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Encyclopedia > Arabia Felix

The Republic of Yemen is a country in the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, and is a part of the Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Red Sea, between Oman and Saudi Arabia.



الجمهوريّة اليمنية
Al-Jumhuriyah al-Yamaniyah
Image:Yemencoa.jpg
(In Detail) (In Detail)
National motto: none
image:LocationYemen.png
Official language Arabic
Capital Sana'a
President Ali Abdullah Saleh
Prime Minister Abdul Qadir Bajamal
Area
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 48th
527,970 km▓
Negligible
Population
 - Total (2003)
 - Density
Ranked 53rd
19,349,881
37/km▓
Unification May 22, 1990
Currency Yemeni rial (YER)
Time zone UTC +3
National anthem United Republic
Internet TLD .ye
Calling Code 967


Contents

History

Main article: History of Yemen


Yemen’s history extends back 3,500 years, its pre-Islamic ancient culture still in evidence today - especially in its unique architecture (the old part of the capital Sana'a has been declared Universal Cultural Patrimony by UNESCO). In 1000 BC territories that today form part of the Yemen Arab Republic were dominated by three successive civilisations – Minean, Sabaean and Himyarite. Yemen’s relatively fertile land and adequate rainfall could sustain stable populations, and led the ancient Greek geographer Ptolemy to describe Yemen as Eudaimon Arabia (in Latin it was later translated as Arabia Felix) meaning "fortunate Arabia". Much wealth was generated from the trade in myrrh and frankincense.


By the first century BC, the Romans had conquered certain coastal areas and Christianity reached the region. Ethiopians occupied other parts of the region until the Himyarites, in alliance with the Persians, drove them out. Islam was introduced while Mohammed was still alive, and thereafter Yemen was ruled as part of Arab caliphates. Under the Ummayyad and Abbasid caliphates, Yemen became little more than a remote province governed by successive local dynasties. The most important of these were the Shiite Zaydis of Sa'da, founded in 897 by Yayha bin Husayn bin Qasim ar-Rassi, which lasted well into the 20th century.


After 1517 the country became a nominal part of the Ottoman Empire albeit real power rested with the Zaydi imams. By the 19th century British colonialism led to the creation in the region’s south, of the "South Arabian Protectorate of Great Britain". Meanwhile in the North, following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in 1918 Imam Yahya established the modern Kingdom of Yemen. His family kept control until Crown Prince Mohammed al-Badr was overthrown by a regime of revolutionaries, who founded the Yemen Arab Republic. In the south the 1960’s were a period of intense nationalist violence and British repression, which ended in 1967 with independence from the British. Under Soviet influence, the new nation declared itself an independent communist state, the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, with its capital at Aden. Two decades of hostility followed between the two states.


On 22 May 1990 the Yemen Arab Republic (North) were united with the People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen (South) and the current Republic of Yemen was declared. Following a brief civil war, which led to the defeat of "southern" secessionist forces, stability was eventually achieved. From inception, the contemporary Republic of Yemen adopted a democratic constitution with elections taking place regularly and franchise extending to both sexes.


In late 2000, Yemen received worldwide attention when the American ship USS Cole was attacked in the port of Aden by suicide bombers who were later found to be part of the Al-Qaida terrorist network. Since then the Yemeni government has applied itself to the task of solidifying its control of tribal areas and suppressing militant fundamentalists.


Politics

Main article: Politics of Yemen


Governorates

Main article: Governorates of Yemen


Geography

Main article: Geography of Yemen

Enlarge
Map of Yemen

Economy

Main article: Economy of Yemen


Yemen, one of the poorest countries in the Arab world, reported strong growth in the mid-1990s with the onset of oil production, but was harmed by low oil prices in 1998. Yemen has embarked on an IMF-supported structural adjustment program designed to modernize and streamline the economy, which has led to foreign debt relief and restructuring. Aided by higher oil prices in 1999, Yemen worked to maintain tight control over spending and implement additional components of the IMF program. The high population growth rate of 3.4% and internal political dissension complicate the government's task.


Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Yemen


Culture

Main article: Culture of Yemen

Holidays
Date English Name Local Name Remarks
January 1 New Year's Day -  
May 22 Day of National Unity - Celebrates Unification of Yemen
September 26 Revolution Day 1963 - -
October 14 National Day - -
November 30 Independence Day - -
Dates following the lunar Islamic calendar
Dhul Hijja 10 Eid al-Adha - -
Shawwal 1 Eid al-Fitr - -
Muharram 1 Muharram - -
Rajab 27 Lailat ul-Miraj - -
Rabi`-ul-Awwal 12 Shahr al-Mawhid Mouloud Muhammad's birthday

Yemenite Jews are the Jewish people who live, or whose recent ancestors lived, in Yemen. They are known as Teimanim, and are considered to be a subdivision of Mizrahi Jews.


Miscellaneous topics


Countries and Territories in Southwest Asia

Afghanistan | Armenia | Azerbaijan | Bahrain | Cyprus | Egypt | Georgia | Iran | Iraq | Israel | Jordan | Kuwait | Oman | Qatar | Saudi Arabia | Syria | Turkey | United Arab Emirates | West Bank | Yemen


Countries and Territories in the Middle East
Bahrain | Egypt | Gaza Strip | Iran | Iraq | Israel | Jordan | Kuwait | Lebanon | Oman | Saudi Arabia | Turkey | West Bank | Yemen


Arab League Flag of the League of Arab States
Algeria | Comoros | Egypt | Iraq | Jordan | Kuwait | Mauritania | Oman | Qatar | Saudi Arabia | Somalia | Sudan | Syria | United Arab Emirates | Yemen









  Results from FactBites:
 
Arabian Peninsula - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1258 words)
Politically, the Arabian peninsula is separated from the rest of Asia by the northern borders of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait.
The UAE and Saudi Arabia are economically the wealthiest in the region.
The rocks exposed vary systematically across Arabia, with the oldest rocks exposed in the Arabian-Nubian Shield near the Red Sea, overlain by earlier sediments that become younger towards the Persian Gulf.
Arabia - LoveToKnow 1911 (16568 words)
'ARABIA, a peninsula in the south-west of Asia, lying between 34┬░ 30 and 12┬░ 45' N., and 32┬░ 30' and 60┬░ E., is bounded W. by the Red Sea, S. by the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, and E. by the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf.
The water-parting between central and southern Arabia seems to be somewhere to the south of Nej ran, which, according to Halevy, drains northward to the W. Dawasir, while the Jauf is either an isolated depression, or perhaps forms part of the Hadramut basin.
On the west coast of Arabia the influence of the kingdom of Yemen was felt in varying degree according to the strength of the rulers of that land.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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