registry; "Rules and Regulations," accessed April 1, 2007
  11. ^ "Why Color Your Horse?"
  12. ^ "Horse tests--Coat Color University of California, Davis
  13. ^ http://www.esplendour.com/sabino.html
  14. ^ A maximum sabino Arabian
  15. ^ "The Five Favourite horses of the Prophet Mohammed (PBUH)"
  16. ^ Chamberlin, J. Edward. Horse: How the Horse Has Shaped Civilizations. Bluebridge, 2006, p. 166-167 ISBN 0-9742405-9-1
  17. ^ "The Legend of the Kuhaylan Strain," originally published in "The Kuhaylat," Volume 1, 1990
  18. ^ "The Arabian Horse and the Nabataeans," attributing source to an Ancient Bedouin Legend citing Byford, et al. Origination of the Arabian Breed
  19. ^ "Preserving the Arabian Horse in its Ancestral Land" Saudi Arabia Magazine Spring, 1997
  20. ^ a b c Bennett, Deb. Conquerors: The Roots of New World Horsemanship. Amigo Publications Inc; 1st edition 1998. ISBN 0-9658533-0-6
  21. ^ "Arabian" Web Page, accessed May 15, 2006.
  22. ^ a b "Domestication"
  23. ^ Lumpkin, Susan "Camels: Of Service and Survival"Zoogoer September/October 1999.
  24. ^ Bennett, Deb. "The Spanish Mustang: The Origin and Relationships of the Mustang, Barb, and Arabian Horse"
  25. ^ a b Lewis, Barbara S. "Egyptian Arabians: The Mystique Unfolded" The Pyramid Society, web page, accessed May 10, 2006
  26. ^ Arabian Horse Association. "Horse of the Desert Bedouin". Retrieved April 25, 2006.
  27. ^ a b c "Is Purity the Issue?" Section: 'General Introduction,' WAHO Publication Number 21, January 1998
  28. ^ Bowling, A. T., A. Del Valle, M. Bowling. "A pedigree-based study of mitochondrial d-loop DNA sequence variation among Arabian horses." Animal Genetics, Volume 31 Issue 1, January 2000, p. 1
  29. ^ British Percheron Horse Society
  30. ^ a b Harrigan, Peter. "The Polish Quest For Arabian Horses" Saudi Aramco World November/December 2001
  31. ^ a b "History of the Russian Arabian", accessed May 9, 2006
  32. ^ Odrowaz-Sypniewska, Margaret. "Polish Arabian Horses," accessed January 6, 2007
  33. ^ "Marbach"
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h Wentworth, Judith Anne Dorothea Blunt-Lytton. The Authentic Arabian Horse, 3rd ed. George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1979.
  35. ^ "Crabbet Arabians"
  36. ^ Archer, Rosemary, Colin Pearson and Cecil Covey. The Crabbet Arabian Stud: Its History and Influence. Crabbet Organisation, 1978. ISBN 0-906382-13-0
  37. ^ "Straight Down the Line", Al-Ahram Weekly Online, 18 - 24 November 2004, Issue No. 717. Web site accessed January 20, 2007
  38. ^ "Egyptian Arabians"
  39. ^ World Arabian Horse Organization
  40. ^ a b c Green, Betty Patchin and Susann Heidrich. "The Arabian Horse in America" Saudi Aramco World, March/April 1986.
  41. ^ "Washington's Best Saddle Horse", originally published in Western Horseman, Jan/Feb 1946
  42. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions," The Papers of George Washington, accessed November 21, 2006
  43. ^ a b c d e f "Introduction of Arabian Horses to North America"
  44. ^ "History of the Spotted Horse." --Contains a discussion of Arabian influences on the Appaloosa.
  45. ^ a b Bell, Becky. "Arabian horses in America: *Leopard." Arabian Horse History, accessed May 15, 2006
  46. ^ [http://www.coloradoranger.com/History.html Colorado Ranger Horse Association
  47. ^ "Arabian horse registry statistics." --Arabian horse registry statistics
  48. ^ Davenport, Homer. My Quest of the Arab Horse. Republished by The Arabian Horse Club of America, 1949 ASIN: B0007EYORE
  49. ^ Brown, William Robinson. The Horse of the DesertMacMillian Publishing, 1948 ASIN: B000HVVXVC
  50. ^ Midwest Arabian Center News
  51. ^ a b Frequently Asked Questions on Horse Slaughter, accessed November 24, 2006
  52. ^ Johnson, Calvin H. "What's a Tax Shelter?" 68 Tax Notes 879, 1995
  53. ^ Radio program: "Reaganomics on the Hoof: The Arabian Horse Industry in the 1980s." May 9, 2002
  54. ^ AHA Arabian horse owner's survey results, 2003. Originally published in Arabian Horse, October/November 2003
  55. ^ "A Condensed History," Coralie Gordon, April, 2006
  56. ^ The Arabian Horse Society of Australia
  57. ^ Arabian Horse Association
  58. ^ Varian, Sheila (2006). Ronteza at the Cow Palace. Retrieved April 25, 2006.
  59. ^ "America's First Lady of Arabs: Bazy Tankersley and the Horses of Al-Marah." Women and Horses, volume 1, issue 3, September 2005. pp. 21-25
  60. ^ Strides and Tides Horse Show results, 2006 [1]
  61. ^ Roeder, Walter H. "Jadaan, The Sheik, and the Cereal Baron" Originally published in The Cal Poly Scholar, vol.1, (fall 1988) p.99-103
  62. ^ Train, Amy (December 2006). "Thundering Down the Field". Arabian Horse Magazine 28 (6): 94–101. ISSN 1543-8597. 
  63. ^ Equine conformation#The Horse's Overall Balance and Bone
  64. ^ Arabian Breed standard, Rule XIV, Article 1602
  65. ^ L. J. Royo, et. al. "The Origins of Iberian Horses Assessed via Mitochondrial DNA" Journal of Heredity 2005 96(6):663-669; doi:10.1093/jhered/esi116
  66. ^ "Spain." (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 8, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  67. ^ Arabian Horse Bloodlines
  68. ^ "Arabian Horse definition 1999"
  69. ^ Al Khamsa Bylaws
  70. ^ Arabian Preservation Breeding. September, 2003
  71. ^ "Why Pick on the Mu'niqi Strain?"
  72. ^ Jens Sannek, Bernd Loewenherz. "In Search of Syria´s Arabian Horses." Desert Legacy. Zenurt, 1997
  73. ^ "SCID in Arabian Horses"
  74. ^ Parkinson, Mary Jane. "SCID: An Update." from Arabian Horse World, March, 1998
  75. ^ "The New DNA Test for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) in Arabian Horses"
  76. ^ "Cerebellar Abiotrophy"
  77. ^ "Lavender Foal Syndrome Fact Sheet." James A Baker Institute for Animal Health, Cornell University.
  78. ^ a b c Fanelli, H.H. "Coat Color Dilution Lethal ("lavender foal syndrome"): A Tetany Condition of Arabian Foals" Equine Veterinary Education, 2005 17 (5) 260-263.
  79. ^ Watson AG, Mayhew IG. "Familial congenital occipitoatlantoaxial malformation (OAAM) in the Arabian horse." Spine 1986 May;11(4):334-9
  80. ^ a b "Good news about recovery from foal epilepsy." Equus, Issue no 335, April 2007, reporting on Research of Monica Aleman, DVM, citing "Juvenile idiopathic epilepsy in Egyptian Arabian foals: 22 cases (1988-2005," Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, November/December 2006
  81. ^ "Lavender Foal Syndrome". Texas Vet News November 23, 2005, web site accessed November 24, 2006
  82. ^ F.O.A.L. Organization home page

A horses conformation is the horses body proportions in relation to each other. ...

Additional resources

  • Archer, Rosemary, Colin Pearson and Cecil Covey. The Crabbet Arabian Stud: Its History and Influence. Crabbet Organisation, 1978. ISBN 0-906382-13-0
  • Budiansky, Stephen. The Nature of Horses. Free Press, 1997. ISBN 0-684-82768-9
  • Edwards, Gladys Brown. The Arabian: War Horse to Show Horse. Arabian Horse Trust of America; 3rd rev. edition, 1980. ISBN 0-938276-00-X

External links

Registries and related organizations

  • Arabian Horse Association (USA)
  • Arabian Horse Society of Australia
  • Weatherbys (UK) Maintainer of the General Stud Book
  • World Arabian Horse Organisation

Educational organizations and articles

  • Al Khamsa Organization
  • Arabian Lines - International online magazine
  • CMK Arabians - historical articles
  • Frequently asked questions about Arabian horses
  • "History of the Australian Colonial Arabian"
  • "History of the Egyptian Arabian," The Pyramid Society
  • "Horse of the Desert Bedouin"
  • Korona Polish Arabian Breeders society
  • Spanish Arabian Horse Society
  • W.K.Kellogg Arabian Horse Library

  Results from FactBites:
 
Arabian Horse America - Shows/Programs (3533 words)
Arabian horse shows are most often member shows of the AHSA and are rated by them as "A", "B" or "C" shows based on prize monies offered.
All Arabian horses participating in the Arabian division of AHSA-approved shows must be registered with the Arabian Horse Registry of America, The Canadian Arabian Horse Registry or, if under a year old, must be eligible for registration and registration applied for.
Arabian only shows are managed at the local level by one of 270+ independent local Arabian horse clubs around the country.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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