FACTOID # 5: Minnesota and Connecticut are both in the top 5 in saving money and total tax burden per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Arab world

The Arab world (Arabic: العالم العربي; Transliteration: al-`alam al-`arabi) is a term to define all of the Arabic-speaking countries stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the Horn of Africa and the Indian Ocean in the southeast. It consists of 24 countries and territories with a combined population of some 325 million people spanning two continents. Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia... Mediterranean redirects here. ... The Horn of Africa. ...

Contents

Language, politics, and religion

The Arabic language forms a unifying feature of the Arab World. Though different areas use local dialects of Arabic, all share in the use of the standard classical language (see diglossia). This contrasts with the situation in the wider Islamic World, where Arabic retains its cultural prestige primarily as the language of religion and of theological scholarship, but the populace generally do not speak Arabic languages. Arabic redirects here. ... The Arabic language is classified as a Semitic language. ... Look up Diglossia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ... Arabic is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ...


The linguistic and political denotation inherent in the term "Arab" is generally dominant over genealogical considerations. Thus, individuals with little or no direct ancestry from the Arabian Peninsula could identify as, or be considered to be, Arabs partially by virtue of their mother tongue (see Who is an Arab?). However, this definition is disputed by many peoples of non-Arab origins; thus Egyptians for example may or may not identify as Arabs (see Egypt#Identity). For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Genealogy is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ... Arabia redirects here. ... “Native Language” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country of Egypt. ...


The Arab League, a political organization intended to encompass the Arab World, defines as Arab, Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041...

a person whose language is Arabic, who lives in an Arabic speaking country, who is in sympathy with the aspirations of the Arabic speaking peoples.
The flag of the Arab League

The Arab League's main goal is to unify politically the Arab populations so defined. Its permanent headquarters are located in Cairo. However, it was moved temporarily to Tunis during the 1980s, after Egypt was expelled due to the Camp David Accords (1978). Image File history File links Flag_of_the_League_of_Arab_States. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_League_of_Arab_States. ... The flag of League of Arab States The Presidential Flag of the Arab League in Beirut Summit March 2002 The flag of the League of Arab States is a green banner bearing the seal of the League of Arab States. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords in the White House Rose Garden: Menachem Begin (right), Jimmy Carter (center), Anwar Sadat (left) The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations...


The majority of people in the Arab World adhere to Islam and the religion has official status in most countries. Shariah law exists partially in the legal system in some countries, especially in the Arabian peninsula, while others are secular. The majority of the Arab countries adhere to Sunni Islam. Iraq, however, is a Shia majority country (65%), while Lebanon, Yemen, Kuwait, and Bahrain have large Shia minorities. In Saudi Arabia, the eastern province Al-Hasa region has Shia minority and the southern province city Najran has Ismalia Shiite minority too. Ibadi Islam is practised in Oman and Ibadis make up 75% population of the country. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... Arabia redirects here. ... This article is about secularism. ... Shia may refer to a denomination of Islam, or related items, such as: Shia Islam, the second largest denomination of Islam, after Sunni Islam. ... Al-Ibāḍiyyah (Arabic الاباضية) is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni denominations. ...


There are sizable numbers of Christians, living primarily in Lebanon, Egypt, Palestine, Iraq, Jordan, Sudan, and Syria. Formerly, there were significant minorities of Arab Jews throughout the Arab World; however, the establishment of the state of Israel prompted their subsequent mass emigration and expulsion within a few decades. Today small Jewish communities remain, ranging anywhere from ten in Bahrain to 7,000 in Morocco and more than 1,000 in Tunisia. Overall, Arabs make up less than one quarter of the world's 1.4 billion Muslims, a group sometimes referred to as the Islamic world. This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... Arab Jews (Arabic: يهود العرب, Hebrew: יהודים ערבים) refers to Jews of Arab ancestry or those who speak Arabic. ... This article is about immigration to Israel. ... For other uses, see Exodus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ...


Some Arab countries have substantial reserves of petroleum. The Gulf is particularly well-furnished: four Gulf states, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Kuwait, and Qatar, are among the top ten oil or gas exporters worldwide. In addition, Algeria, Libya, Iraq, Bahrain, Morocco, Western Sahara, and Sudan all have smaller but significant reserves. Where present, these have had significant effects on regional politics, often enabling rentier states, leading to economic disparities between oil-rich and oil-poor countries, and, particularly in the more sparsely populated states of the Gulf and Libya, triggering extensive labor immigration. // The study of rentierism was born of Middle East area studies and follows from the same premises of earlier “Dutch Disease” or “Resource Curse” theories. ...


According to UNESCO, the average rate of adult literacy (ages 15 and older) in this region is 66%, and this is one of the lowest rates in the world. In Mauritania, Morocco, and Yemen, the rate is lower than the average, at barely over 50 %. On the other hand, Lebanon, Palestine and Jordan record a high adult literacy rate of over 90%. The average rate of adult literacy shows steady improvement, and the absolute number of adult illiterates fell from 64 million to around 58 million between 1990 and 2000-2004. Overall, the gender disparity in adult literacy is high in this region, and of the illiteracy rate, women account for two-thirds, with only 69 literate women for every 100 literate men. The average GPI (Gender Parity Index) for adult literacy is 0.72, and gender disparity can be observed in Egypt, Morocco, and Yemen. Above all, the GPI of Yemen is only 0.46 in a 53% adult literacy rate [1]PDF (374 KiB). Org type Specialized Agency Acronyms UNESCO Head Director General of UNESCO Koïchiro Matsuura Japan Status Active Established 1945 Website www. ... Literacy is the ability to read and write. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...


Literacy rate is higher among the youth than adults. Youth literacy rate (ages 15-24) in the Arab region increased from 63.9 to 76.3 % from 1990 to 2002. The average rate of GCC States [2] was 94 %, followed by the Maghreb at 83.2% and the Mashriq at 73.6 %. However, more than one third of youth remain illiterate in the Arab LDCs (Comoros, Djibouti, Mauritania, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen) [3]PDF (158 KiB).In 2004, the regional average of youth literacy is 89.9% for male and 80.1 % for female [4]. Marrakech, Morocco, in front of Atlas Mountains in Maghreb The Maghreb (المغرب العربي ; also rendered Maghrib or (uncommonly) Moghreb), meaning western in Arabic, is the region of Africa north of the Sahara Desert and west of the Nile — specifically, coinciding with the Atlas Mountains. ... Mashriq or Mashreq is the region of Arabic-speaking countries to the east of Egypt. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...


The average population growth rate in Arab countries is 2.3%.


The United Nations published an Arab human development report in 2002, 2003 and 2004. These reports, written by researchers from the Arab world, address some sensitive issues in the development of Arab countries: women empowerment, availability of education and information among others. UN redirects here. ... The Arab Human Development Report is published by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). ...


Non-Arab people in the Arab World

Within the most common definition of the Arab World, there are substantial populations who are not Arab either by ethnic or linguistic affiliation, and who often or generally do not consider themselves Arab as such. Nevertheless, most are as indigenous to their areas and related to their local Arabized counterparts, and many, if not most, actually resided in the area before the arrival of true Arabs of the Arabian Peninsula during which the spread of Islam and Arabization of local peoples took place. Certain populations have expressed resentment towards the term "Arab World," and believe that their national and political rights have been unjustly brushed aside by modern governments' focus on Pan-Arabism and promoting an Arab identity. In some cases this has led to severe conflicts between the ethnic nationalism of these groups and the Arab nationalism promoted by governments lead by Arab identifying leaders, which sometimes amounted to denying the existence of or forcibly suppressing non-Arab minorities within their borders. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Arabization is the gradual transformation of an area into one that speaks Arabic and is part of the Arab culture. ... Pan-Arabism is a movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ... Ethnic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from historical cultural or hereditary groupings (ethnicities); the underlying assumption is that ethnicities should be politically distinct. ... Arab nationalism refers to a common nationalist ideology in wider Arab world. ...


In North Africa most of the population is of Berber descent (as opposed to current ethnic identification) as the number of Arabs who settled in North Africa was very small (about 200,000)[1]. However, a distinct majority now self-identifies as Arab. Berber and Arab identity in these countries is generally defined by primary language use rather than ancestry. In Morocco, Berber speakers form over 35% of the total population; in Algeria, they represent about 20% of the population, more than half in the eastern region of Kabylie. In Libya, they form about 4% of the population, mainly near the Tunisian border.  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Languages Berber languages Religions Islam (mostly Sunni), Christianity (mostly Kabyle catholic) Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... This article is about the Berber language called Tamazight. ... Location of Kabylie Largest city Béjaïa Government Not an administrative unit Area  -  Total 44 000 km²   sq mi  Population  -   estimate 7000000[1] (2004)  -  Density 170 /km²   /sq mi Great Kabylie in 1857 Kabylie or Kabylia (Kabyle: Tamurt n Leqbayel) is a cultural region in the north of Algeria. ...


There are much smaller isolated Berber communities in Tunisia, Mauritania, and even one oasis in Egypt. The nomadic Tuareg people whose traditional areas straddle the borders of several countries in the Sahara desert, are also of Berber origins. Government worries about ethnic separatism, and condescending attitudes towards the mainly rural Berber-speaking areas, led to the Berber communities being denied full linguistic and cultural rights; in Algeria, for example, Berber chairs at universities were closed, and Berber singers were occasionally banned from singing in their own language, although an official Berber radio station continued to operate throughout. These problems have to some extent been redressed in later years in Morocco and Algeria; both have started teaching Berber languages in schools and universities, and Algeria has amended its constitution to declare Berber a fundamental aspect of Algerian identity (along with Islam and Arabness.) In Libya, however, any suggestion that Berbers might be non-Arab remains taboo[citation needed]. For other senses of this name, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ... The Sahara is the worlds second largest desert (second to Antarctica), over 9,000,000 km² (3,500,000 mi²), located in northern Africa and is 2. ...


In the northern regions of Iraq (15-20%) and Syria (5-10%) live the Kurds, a mountain people who speak Kurdish, a language closely related to Persian, but not directly to Arabic, except insofar as like Persian, it has absorbed Arabic vocabulary. The nationalist aspiration for self-rule or for a state of Kurdistan has created conflict between Kurdish minorities and their governments. Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... The Kurdish language (Kurdish: Kurdî or کوردی) is a term used for a range of different dialects of a language spoken by Kurds. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... For other uses, see Kurdistan (disambiguation). ...


In Eritrea, most are not of Arab origin, except the Rashaida Arabs, but of either Semitic origin (The Tigrinya Habesha people) or Cushitic origin. The people of Semitic origin are said to be descendants of ancient South Arabian people who migrated to Eritrea 3000 or so years ago. They are to some extent culturally influenced by the Arabs, just like the Egyptians, Somali, and North Africans. Rashaida are a nomadic people in Sudan, and Eritrea. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... Tigrigna (or ትግሪኛ) is a Semitic language spoken in Eritrea, where it is the official language, and in parts of Ethiopia and Israel. ... The term Habesha (Geez ሐበሻ ḥabaśā, Amh. ... The Cushitic languages are a subgroup of the Afro-Asiatic languages phylum, named after the Biblical figure Cush by analogy with Semitic. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... South Arabian is a technical designation within Semitic linguistics for one of two main branches of South Semitic. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent. ...


Somalia is a Muslim country, but many Somalis just recognize themselves as a Somali instead of Arab despite centuries-old ties to Arabia and the fact that most of the Somali clans ancestors are made up by the muslims that fled Mecca to East Africa during Prophet Muahammed's persecution in Mecca . Although Somalia joined the Arab League in 1974 and Arabic is spoken by many Somalis in commerce, religion and education, the country's official language is Somali. The population is also predominantly comprised of ethnic Somalis with large communities of Indian, Iranian, Indonesian and Portuguese. The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... The Somalis are an ethnic group located in the Horn of Africa. ...


Egypt's largest ethnic group is the Egyptians who today speak Egyptian Arabic. However because Egyptians are of non-Arab ancestry, many do not identify as Arabs (Egypt#Identity). Egyptian Arabic (Marī مصري) is part of the Arabic macrolanguage of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... This article is about the country of Egypt. ...


Djibouti, whose demographics are approximately 60% Somali and 35% Afar, is in a similar position. Arabic is one of the official languages, 94% of its population is Muslim, and Djibouti has a close proximity on the Red Sea and Arabia, and 5% of the population is Yemeni Arab. Afar (or Danakil) are a tribal people who reside principally in the Danakil Desert in the Afar Region of Ethiopia and in Eritrea and Djibouti. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ...


Other examples of non-Arab peoples originating in what is often labeled the Arab World include the Turkmen of Iraq, Assyrians and Jews (most of whom fled to Israel after its creation in 1948). Since most Arab League states are products of colonialism, their borders rarely reflect distinct ethnic or geographic boundaries. Thus, many peripheral states of the Arab World have border-straddling minorities of non-Arab peoples. This is the case with Iranians in Iraq (most of whom fled in the Iraq-Iran War) and the non-Arab (often called black Africans) peoples in Sudan. Language(s) Aramaic Religion(s) Syriac Christianity Related ethnic groups Other Semitic peoples, and other ethnic groups from the Fertile Crescent. ... For other uses, see Exodus (disambiguation). ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... Iranian troops in the northern front. ...


Many Arab countries in the Persian Gulf have sizable (10 - 30%) non-Arab populations, usually of a temporary nature, at least in theory. Iraq, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates and Oman has a sizeable Persian speaking minority. The same countries also have Hindi-Urdu speakers and Filipinos as sizable minority. Balochi speakers are a good size minority in Oman. Countries like Bahrain, UAE, Oman and Kuwait have significant non-Muslim / non-Arab minorities (10 - 20%) like Hindus and Christians from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and the Philippines. Farsi redirects here. ...


Many non-Arab countries bordering the core Arab world like Chad, Israel, Turkey, Iran, and Mali have sizable Arab minorities.


Territories

Arab States and territories
Arab States and territories

Palestine, as administered by the Palestinian Authority, is recognized as a state by over 100[5] countries in addition to being a full-fledged member of the Arab League and many other international organizations. However, the UN, Israel, USA, and the EU do not recognize the State of Palestine as an operational state, referring instead to the Palestinian Territories, under which name the Palestinian Authority sits as an observer member of the UN. The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ...


The territory of Western Sahara is disputed between Morocco and the Polisario Front, which declared independence and a government-in-exile, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR), following the withdrawal of Spanish forces. SADR, although having won support from many sub-Saharan African countries and full membership in the African Union, is not recognized by the Arab League. Generally, there has not been international support or recognition for the Moroccan annexation, nor for the establishment of an independent state. The Western powers and the UN support a negotiated settlement between the parties, and many if not most countries maintain a careful diplomatic ambiguity with respect to each parties' claims, pending a final settlement. The Polisario, Polisario Front, or Frente Polisario, from the Spanish abbreviation of Frente Popular de Liberación de Saguía el Hamra y Río de Oro (Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia el-Hamra and [[Río de Oro]]) is a Sahrawi rebel movement working for the separation... Motto: حرية ديمقراطية وحدة (Arabic) Liberty, Democracy, Unity Anthem: Yābaniy Es-Saharā  listen This map indicates the territory claimed by the SADR, viz. ... Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together [1] Administrative Centre Working languages Arabic English Spanish French Portuguese Swahili Membership 53 African states Leaders  -  Chairman Jakaya Kikwete  -  Jean Ping Establishment  -  as the OAU May 25, 1963   -  as the African Union July 9, 2002  Area  -  Total 29,757,900 km² (1st1... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ...


While Comoros is a member state of the Arab League and many of their inhabitants speak Arabic, Arabic is not the primary language in this country. The predominate language in Somalia and Djibouti is Somali which predominatly consists of Arabic and some influences of Hindi, Persian and other cushitik languages found in east Africa and is a part of the larger Afro-Asiatic family of languages that also includes Arabic and Hebrew. Similarly, while the Maltese language is closely related to Tunisian Arabic, the people of Malta do not use standard Arabic nor do they consider themselves Arab. Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The Afro-Asiatic languages constitute a language family (Languages of Africa) with about 375 languages (SIL estimate) and more than 300 million speakers spread throughout North Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and Southwest Asia (including some 200 million speakers of Arabic). ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Maltese is the national language of Malta[1], and an official language of the European Union. ... Tunisian Arabic is a Maghrebi dialect of the Arabic language, spoken by some 9 million people. ...


Chad, Eritrea, and Israel all recognize standard Arabic as an official language, but none of them are members of the Arab League, though Eritrea is an observer in the Arab League. Mali and Senegal, West African countries which are neither a part of the Arab League nor the Arab world, recognize Hassaniya (the Arabic dialect of their Berber minorities) as a national language. Likewise, Egypt recognizes the Masri variant of its own Arabic, but does not accord it similarly official status. An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Ḥassānīya is a Bedouin dialect derived from the Arabic dialect spoken by the Beni Hassān tribes, who extended their authority over most of the Mauritanian Sahara between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to Northwest Africa, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... A national language is a language (or language variant, i. ... Egyptian Arabic (Marī, مصري) is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic family, derived primarily from a medieval dialect of Arabic. ... Egyptian Arabic (Marī مصري) is part of the Arabic macrolanguage of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ...


Different forms of government are represented in the Arab World: Some of the countries are monarchies: Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. The other Arab countries are all republics. With the exception of Lebanon, and recently Mauritania, democratic elections throughout the Arab World are generally viewed as compromised, due to outright vote rigging, intimidation of opposition parties, and severe restraints on civil liberties and political dissent. This article lists forms of government and political systems, according to a series of different ways of categorising them. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


After World War II, the movement known as Pan-Arabism sought to unite all Arabic-speaking countries into one political entity. Only Syria, Iraq, Egypt, Tunisia, Libya and North Yemen attempted the short-lived unification. Historical divisions, competing local nationalisms, and geographical sprawl were major reasons for the failure of Pan-Arabism. Arab Nationalism was another strong force in the region which peaked during the mid 20th century and was professed by many leaders in Egypt, Algeria, Libya, Syria, and Iraq. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Pan-Arabism is a movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ... North Yemen is a term currently used to designate both the Yemen Arab Republic (1962-1990) and its predecessor, the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen (1918-1962), that exercised sovereignty over the territory that is now the northern part of the state of Yemen in southern Arabia. ... Arab nationalism refers to a common nationalist ideology in wider Arab world. ...


Arab Nationalist leaders included Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, Ahmed Ben Bella of Algeria, Michel Aflaq, Salah al-Din al-Bitar, Zaki al-Arsuzi, Constantin Zureiq, Shukri al-Kuwatli, Hafez al-Assad and Bashar al-Assad of Syria, Saddam Hussein and Ahmad Hassan al-Bakr of Iraq, Muammar al-Gaddafi of Libya, Habib Bourguiba of Tunisia, Mehdi Ben Barka of Morocco, and Shakib Arslan of Lebanon. The various Arab states maintain close ties but national identities have been strengthened by the political realities of the past 60 years, making a single Arab nationalistic state less and less feasible. Moreover, the upsurge in political Islam and led to a greater emphasis on pan-Islamic identity amongst many Arab Muslims. As such, Arab nationalists who once opposed Islamic movements now pander to them for political survival. [6] Nasser redirects here. ... Ahmed Ben Bella Mohamed Ahmed Ben Bella (Muhammad Ahmad Bin Balla) (Arabic: ) (born December 25, 1918?, Maghnia, Algeria) was the first President of Algeria, and seen by many as the Father of the Nation. ... Michel ‘Aflaq Michel ‘Aflaq (1910 - June 23, 1989) was the ideological founder of Ba’athism, a form of Arab nationalism. ... Salah al-Din al-Bitar ( 1911), a Sunni Muslim, co-founder of the Bath Party in Syria. ... ZakÄ« al-ArsÅ«zÄ« (in Arabic: زكي الأرسوزي) born Lattakia June 1899, died Damascus July 1968) was a Syrian political activist and writer, and is widely regarded as one of the founders of the Baath Party. ... Constantin Zureiq (born Damascus 1909-2000), a prominent Arab intellectual and academic, was one of the pioneering theorists of modern Arab nationalism. ... Shukri al Kuwaiti Shukri al-Kuwatli (Born 1891, Damascus, Syria. ... Hafez al-Assad (Arabic: ) (October 6, 1930 – June 10, 2000) was president of Syria for three decades. ... Dr Bashar al-Assad (Arabic: , ) (born 11 September 1965) is the President of the Syrian Arab Republic, Regional Secretary of the Baath Party, and the son of former President Hafez al-Assad. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... General Ahmed Hassan al_Bakr (July 1, 1914 _ October 4, 1982) was President of Iraq from 1968 to 1979. ... Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi1 (Arabic:   ) (born c. ... Habib Bourguiba (Arabic: حبيب بورقيبة ḤabÄ«b BÅ«rqÄ«ba) (August 3, 1903–April 6, 2000) was a Tunisian statesman and the Founder and First President of the Republic of Tunisia from July 25, 1957 to November 7, 1987. ... Mehdi Ben Barka (1920 in Rabat – disappeared 1965 in Paris) was a Moroccan politician. ... Shakib Arslan (1869-1946) was a druze prince (amir) from Lebanon who was known as Amir al-Bayān (Arabic for Prince of Eloquence) because in addition to being a politician, he was also an influential writer, poet and historian, among other things. ...


Modern Boundaries

Many of the modern borders of the Arab World were drawn by European imperial powers during the 19th and early 20th century. However, some of the larger states (in particular Egypt and Syria) have historically maintained geographically definable boundaries, on which some of the modern states are roughly based. The 14th century Egyptian historian Al-Maqrizi, for instance, defines Egypt's boundaries as extending from the Mediterranean in the north to lower Nubia in the south; and between the Red Sea in the east and the oases of the Western/Libyan desert. The modern borders of Egypt, therefore, are not a creation of European powers, and are at least in part based on historically definable entities which are in turn based on certain cultural and ethnic identifications. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Taqi al-Din Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhammad al-Maqrizi (1364 - 1442); Arabic: ‎, was an Egyptian historian more commonly known as al-Maqrizi or Makrizi. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba, a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Desert landscape in Southern Libya The Libyan Desert (Arabic: الصحراء الليبية) is an African desert that is located in the northern and eastern part of the Sahara Desert and occupies southwestern Egypt, eastern Libya and northwestern Sudan. ...


At other times, kings, 'emirs' or 'sheiks' were placed as semi-autonomous rulers over the newly created nation states, usually chosen by the same imperial powers that for some drew the new borders, for services rendered to European powers like the British Empire e.g. Sherif Hussein ibn Ali. Many African States did not attain independence until the 1960s from France after bloody insurgencies for their freedom. These struggles were settled by the imperial powers approving the form of independence given, so as a consequence almost all of these borders have remained. Some of these borders were agreed upon without consultation of those individuals that had served the colonial interests of Britain or France. One such agreement solely between Britain and France (to the exclusion of Sherif Hussein ibn Ali), signed in total secrecy until Lenin released the full text, was the Sykes-Picot Agreement. Another influential document written without the consensus of the local population was the Balfour Declaration. Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... Sheik can refer to. ... A nation-state is a specific form of state, which exists to provide a sovereign territory for a particular nation, and which derives its legitimacy from that function. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Hussein ibn Ali or Husayn ibn Ali (died 1931) was the Sherif of Mecca, and Emir of Mecca from 1908 until 1917, when he proclaimed himself king. ... Hussein ibn Ali or Husayn ibn Ali (died 1931) was the Sherif of Mecca, and Emir of Mecca from 1908 until 1917, when he proclaimed himself king. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... Zones of French and British influence and control established by the Sykes-Picot Agreement The Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 16, 1916 was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East (then... Arthur James Balfour. ...


As former director of the Israeli intelligence agency Mossad, Efraim Halevy, now a director at the Hebrew University said, For the organization that coordinated pre-state Jewish immigration, see Mossad Lealiyah Bet. ...

The borders, which if you look on the maps of the middle-east are very straight lines, were drawn by British and French draftsmen who sat with maps and drew the lines of the frontiers with rulers. If the ruler for some reason or other moved on the map, because of some person's hand shaking, then the frontier moved (with the hand).

[7]

He went on to give an example,

There was a famous story about a British consul, a lady named Gertrude Bell who drew the map between Iraq and Jordan, using transparent paper. She turned to talk to somebody and as she was turning the paper moved and the ruler moved and that added considerable territory to the (new) Jordanians Gertrude Margaret Lowthian Bell (July 14, 1868–July 12, 1926) was a British woman who had a major hand in creating the modern state of Iraq. ...

[8]

Historian Jim Crow, of Newcastle University, has said: For the Australian university, see University of Newcastle, Australia. ...

Without that imperial carve-up, Iraq would not be in the state it is in today...Gertrude Bell was one of two or three Britons who were instrumental in the creation of the Arab states in the Middle East that were favourable to Britain.

[9]

Modern Economies

As of 2006, the Arab World accounts for two-fifth of the gross domestic product and three-fifth of the trade of the wider Muslim World[citation needed]. Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ...


The Arab states are mostly, although not exclusively, developing economies and derive their export revenues from oil and gas, or the sale of other raw materials. Recent years have seen significant economic growth in the Arab World, due largely to an increase in oil and gas prices, which tripled between 2001 and 2006, but also due to efforts by some states to diversify their economic base. Industrial production has risen, for example the amount of steel produced between 2004 and 2005 rose from 8.4 to 19 million tonnes. (Source: Opening speech of Mahmoud Khoudri, Algeria's Industry Minister, at the 37th General Assembly of the Iron & Steel Arab Union, Algiers, May 2006). However even 19 million tons pa still only represents 1.7% of global steel production, and remains inferior to the production of countries like Brazil. (source: www.worldsteel.org).


The main economic organisations in the Arab World are the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), comprising the states in the Gulf, and the Union of the Arab Maghreb (UMA), made up of North African States. The GCC has achieved some success in financial and monetary terms, including plans to establish a common currency in the Gulf region. Since its foundation in 1989, the UMA's most significant accomplishment has been the establishment of a 7000 km highway crossing North Africa from Mauritania to Libya's border with Egypt. The central stretch of the highway, expected to be completed in 2010, will cross Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. In recent years a new term has been coined to define a greater economic region: the MENA region (standing for Middle East and North Africa) is becoming increasingly popular, especially with support from the current US administration. The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (Arabic: مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج), formerly named and still commonly called Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) (مجلس التعاون الخليجي) is a regional organization involving the six Arab Gulf states with many economic and social objectives in mind. ...


Saudi Arabia remains the top Arab economy in terms of total GDP. It is Asia's eleventh largest economy, followed by Egypt and Algeria, which were also the second and third largest economies in Africa (after South Africa), in 2006. In terms of GDP per capita, Qatar is the richest developing country in the world. (Source: CIA World Factbook, GDP by country classification) The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ...


Geography

The Arab World stretches across more than 12.9 million square kilometers (5 million square miles) of North Africa and the part of North-East Africa and South-West Asia called the Middle East. The Asian part of the Arab world is called the Mashreq. The North African part of the Arab World to the west of Egypt and Sudan is known as the Maghreb.  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The Mashriq or Mashreq (Arabic: مشرق) is the region of Arabic-speaking countries to the east of Egypt. ... This article is about the region. ...

Maghreb Arab World
Maghreb Arab World
Mashriq Arab World
Mashriq Arab World

Its total area is the size of the entire Spanish-speaking Western Hemisphere (12.9 million km²), larger than Europe (10.4 million km²), Canada (10 million km²), China (9.6 million km²), the United States (9.6 million km²), Brazil (8.7 million km²). Only Russia – at 17 million km², the largest country in the world – and arguably Anglophone North America (eighteen million square kilometers) are larger geocultural units. This article is about the region. ... Mashriq or Mashreq is the region of Arabic-speaking countries to the east of Egypt. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ...


The term "Arab" often connotes the Middle East, but the larger (and more populous) part of the Arab World is North Africa. Its eight million square kilometers include the two largest countries of the African continent, Sudan (2.5 million km²) in the southeast of the region and Algeria (2.4 million km²) in the center, each about three-quarters the size of India, or about one-and-a-half times the size of Alaska, the largest state in the United States. The largest country in the Arab Middle East is Saudi Arabia (2 million km²). For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ...


At the other extreme, the smallest autonomous mainland Arab country in North Africa and the Middle East is Lebanon (10,452 km²), and the smallest island Arab country is Bahrain (665 km²).


Notably, every Arab country borders a sea or ocean, with the exception of the Arab region of northern Chad.


Historical boundaries

The political borders of the Arab World have wandered, leaving Arab minorities in non-Arab countries of the Sahel and the Horn of Africa as well as in the Middle Eastern countries of Turkey and Iran, and also leaving non-Arab minorities in Arab countries. However, the basic geography of sea, desert, and mountain provide the enduring natural boundaries for this region. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Horn of Africa. ...

The Arab World straddles two continents, Africa and Asia, and is oriented mainly along an east-west axis, dividing it into African and Asian areas. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 429 pixelsFull resolution (821 × 440 pixel, file size: 36 KB, MIME type: image/png) {{CC-Layout}} {{Self|author=Arab League at en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 429 pixelsFull resolution (821 × 440 pixel, file size: 36 KB, MIME type: image/png) {{CC-Layout}} {{Self|author=Arab League at en. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Arab Africa

Arab Africa—or more commonly Arab North Africa, though this is redundant—is roughly a long trapezoid, narrower at the top, that comprises the entire northern third of the continent. It is surrounded by water on three sides (west, north, and east) and desert or desert scrubland on the fourth (south).


In the west, it is bounded by the shores of the Atlantic Ocean. From northeast to southwest, Morocco, Western Sahara (annexed and occupied by Morocco), and Mauritania make up the roughly 2,000 kilometers of Arab Atlantic coastline. The southwestern sweep of the coast is gentle but substantial, such that Mauritania's capital, Nouakchott (18°N, 16°W), is far enough west to share longitude with Iceland (13-22°W). Nouakchott is the westernmost capital of the Arab World and the third-westernmost in Africa, and sits on the Atlantic fringe of the southwestern Sahara. Next south along the coast from Mauritania is Senegal, whose abrupt border belies the gradient in culture from Arab to Negroid African that historically characterizes this part of West Africa. Ceremonies during the annexation of Hawaii. ... Belligerent military occupation occurs when the control and authority over a territory belonging to a state passes to a hostile army. ... Nouakchott department Nouakchott (Arabic: ‎ or ‎ [alleged translation from Berber The place of the winds] NawākÅ¡Å«á¹­) is the capital and by far the largest city of Mauritania, and is Saharas largest city if one excludes marginal cases like Cairo (in the Nile River Delta) and the cities north of...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ...


Arab Africa's boundary to the north is again a continental boundary, the Mediterranean Sea. This boundary begins in the west with the narrow Strait of Gibraltar, the thirteen kilometer wide channel that connects the Mediterranean with the Atlantic to the west, and separates Morocco from Spain to the north. East along the coast from Morocco are Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya, followed by Egypt, which forms the region's (and the continent's) northeastern corner. The coast turns briefly but sharply south at Tunisia, slopes more gently southeastward through the Libyan capital of Tripoli, and bumps north through Libya's second city, Benghazi, before turning straight east again through Egypt's second city, Alexandria, at the mouth of the Nile. Along with the spine of Italy to its north, Tunisia thus marks the junction of western and eastern Mediterranean, and a cultural transition as well: west of Tunisia begins the region of the Arab World known as the Maghreb. Mediterranean redirects here. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space (on the left: Spain) A view across the Strait of Gibraltar taken from the hills over Tarifa, Spain The Strait of Gibraltar (Arabic: مضيق جبل طارق, Spanish: Estrecho de Gibraltar) is the strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... Colourful buildings in the city centre. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... This article is about the region. ...


Historically the 4,000-kilometer Mediterranean boundary has fluttered. Population centers north of it in Europe have invited contact and Arab exploration—mostly friendly, though sometimes not. Islands and peninsulas near the Arab coast have changed hands. The islands of Sicily and Malta lie just a hundred kilometers east of the Tunisian city of Carthage, which has been a point of contact with Europe since its founding in the first millennium B.C.E.; both Sicily and Malta at times have been part of the Arab World. Just across the Strait of Gibraltar from Morocco, regions of the Iberian peninsula were part of the Arab World throughout the Middle Ages, extending the northern boundary at times to the foothills of the Pyrenees and leaving a substantial mark on local and wider European and Western culture. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ...


The northern boundary of the African Arab World has also fluttered briefly in the other direction, first through the Crusades and later through the imperial involvement of France, Britain, Spain, and Italy. Another visitor from northern shores, Turkey, controlled the east of the region for centuries, though not as a colonizer. Spain still maintains two small enclaves, Ceuta and Melilla, along the otherwise Moroccan coast. Overall this wave has ebbed, though like the Arab expansion north it has left its mark. The proximity of North Africa to Europe has always encouraged interaction, and this continues with Arab immigration to Europe and European interest in the Arab countries today. However, population centers and the physical fact of the sea keeps this boundary of the Arab World settled on the Mediterranean coastline. This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Capital Ceuta City Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  28 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  75,861    2,709. ... Capital Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  20 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  66,871    3,343. ...


To the east, the Red Sea defines the boundary between Africa and Asia, and thus also between Arab Africa and the Arab Middle East. This sea is a long and narrow waterway with a northwest tilt, stretching 2,300 kilometers from Egypt's Sinai peninsula southeast to the Bab-el-Mandeb strait between Djibouti in Africa and Yemen in Arabia but on average just 150 kilometers wide. Though the sea is navigable along its length, historically much contact between Arab Africa and the Arab Middle East has been either overland across the Sinai or by sea across the Mediterranean or the narrow Bab al Mendeb strait. From northwest to southeast, Egypt, Sudan, and Eritrea form the African coastline, with Djibouti marking Bab al Mendeb's African shore. Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses, see Sinai (disambiguation). ... The Bab-el-Mandeb (Arabic for the gate of tears) is the strait separating the continents of Asia (Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula) and Africa (Somalia on the Horn of Africa), connecting the Red Sea to the Indian Ocean (Gulf of Aden). ...


Southeast along the coast from Djibouti is Somalia, but the Somali coast soon makes a 90-degree turn and heads northeast, mirroring a bend in the coast of Yemen across the water to the north and defining the south coast of the Gulf of Aden. The Somali coast then takes a hairpin turn back southwest to complete the horn of Africa. For six months of the year the monsoon winds blow from up equatorial Somalia, past Arabia and over the small Yemeni archipelago of Socotra, to rain on India; they then switch directions and blow back. Hence the east- and especially southeast-coast boundary of Arab Africa has historically been a gateway for maritime trade and cultural exchange with both East Africa and the subcontinent. The trade winds also help explain the presence of the Comoros islands, an Arab-African country, off the coast of Mozambique, near Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, the southernmost part of the Arab World. For other uses, see Monsoon (disambiguation). ... Map of the Socotra archipelago Socotra or Soqotra (Arabic سقطرى ; ) is a small archipelago of four islands and islets in the Indian Ocean off the coast of the Horm Africa some 350 km south of the Arabian peninsula. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  Geographic East Africa, including the UN subregion and East African Community East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ...


The southern boundary of Arab North Africa is the stripe of scrubland known as the Sahel, that crosses the continent south of the Sahara, dipping further south in Sudan in the east. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Arabia and the Arab Middle East

Main articles: Arabia and Middle East

The Asian or Middle Eastern Arab World comprises the Arabian Peninsula, Bilad al-Sham or the Levant, and Iraq, more broadly or narrowly defined. The peninsula is roughly a tilted rectangle that leans back against the slope of northeast Africa, the long axis pointing toward Turkey and Europe. The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Arabia redirects here. ... The traditional Arabic term Sham (Arabic: بلاد الشام , also transliterated bilad-ush-sham etc. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ...


References

  1. ^ Les particularités de l'islam au Maghreb by Paul Balta (Paris III-Sorbonne)
  • Hourani, Albert (1991). A History of the Arab Peoples. Cambridge, MA: Warner Books.
  • Reader, John (1997). Africa: A Biography of the Continent. New York: Vintage.
  • Saint-Prot, Charles, French Policy toward the Arab World Abu Dhabi: ECSSR, 2003

Albert Habib Hourani (Arabic: ألبرت حبيب حوراني) (March 31, 1915 – January 17, 1993) was a prominent scholar of Middle Eastern history through much of the 20th century. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

See also

Majed Abdullah Afro-Arab refers to a people identified as having mixed African and Arab origins, and whose native language is Arabic. ... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Sunni Islam, Shia Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism Arab diaspora refers to the numbers of Arab immigrants, and their descendants, who voluntarily or as refugees emigrated from their native countries and now reside in non-Arab nations, primarily in Western countries as well... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... The Arabic influence on the Spanish language has been significant, due to the Islamic presence in the Iberian peninsula between AD 711 and AD 1492. ... Arabic literature (Arabic ,الأدب العربي ) Al-Adab Al-Arabi, is the writing produced, both prose and poetry, by speakers of the Arabic language. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... The traditional Middle East and the G8s Greater Middle East. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Zones of French and British influence and control established by the Sykes-Picot Agreement The Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 16, 1916 was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East (then...

External links

  • ArabLand.com - Directories of all Arab World countries
  • Chronology of Events in the Middle East from 1908 to 1966
  • NITLE Arab World Resource Site
  • Araboo.com - Arab World Directory
  • Arab - Arab Articles

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Great History of the Arab People and Civilization (5240 words)
The Arab homeland stretches some 5,000 miles— nearly twice the distance between New York and San Francisco—from the Atlantic coast of northern Africa in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to Central Africa in the south.
The primary objective of the Arab League, as it is commonly called, is to facilitate maximum integration among the Arab countries through coordination of their activities in the political sphere as well as in the fields of economics, social services, education, communications, development, technology and industrialization.
While the great urban centers of the Arab nation are reaping the benefits of the space age, including satellite communications with other parts of the world, many retain the flavor of the past through their architecture, arts and traditions.
Cartoons from the Arab World (987 words)
Most print media in the Arab world are under the full or partial control of the ruling regimes.
The Arabic words alongside the Twin Towers are “The Peace.” This cartoon restates the widely held myth in the Arab world that Israel and the Jews were responsible for the 9/11 attacks which were in fact of course carried out by al-Qaeda.
Arab News is a Saudi-based English language daily which is supposedly one of the Arab world’s more moderate papers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m