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Encyclopedia > Arab slave trade

The Arab slave trade refers to the practice of slavery in West Asia, North Africa and East Africa. The trade mostly involved North and East Africans and Middle Eastern peoples (Arabs, Berbers, Persians, etc.), while others such as Indians played a relatively minor role in comparison. Also, the Arab slave trade was not limited to people of certain color, ethnicity, or religion. In the early days of the Islamic state—during the 8th and 9th centuries—most of the slaves were Slavic Eastern Europeans (called Saqaliba), people from surrounding Mediterranean areas, Persians, Turks, other neighbouring Middle Eastern peoples, peoples from the Caucasus Mountain regions (such as Georgia and Armenia) and parts of Central Asia (including Mamluks), Berbers, and various other peoples of often predominatly Caucasoid origins as well as those of Black African origins. Later, toward the 18th and 19th centuries, slaves were increasingly mainly coming from East Africa.[1][2][3] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Bilal ibn Ribah, a freed black slave, calls the people to prayers as the first muezzin. ... Slave redirects here. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... North Africa is the Mediterranean, northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group indigenous to the Maghreb, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... For information about all peoples of Iran, see Demographics of Iran. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... In the medieval Arab world, the term Saqaliba (سقالبة, sg. ... The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic: مملوك (singular), مماليك (plural), Turkish: Kölemen, owned; also transliterated mameluk, mameluke, or mamluke) was a slave soldier who was converted to Islam and served the Muslim caliphs and the Ayyubid sultans during the Middle Ages. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group indigenous to the Maghreb, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... The 4th edition of Meyers Konversationslexikon (1885-1890) shows the Caucasian race (in blue) as comprising Aryans, Semites and Hamites. Aryans are further sub-divided into European Aryans and Indo-Aryans (the latter corresponding to the group now designated Indo-Iranians). ... A Masai man in Kenya Black people or blacks is a political, social or cultural classification of people. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ...


According to Robert Davis between 1 million and 1.25 million Europeans were captured by North African Barbary pirates, vassals of the Ottoman Empire, during the Ottoman invasions of Europe and Ottoman-Habsburg wars, and sold as slaves between the 16th and 19th centuries.[4][5] These slaves were captured mainly from seaside villages from Italy, Spain, Portugal and also from more distant places like France or England, the Netherlands, Ireland and even Iceland and North America. In 1551, Turgut Reis (known as Dragut in the West) enslaved the entire population of the Maltese island Gozo, between 5,000 and 6,000, sending them to Libya. Barbary pirates frequently attacked the Balearic islands, resulting in many coastal watchtowers and fortified churches being erected.[6][7] The term white people (also whites or white race) has been defined as being a member of a group or race characterized by light pigmentation of the skin and to a human group having light-colored skin, especially of European ancestry. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe marked the better part of the history of southeastern Europe, notably, giving infamy to the Balkans. ... Combatants Habsburg Dynasty including: Habsburg Spain Holy Roman Empire Kingdom of Hungary Austrian Empire Non-Habsburg Allies: Tsardom of Russia Holy League Allies: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Republic of Venice Ottoman Turks Barbary States (Under Ottoman Protection) Crimean Khanate The Ottoman-Habsburg wars refers to the conflicts between the Ottoman Empire... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Turgut Reis Turgut Reis (1485-1565) was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral as well as Bey of Algiers; Beylerbey of the Mediterranean; and first Bey later Pasha of Tripoli. ... Gozo is an island of the Maltese archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea, second in size to the island of Malta. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ...


The 'Oriental' or 'Arab' slave trade is sometimes called the 'Islamic' slave trade, but religion was hardly the point of the slavery, Patrick Manning, a professor of World History, states. Also, this term suggests comparison between Islamic slave trade and Christian slave trade. Furthermore, usage of the terms "Islamic trade" or "Islamic world" implicitly and erroneously treats Africa as it were outside of Islam, or a negligible portion of the Islamic world.[8] Propagators of Islam in Africa often revealed a cautious attitude towards proselytizing because of its effect in reducing the potential reservoir of slaves.[9] Patrick Augustus Mervyn Manning (born August 17, 1946) is the current Prime Minister and Minister of Finance of Trinidad and Tobago and Political Leader of the Peoples National Movement (PNM). ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ... Approximately 40% of all Africans are Muslims, in contrast to another 40% being Christians and 20% being non-religious or adherents to African religions. ...


From a Western point of view, the subject merges with the Oriental slave trade, which followed two main routes in the Middle Ages: Bilal ibn Ribah, a freed black slave, calls the people to prayers as the first muezzin. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...

Historians say the Arab slave trade began in the 7th century and lasted more than millennium.[13][14] Arab traders brought Africans across the Indian Ocean from present-day Kenya, Tanzania, Sudan, western Ethiopia and elsewhere in East Africa to present-day Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Turkey and other parts of the Middle East [15] and South Asia (mainly Pakistan and India). Unlike the trans-Atlantic slave trade to the New World, Arabs supplied African slaves to the Muslim world, which at its peak stretched over three continents from the Atlantic (Morocco, Spain) to India and eastern China. Some sources estimate that between 11 and 18 million slaves crossed the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Sahara Desert from 650 to 1900.[16][17] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Mashriq or Mashreq (Arabic: مشرق) is the region of Arabic-speaking countries to the east of Egypt. ... The Great Mosque of Djenné, founded in 800, an important trading base, now a World Heritage Site Trans-Saharan trade, refers to trade across the Sahara between Mediterranean countries and West Africa. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... A millennium (pl. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... The Atlantic slave trade was the trade of African slaves by Europeans that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ...


Elikia M’bokolo, April 1998, Le Monde diplomatique. Quote:"The African continent was bled of its human resources via all possible routes. Across the Sahara, through the Red Sea, from the Indian Ocean ports and across the Atlantic. At least ten centuries of slavery for the benefit of the Muslim countries (from the ninth to the nineteenth)." He continues: "Four million slaves exported via the Red Sea, another four million through the Swahili ports of the Indian Ocean, perhaps as many as nine million along the trans-Saharan caravan route, and eleven to twenty million (depending on the author) across the Atlantic Ocean"[18] Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly publication offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Swahili (also called Kiswahili; see Kiswahili for a discussion of the nomenclature) is an agglutinative Bantu language widely spoken in East Africa. ...

Contents

A recent and controversial topic

Dhows were used to transport African slaves to India.
Dhows were used to transport African slaves to India.

The history of the slave trade has given rise to numerous debates amongst historians. For one thing, specialists are undecided on the number of Africans taken from their homes; this is difficult to resolve because of a lack of reliable statistics: there was no census system in medieval Africa. Archival material for the transatlantic trade in the 16th to 18th centuries may seem useful as a source, yet these record books were often falsified. Historians have to use imprecise narrative documents to make estimates which must be treated with caution: Luiz Felipe de Alencastro[19] states that there were 8 million slaves taken from Africa between the 8th and 19th centuries along the Oriental and the Trans-Saharan routes. Olivier Pétré-Grenouilleau has put forward a figure of 17 million African people enslaved (in the same period and from the same area) on the basis of Ralph Austen's work.[20] Paul Bairoch suggests a figure of 25 million African people subjected to the Arab slave trade, as against 11 million that arrived in the Americas from the transatlantic slave trade.[21] Owen 'Alik Shahadah author of African Holocaust (audio documentary), puts the figure at 10 million and argues that the trade only boomed in the 18th century, prior to this the trade was "a trickle trade" and that exaggerated numbers have been claimed in order to de-emphasize the Transatlantic trade. [22]. Image File history File linksMetadata Boutre_indien. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Boutre_indien. ... A Dhow near Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. ... Born of Jewish parents who emigrated from Poland, Paul Bairoch (b. ... The Atlantic slave trade was the capture and transport of black Africans into bondage and servitude in the New World. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Another obstacle to a history of the Arab slave trade is the limitations of extant sources. There exist documents from non-African cultures, written by educated men in Arabic, but these only offer an incomplete and often condescending look at the phenomenon. For some years there has been a huge amount of effort going into historical research on Africa. Thanks to new methods and new perspectives, historians can interconnect contributions from archaeology, numismatics, anthropology, linguistics and demography to compensate for the inadequacy of the written record. This July 2007 does not cite any references or sources. ... Numismatics is the scientific study of currency and its history in all its varied forms. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of human populations. ...


In Africa, slaves taken by African owners were often captured, either through raids or as a result of warfare, and frequently employed in manual labor by the captors. Some slaves were traded for goods or services to other African kingdoms.


The Arab slave trade from East Africa is one of the oldest slave trades, predating the European transatlantic slave trade by hundreds of years.[23]Male slaves who were often made eunuchs were employed as servants, soldiers, or laborers by their owners, while female slaves, mostly from Africa, were long traded to the Middle Eastern countries and kingdoms by Arab and Oriental traders, some as mainly female concubines and others as servants. Arab, African, and Oriental traders were involved in the capture and transport of slaves northward across the Sahara desert and the Indian Ocean region into the Middle East, Persia, and the Indian subcontinent. A eunuch is a castrated human male. ... Concubinage is either the state of a couple living together as lovers with no obligation created by vows, legal marriage, or religious ceremony, or the state of a woman supported by a male lover who is married to, and usually living with, someone else. ...


From approximately 650 AD until around 1900 AD. The Arab slave trade continued in one form or another into the early 1900s. The Moroccan Sultan Moulay Ismail "the Bloodthirsty" (1672-1727) raised a corps of 150,000 black slaves, called his Black Guard, who coerced the country into submission.[24] Historical accounts and references to slave-owning nobility in Arabia, Yemen and elsewhere are frequent into the early 1920s.[25] In 1953, sheikhs from Qatar attending the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II included slaves in their retinues, and they did so again on another visit five years later.[26] As recently as the 1950s, the Saudi Arabia’s slave population was estimated at 450,000 — just 20% of the population.[27][28] It is estimated that as many as 200,000 black Sudanese children and women had been taken into slavery in Sudan during the Second Sudanese Civil War.[29][30] Slavery in Mauritania was legally abolished by laws passed in 1905, 1961, and 1981.[31] It was finally criminalized in August 2007.[32] It is estimated that up to 600,000 black Mauritanians, or 20% of the Mauritania’s population, are currently enslaved, many of them used as bonded labour.[33] Moulay Ismail the Bloodthirsty (1675-1727) was a Moroccan ruler. ... Black Guard (in Arabic, Abid, from a root meaning slave) were the corps of negro slave-soldiers assembled by the Alaouite sultan of Morocco, Mawlay Ismail (reigned 1672-1727). ... Slavery in the Sudan has a long history, beginning in ancient Egyptian times and continuing up to the present. ... Combatants Sudanese Government (North Sudan) Sudan Peoples Liberation Army Commanders Gaafar Nimeiry Sadiq al-Mahdi Omar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir John Garang Casualties Not Released 1. ... Slavery in Africa, as in some other regions of the world, continues today. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...


For some people, any mention of the slave-trading past of the Arab world is rejected as an attempt to minimise the transatlantic trade. Yet a slave trade in the Indian Ocean, Red Sea, and Mediterranean pre-dates the arrival of any significant number of Europeans on the African continent. [34][35] The Atlantic slave trade was the trade of African slaves by Europeans that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


Medieval Arabic and Persian sources

Ibn Battûta - first Arab geographer to visit sub-Saharan Africa [citation needed]
Ibn Battûta - first Arab geographer to visit sub-Saharan Africa [citation needed]

These are given in chronological order. Scholars from the Arab world had been travelling to Africa since the time of Muhammad in the 7th century. Image File history File links Painting of Ibn Battuta. ... Image File history File links Painting of Ibn Battuta. ... It has been suggested that Travelling route of Ibn Batuta be merged into this article or section. ... Map of Arab League states in dark green with non-Arab areas in light green and Mauritania, Somalia and Djibouti in striped green due to their Arab League membership but non-Arab population. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...

  • Al Masudi (died 957), Muruj adh-dhahab or Meadows of Gold, the reference manual for geographers and historians of the Muslim world. The author had travelled widely across the Arab world as well as the Far East.
  • Ya'qubi (9th century), Book of Countries
  • Al-Bakri, author of Book of Roads and Kingdoms, published in Cordoba around 1068, gives us information about the Berbers and their activities; he collected eye-witness accounts on Saharan caravan routes.
  • Al Idrisi (died circa 1165), Description of Africa and Spain
  • Ibn Battûta (died circa 1377), Marinid geographer who travelled to sub-Saharan Africa, to Gao and to Timbuktu. His principal work is called Gift for those who like to reflect on the curiosities of towns and marvels of travel.
  • Ibn Khaldun (died in 1406), historian and philosopher from North Africa. Sometimes considered as the historian of Arab, Berber and Persian societies. He is the author of Historical Prolegomena and History of the Berbers.
  • Ahmad al-Maqrî (died in 1442), Egyptian historian. His main contribution is his description of Cairo markets.
  • Leo Africanus (died circa 1548), author of a rare description of Africa.
  • Rifa'a al Tahtawi (died in 1873), who translated medieval works on geography and history. His work is mostly about Muslim Egypt.
  • Joseph Cuoq, Collection of Arabic sources concerning Western Africa between the 8th and 16th centuries (Paris 1975)

Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn Masudi (أبو الحسن ØŒ علي بن الحسين المسعودي) (?, Baghdad , Iraq - 956, Cairo,Egypt), was an Arab historian, geographer and philosopher. ... Yaqubi (Ahmad Ibn Abu Yaqub Ibn Jafar Ibn Wahb Ibn Wadih Al-yaqubi, 9th century), was an Arab historian and geographer, was a great-grandson of Wadih, the freedman of the caliph Mansur. ... Abu Abdullah al-Bakri (1014–1094) was a Spanish-Arab geographer and historian. ... Book of Roads and Kingdoms or Book of Highways and Kingdoms (Arabic: الكتاب المسالك والممالك‎, al-Kitâb al-Masâlik wal-Mamâlik) is the name of an eleventh-century geography text by Abu Abdullah al-Bakri. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group indigenous to the Maghreb, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... Satellite image The Sahara (Arabic: , aá¹£-á¹£aḥrā´ al-kabÄ«r, The Great Desert, ( )) is the worlds largest hot desert, and second largest desert after Antarctica. ... Al-Idrisis world map from 1154. ... It has been suggested that Travelling route of Ibn Batuta be merged into this article or section. ... Marinid was the Dynasty that replaced the Almohad Dynasty in Morocco in 1196. ... Gao is a city in Mali on the River Niger with a population of about 38,000 people. ... Timbuktu (Archaic English: Timbuctoo; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu; French: Tombouctou) is a city in Tombouctou Region, Mali. ... Ibn KhaldÅ«n or Ibn Khaldoun (full name Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332/732AH – March 19, 1406/808AH), was a famous Arab Muslim historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher and sociologist born in present-day Tunisia. ... Taqi al-Din Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhammad al-Maqrizi (1364 - 1442); Arabic: ‎, was an Egyptian historian more commonly known as al-Maqrizi or Makrizi. ... Leo Africanus was the Christianised name of Hasan bin Muhammed al-Wazzan al-Fasi (Hasan, son of Muhammed, the Weigher from Fez) (Granada 1488? – 1554?). A former inhabitant of Granada, his family left the city sometime after the Christian conquest of the Muslim kingdom in 1492. ...

European texts (16th - 19th centuries)

  • João de Castro, Roteiro de Lisboa a Goa (1538)
  • James Bruce, (1730-1794), Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile (1790)
  • René Caillié, (1799-1838), Journal d'un voyage à Tombouctou
  • Johann Ludwig Burckhardt, (1784-1817), Travels in Nubia (1819)
  • Henry Morton Stanley, (1841-1904), Through the Dark Continent (1878)

João de Castro João de Castro (February 7, 1500 - June 6, 1548) was a Portugese naval officer and fourth viceroy of the Portuguese Indies. ... James Bruce (December 14, 1730 – April 27, 1794) was a Scottish traveller and travel writer who spent more than a dozen years in North Africa and Abyssinia (Ethiopia) where he traced the Blue Nile. ... René Caillié (September 19, 1799 - May 17, 1838) was a French explorer, and the first European to return alive from the town of Timbuktu. ... Johann Ludwig Burckhardt Johann Ludwig (a. ... Sir Henry Morton Stanley, also known in the Congo as Bula Matari (Breaker of Rocks or, alternatively, Sledge Hammer) , born John Rowlands (January 28, 1841 – May 10, 1904), was a journalist and explorer famous for his exploration of Africa and his search for David Livingstone. ...

Other sources

  • African Arabic and Ajami Manuscripts
  • African oral tradition
  • Kilwa Chronicle (16th century fragments)
  • Numismatics: analysis of coins and of their diffusion
  • Archaeology: architecture of trading posts and of towns associated with the slave trade
  • Iconography: Arab and Persian miniatures in major libraries
  • European engravings, contemporary with the slave trade, and some more modern
  • Photographs from the 19th century onward
  • Ethiopian ( Ge'ez and Amharic)historical texts

Ajam in Arabic means non-Arab, or in particular non-Arabic-speaker. ... Kilwa Kisiwani is an Islamic community on an island off the coast of East Africa, in present day Tanzania. ... The diffusion of ideas or artifacts from one culture to another is a well-attested and uncontroversial concept of cultural anthropology. ... The word miniature, derived from the Latin minium, red lead, is a picture in an ancient or medieval manuscript; the simple decoration of the early codices having been miniated or delineated with that pigment. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...

Historical and geographical context of the Arab slave trade

A brief review of the region and era in which the Oriental and trans-Saharan slave trade took place should be useful here. It is not a detailed study of the Arab world, nor of Africa, but an outline of key points which will help with understanding the slave trade in this part of the world.


The Islamic world

Main article: Muslim world

The religion of Islam appeared in the 7th century CE, and in the next hundred years it was quickly diffused throughout the Mediterranean area, spread by Arabs who had conquered North Africa after its long occupation by the Berbers; they extended their rule to the Iberian peninsula where they replaced the Visigoth kingdom. Arabs also took control of western Asia from the Byzantine Empire and from the Sassanid Persians. These regions therefore had a diverse range of different peoples, and their knowledge of slavery and a trade in African slaves went back to Antiquity. To some extent, these regions were unified by an Islamic culture built on both religious and civic foundations; they used the Arabic language and the dinar (currency) in commercial transactions. Mecca in Arabia, then as now, was the holy city of Islam and pilgrimage centre for all Muslims, whatever their origins. Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... “Era Vulgaris” redirects here. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Migrations The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... “Ancient” redirects here. ... A 25,000 Iraqi dinar note printed after the fall of Saddam Hussein A hyperinflation banknote of 50 billion dinara (1993) A 5,000 dinar bill of the Republic of Serbian Krajina (1992) The dinar is the currency unit of various countries, most of them Arabic-speaking or once part... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

Main article: Islam and slavery

It must be noted here that the conquests of the Arab armies and the expansion of the Islamic state that followed, have always resulted in the capture of war prisoners who were subsequently set free or turned into slaves or Raqeeq (رقيق) and servants rather than taken as prisoners as was the Islamic tradition in wars. Once taken as slaves, they had to be dealt with in accordance with the Islamic law which was the law of the Islamic state especially during the Umayyad and Abbasid eras. According to that law, slaves are allowed to earn their living if they opted for that, otherwise it is the owner’s (master) duty to provide for that. They also can’t be forced to earn money for their masters unless with an agreement between the slave and the master. This concept is called “مخارجة” in the Islamic jurisprudence. If the slave agrees to that and he would like the money s/he earns to be counted toward his/her emancipation then this has to be written in the form of a contract between the slave and the master. This is called “مكاتبة” (mukatabah) in the Islamic jurisprudence. Muslims believe that slave owners in Islam are strongly encouraged to perform “mukatabah” with their slaves as directed by Qur’an Bilal ibn Ribah, a freed black slave, calls the people to prayers as the first muezzin. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Abbasid Caliphate (Abbasid Khalifat) and contemporary states and empires in 820. ... The Quran (Arabic: al-qurān literally the recitation; also called Al Qurān Al KarÄ«m or The Noble Quran; or transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ...

And if any of your slaves ask for a deed in writing (to enable them to earn their freedom for a certain sum), give them such a deed if ye know any good in them: yea, give them something yourselves out of the means which Allah has given to you. 24:33

The framework of Islamic civilisation was a well-developed network of towns and oasis trading centres with the market (souk, bazaar) at its heart. These towns were inter-connected by a system of roads crossing semi-arid regions or deserts. The routes were travelled by convoys, and black slaves formed part of this caravan traffic. ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The souq in Marrakech, Morocco A souk (سوق, also sook, souq, or suq) is a commercial quarter in an Arab city. ... The Grand Timcheh of Qoms Bazaar. ...


Instances of Arab prejudice regarding Negroes and slaves

Racist opinions occurred in the works of some historians and geographers: so in the 14th century CE Ibn Khaldun could write: Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332/732AH – March 19, 1406/808AH), was a famous Arab Muslim historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher and sociologist born in present-day Tunisia. ...


"...the Negro nations are, as a rule, submissive to slavery, because (Negroes) have little that is (essentially) human and possess attributes that are quite similar to those of dumb animals..." Negro is a racial term applied to black people. ...


However, Ibn Khaldun also wrote of the Arabs themselves:


:"they are the most savage human beings that exist. Compared with sedentary people, they are on a level with wild, untamable animals and dumb beasts of prey ... Arabs dominate only of the plains, because they are, by their savage nature, people of pillage and corruption. They pillage everything that they can take without fighting or taking risks, then flee to their refuge in the wilderness, and do not stand and do battle unless in self defence."[36]


In addition, there is debate over his ethnicity, some refer to him as Andalusian/Spanish (he grew up there, his parents were from there), some say he was a Berber/North African (time spent in Tunis, ancestry), and some say he was an arab (he traced ancestors to Yemen).

Main article: Ibn Khaldun

In the same period, the Egyptian Al-Abshibi (1388-1446) wrote, "It is said that when the [black] slave is sated, he fornicates, when he is hungry, he steals."[37] Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332/732AH – March 19, 1406/808AH), was a famous Arab Muslim historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher and sociologist born in present-day Tunisia. ...


Africa: 8th through 19th centuries

13th century Africa - simplified map of the main states, kingdoms and empires

In the 8th century AD, Africa was dominated by Arab-Berbers in the north: Islam moved southwards along the Nile and along the desert trails. Image File history File links Africa_en. ... Image File history File links Africa_en. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ...

  • The Sahara was thinly populated. Nevertheless, since Antiquity there had been cities living on a trade in salt, gold, slaves, cloth, and on agriculture enabled by irrigation: Tahert, Oualata, Sijilmasa, Zaouila, and others. They were ruled by Arab, Berber, Fulani, Hausa and Tuaregs. Their independence was relative and depended on the power of the Maghrebi and Egyptian states.
  • In the Middle Ages, sub-Saharan Africa was called bilad -ul-Sûdân in Arabic, meaning land of the Blacks. It provided a pool of manual labour for North Africa and Saharan Africa. This region was dominated by certain states: the Ghana Empire, the Empire of Mali, the Kanem-Bornu Empire.
  • In eastern Africa, the coasts of the Red Sea and Indian Ocean were controlled by native Muslims, and Arabs were important as traders along the coasts. Nubia had been a "supply zone" for slaves since Antiquity. The Ethiopian coast, particularly the port of Massawa and Dahlak Archipelago, had long been a hub for the exportation of slaves from the interior, even in Aksumite times. The port and most coastal areas were largely Muslim, and the port itself was home to a number of Arab and Indian merchants.[38]
Slaves in eastern Africa - illustration from late 19th century)
Slaves in eastern Africa - illustration from late 19th century)

The Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia often exported Nilotic slaves from their western borderland provinces, or from newly conquered or reconquered Muslim provinces. [39] Native muslim Ethiopian sultanates exported slaves as well, such as the sometimes independent Adal Sultanate.[40] On the coast of the Indian Ocean too, slave-trading posts were set up by Arabs and Persians. The archipelago of Zanzibar, along the coast of present-day Tanzania, is undoubtedly the most notorious example of these trading colonies. East Africa and the Indian Ocean continued as an important region for the Oriental slave trade up until the 19th century. Livingstone and Stanley were then the first Europeans to penetrate to the interior of the Congo basin and to discover the scale of slavery there. The Arab Tippo Tip extended his influence and made many people slaves. After Europeans had settled in the Gulf of Guinea, the trans-Saharan slave trade became less important. In Zanzibar, slavery was abolished late, in 1897, under Sultan Hamoud bin Mohammed. Tahert (aka Tiaret or Tihert, the Berber for station) is the name of a large Algerian town, one that gives its name to the wider farming region of Wilaya de Tiaret province in central Algeria. ... Oualata (Arabic: ولاته) is a town in south east Mauritania. ... Sijilmasa (or Sijilmassa) was a mediaeval trade centre in the western Maghreb. ... Categories: Africa-related stubs | Burkina Faso | Cameroon | Ethnic groups of Africa | Fulani Empire | Mali | Nigeria ... The Hausa are a people of northern Nigeria and south-eastern Niger. ... For other senses of this name, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ... The Ghana Empire in Africa The Empire of Ghana (existed c. ... The Mali Empire was an Islamic Empire of the Mandinka people in West Africa from the 14th to 17th centuries. ... The Kanem-Bornu Empire existed in modern Chad and Nigeria. ... Nubia is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... Massawa in the 19th century Massawa or Mitsiwa (15° 36′ 33″ N 39° 26′ 43″ E) is a port on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea. ... The Dahlak archipelago is an island group located in the Red Sea off Massawa. ... The Kingdom of Aksum (or Axum, Geez አክሱም), was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from the proto-Aksumite period ca. ... Image File history File links ST-slaves. ... Image File history File links ST-slaves. ... The Solomonid dynasty is the traditional royal house of Ethiopia, claiming descent from King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, who is said to have given birth to the traditional first king Menelik I after her Biblically-described visit to Solomon in Jerusalem. ... Nilotic people or Nilotes, in its contamporary usage, refers to some ethnic groups mainly in southern Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, and northern Tanzania, who speak Nilotic languages, a large sub-group of Nilo-Saharan languages. ... Adal was a sixteenth century province-cum-sultanate located in East Africa north of Ethiopia, in modern Eritrea and Djibouti. ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is part of Tanzania Coordinates: , Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1,070... David Livingstone (19 March 1813 – 4 May 1873) was a Scottish Presbyterian pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society and explorer in central Africa. ... Sir Henry Morton Stanley, also known in the Congo as Bula Matari (Breaker of Rocks or, alternatively, Sledge Hammer) , born John Rowlands (January 28, 1841 – May 10, 1904), was a journalist and explorer famous for his exploration of Africa and his search for David Livingstone. ... The Gulf of Guinea is the part of the Atlantic southwest of Africa. ... Hamoud bin Mohammed (ruled August 27, 1896-July 18, 1902) was the British-controlled Omani sultan of the protectorate of Zanzibar, who outlawed slavery on the island. ...

  • The rest of Africa had no direct contact with Muslim slave-traders.

Africa and the Arab slave trade

The neutrality of this section is disputed.
Please see the discussion on the talk page.

People were captured, transported, bought and sold by some very different characters. The trade passed through a series of intermediaries and enriched some sections of the Muslim aristocracy. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ...


Slavery fed on wars between African peoples and states, which gave rise to an internal slave trade. Those conquered owed tribute in the form of men and women reduced to captivity. Sonni Ali Ber (1464–1492), emperor of Songhai, waged many wars to extend his territory. Sonni Ali was the first great king (1464-1492) of the Songhai Empire, and the 15th ruler of the Sonni dynasty. ... The Songhai Empire, c. ...


In the 8th and 9th centuries, the Caliphs had tried to colonise the African shores of the Indian Ocean for commercial purposes. But these establishments were ephemeral, often founded by exiles or adventurers. The Sultan of Cairo sent slave traffickers on raids against the villages of Darfur. In the face of these attacks, the people formed militias, building towers and outer defences to protect their villages.[citation needed] For main article see: Caliphate First of all, this system is invalid and is unlawful Islamicly. ... Darfur (Arabic: , lit. ...


Geography of the slave trade

"Supply" zones

Cowrie shells were used as money in the slave trade
Cowrie shells were used as money in the slave trade

Merchants of slaves for the Orient stocked up in Europe. Danish merchants had bases in the Volga region and dealt in Slavs with Arab merchants. Circassian slaves were conspicuously present in the harems and there were many odalisques from that region in the paintings of Orientalists. Non-Muslim slaves were valued in the harems, for all roles (gate-keeper, servant, odalisque, musician, dancer, court dwarf). In 9th century Baghdad, the Caliph Al-Amin owned about 7000 black eunuchs (who were completely emasculated) and 4000 white eunuchs (who were castrated).[41] In the Ottoman Empire, the last black eunuch, the slave sold in Ethiopia named Hayrettin Effendi, was freed in 1918. The slaves of Slavic origin in Al-Andalus came from the Varangians who had captured them. They were put in the Caliph's guard and gradually took up important posts in the army (they became saqaliba), and even went to take back taifas after the civil war had led to an implosion of the Western Caliphate. Columns of slaves feeding the great harems of Cordoba, Seville and Grenada were organised by Jewish merchants (mercaderes) from Germanic countries and parts of Northern Europe not controlled by the Carolingian Empire. These columns crossed the Rhône valley to reach the lands to the south of the Pyrenees. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1665x1326, 1264 KB) Various cowrie species Licence: self-made photo, February 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Cowry ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1665x1326, 1264 KB) Various cowrie species Licence: self-made photo, February 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Cowry ... Cowry shells (also spelled cowrie), are marine snails of the genus Cypraea (family Cypraeidae), found chiefly in tropical regions, especially around the Maldives or the East Indies. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Circassians is a term derived from the Turkic Cherkess (Çerkes), and is not the self-designation of any people. ... Coming from the Arab tradition, the harîm حريم (compare haram) is the part of the household forbidden to male strangers. ... Odalisque with a slave by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, painted in 1842 An odalisque was a virgin female slave, who could rise in status to being a concubine or a wife in Ottoman Seraglios, but most of whom tended to the harem of the Turkish sultan. ... For Orientalist Architecture, see Moorish Revival. ... European illustration of a Eunuch (1749) A eunuch is a castrated man; the term usually refers to those castrated in order to perform a specific social function, as was common in many societies of the past. ... European illustration of a Eunuch (1749) A eunuch is a castrated man; the term usually refers to those castrated in order to perform a specific social function, as was common in many societies of the past. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Varangian Guardsmen, an illumination from the 11th century chronicle of John Skylitzes. ... In the medieval Arab world, the term Saqaliba (سقالبة, sg. ... The term taifa in the history of Iberia refers to an independent Muslim-ruled principality, an emirate or petty kingdom, of which a number formed in Spain (Arabic: Al-Andalus) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031. ... Location Coordinates : , , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... NO8DO (I was not abandoned) Location Coordinates : ( ) Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Sevilla (Spanish) Spanish name Sevilla Founded 8th-9th century BC Postal code 41001-41080 Website http://www. ... Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ... The Rhône River, or the Rhône (French Rhône, Arpitan Rôno, Occitan Ròse, standard German Rhone, Valais German Rotten), is one of the major rivers of Europe, running through Switzerland and France. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ...


There are also many historical evidence and reports of North African Muslim slave raids all along the mediterranean coasts across Christian Europe and beyond to even as far north as the British Isles and Iceland. See book titled White Gold White gold is an alloy of gold and at least one white metal, such as silver or palladium. ...


Slaves were also brought into the Arab world via Central Asia. many of these slaves went on to serve in the armies forming an elite rank. It was from these troops that the Mamaluks came. Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic: مملوك (singular), مماليك (plural), Turkish: Kölemen, owned; also transliterated mameluk, mameluke, or mamluke) was a slave soldier who was converted to Islam and served the Muslim caliphs and the Ayyubid sultans during the Middle Ages. ...

  • At sea, Barbary pirates joined in this traffic when they could capture people by boarding ships or by incursions into coastal areas.
  • Nubia and Ethiopia were also "exporting" regions: in the 15th century, Ethiopians sold slaves from western borderland areas (usually just outside of the realm of the Emperor of Ethiopia) or Ennarea,[42] which often ended up in India, where they worked on ships or as soldiers. They eventually rebelled and took power (dynasty of the Habshi Kings in Bengal 1487-1493).
  • The Sûdân region and Saharan Africa formed another "export" area, but it is impossible to estimate the scale, since there is a lack of sources with figures.
  • Finally, the slave traffic affected eastern Africa, but the distance and local hostility slowed down this section of the Oriental trade.

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Nubia is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... The Emperor (Geez ንጉሠ ነገሥት, , King of Kings) of Ethiopia was the hereditary ruler of Ethiopia until the abolition of the monarchy in 1975. ... A Habshi was an African slave in India. ...

Routes

Caravan trails, set up in the 9th century, went past the oases of the Sahara; travel was difficult and uncomfortable for reasons of climate and distance. Since Roman times, long convoys had transported slaves as well as all sorts of products to be used for barter. To protect against attacks from desert nomads, slaves were used as an escort. Any who slowed down the progress of the caravan were killed. Barter is a type of trade in which goods or services are exchanged for other goods and/or services; no money is involved in the transaction. ...


Historians know less about the sea routes. From the evidence of illustrated documents, and travellers' tales, it seems that people travelled on dhows or jalbas, Arab ships which were used as transport in the Red Sea. Crossing the Indian Ocean required better organisation and more resources than overland transport. Ships coming from Zanzibar made stops on Socotra or at Aden before heading to the Persian Gulf or to India. Slaves were sold as far away as India, or even China: there was a colony of Arab merchants in Canton. Chinese slave traders bought black slaves (Hei-hsiao-ssu) from Arab intermediaries or "stocked up" directly in coastal areas of present-day Somalia. Serge Bilé cites a 12th century text which tells us that most well-to-do families in Canton had black slaves whom they regarded as savages and demons because of their physical appearance. A Dhow near Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. ... Map of the Socotra archipelago Socotra or Soqotra (Arabic سقطرى ; Suquá¹­ra) is a small archipelago of four islands and islets in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Somalia some 350 km south of the Arabian peninsula. ... Port of Aden (around 1910). ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ...

13th century slave market in the Yemen
13th century slave market in the Yemen

Image File history File links Slaves_Zadib_Yemen_13th_century_BNF_Paris. ... Image File history File links Slaves_Zadib_Yemen_13th_century_BNF_Paris. ...

Barter

Slaves were often bartered for objects of various different kinds: in the Sûdân, they were exchanged for cloth, trinkets and so on. In the Maghreb, they were swapped for horses. In the desert cities, lengths of cloth, pottery, Venetian glass beads, dyestuffs and jewels were used as payment. The trade in black slaves was part of a diverse commercial network. Alongside gold coins, cowrie shells from the Indian Ocean or the Atlantic (Canaries,Luanda) were used as money throughout black Africa (merchandise was paid for with sacks of cowries).[citation needed] Trinket Island (86 sq km) is part of the Nicobar Islands chain, located in the northeast Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. ... Species See text. ... Missing image image:ccaa-canary. ... Luanda (formerly called Loanda) is the largest city and capital of Angola. ...


Slave markets and fairs

Enslaved Africans were sold in the towns of the Muslim world. In 1416, al-Makrisi told how pilgrims coming from Takrur (near the Senegal river) had brought 1700 slaves with them to Mecca. In North Africa, the main slave markets were in Morocco, Algiers, Tripoli and Cairo. Sales were held in public places or in souks. Potential buyers made a careful examination of the "merchandise": they checked the state of health of a person who was often standing naked with wrists bound together. In Cairo, transactions involving eunuchs and concubines happened in private houses. Prices varied according to the slave's quality.[citation needed]
The Senegal River, in West Africa, forms the border between Senegal and Mauritania. ... “Alger” redirects here. ... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... A swampy marsh area ...

Zanzibar - the Old Slave Market

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x818, 605 KB) This image was originally posted to Flickr as light, filigreed. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x818, 605 KB) This image was originally posted to Flickr as light, filigreed. ...

Towns and ports implicated in the slave trade

Marrakech (مراكش marrākish), known as the Pearl of the South, is a city in southwestern Morocco in the foothills of the Atlas Mountains. ... “Alger” redirects here. ... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Egypt: Site of Aswan (bottom). ... Aoudaghost, also known as Tegdaoust was a major city in ancient and mediaeval West Africa, lying in what is now south east Mauritania. ... Timbuktu (Archaic English: Timbuctoo; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu; French: Tombouctou) is a city in Tombouctou Region, Mali. ... Gao is a city in Mali on the River Niger with a population of about 38,000 people. ... Bilma is a town in north east Niger with a population of around 1,000 people. ... Massawa in the 19th century Massawa or Mitsiwa (15° 36′ 33″ N 39° 26′ 43″ E) is a port on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea. ... Saylac (also Seyla`, Seelaac, Zeila, Zeyla, Zeylac, Zayla, Séyla‘, Seylac, 11. ... Mogadishu (Somali: Muqdisho, popularly Xamar; Arabic: ; Italian: ), is the largest city in Somalia, and its capital. ... The town of Bagamoyo is the oldest town in Tanzania, founded by the end of the 18th century. ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is part of Tanzania Coordinates: , Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1,070... Kilwa is one of the 6 districts of the Lindi Region of Tanzania. ... Categories: Stub | Provinces of Mozambique ... Beira is the second largest city in Mozambique. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Zabid, (also spelled Zebid), is a town in western Yemen. ... Classification City Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said Area 3,500 km² [1] Population  - Total (2005)  - Density  - Oman calculated rank 606,024 [2] 184. ... Port of Aden (around 1910). ... Map of the Socotra archipelago Socotra or Soqotra (Arabic سقطرى ; Suquá¹­ra) is a small archipelago of four islands and islets in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Somalia some 350 km south of the Arabian peninsula. ...

See also

Slave redirects here. ... The Atlantic slave trade was the trade of African slaves by Europeans that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ... It has been suggested that Impact of Slave Trade on Africa be merged into this article or section. ... Slavery in Africa, as in some other regions of the world, continues today. ... Slave beads (often called Trade beads) were otherwise decorative glass beads used between the 16th and 20th century as a currency to exchange for goods, services and slaves (hence the name). ... Slavery as an institution in Mediterranean cultures of the ancient world comprised a mixture of debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime, and the enslavement of prisoners of war. ... Bilal ibn Ribah, a freed black slave, calls the people to prayers as the first muezzin. ... The Zanj Rebellion was a slave uprising that took place initially in the Euphrates-Tigris delta (modern-day Iraq) and later spread east to modern day Iran between 869 and 883. ... Black orientalism is a terminology that is used for an intellectual and cultural movement within primarily African American circles which, while similar to the general movement of Orientalism in its negative outlook upon Western Asian - especially Arab - culture and religion, is different from the same in its emphasis upon the...

References

This article was initially translated from the featured French wiki article "Traite musulmane" on 19 May 2006.
  1. ^ Historical survey > The international slave trade
  2. ^ Arabs and Slave Trade
  3. ^ Should The Islamic World Apologize For Slavery?
  4. ^ When europeans were slaves: Research suggests white slavery was much more common than previously believed
  5. ^ Davis, Robert. Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500-1800.[1]
  6. ^ BBC - History - British Slaves on the Barbary Coast
  7. ^ Jefferson Versus the Muslim Pirates by Christopher Hitchens, City Journal Spring 2007
  8. ^ Manning (1990) p.10
  9. ^ Murray Gordon, “Slavery in the Arab World.” New Amsterdam Press, New York, 1989. Originally published in French by Editions Robert Laffont, S.A. Paris, 1987, page 28.
  10. ^ Battuta's Trip: Journey to West Africa (1351 - 1353)
  11. ^ The blood of a nation of Slaves in Stone Town
  12. ^ BBC Remembering East African slave raids
  13. ^ "Know about Islamic Slavery in Africa"
  14. ^ The Forgotten Holocaust: The Eastern Slave Trade
  15. ^ A Legacy Hidden in Plain Sight
  16. ^ The Unknown Slavery: In the Muslim world, that is — and it's not over
  17. ^ Historical survey > Slave-owning societies
  18. ^ The impact of the slave trade on Africa
  19. ^ Luiz Felipe de Alencastro, Traite, in Encyclopædia Universalis (2002), corpus 22, page 902.
  20. ^ Ralph Austen, African Economic History (1987)
  21. ^ Paul Bairoch, Mythes et paradoxes de l'histoire économique, (1994). See also: Economics and World History: Myths and Paradoxes (1993)
  22. ^ "Slavery in Arabia". "Owen 'Alik Shahadah".
  23. ^ Mintz, S. Digital History Slavery, Facts & Myths
  24. ^ Lewis. Race and Slavery in the Middle East. Oxford Univ Press 1994.
  25. ^ Mintz, S. Digital History Slavery, Facts & Myths
  26. ^ http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-85410331.html 'The Unknown Slavery: In the Muslim world, that is -- and it's not over. (From: National Review | Date: 5/20/2002 | Author: Miller, John J.)
  27. ^ Slavery in Islam
  28. ^ £400 for a Slave
  29. ^ War and Genocide in Sudan
  30. ^ The Lost Children of Sudan
  31. ^ Slavery still exists in Mauritania
  32. ^ Mauritanian MPs pass slavery law
  33. ^ The Abolition season on BBC World Service
  34. ^ Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch, in Les Collections de l'Histoire (April 2001) says:"la traite vers l'Océan indien et la Méditerranée est bien antérieure à l'irruption des Européens sur le continent"
  35. ^ Mintz, S. Digital History Slavery, Facts & Myths
  36. ^ [2]. The Muqaddimah, Translated by F. Rosenthal
  37. ^ Lewis, Bernard (2002). Race and Slavery in the Middle East. Oxford University Press, 93. ISBN 0195053265. 
  38. ^ Pankhurst, Richard. The Ethiopian Borderlands: Essays in Regional History from Ancient Times to the End of the 18th Century (Asmara, Eritrea: Red Sea Press, 1997), pp.416
  39. ^ Pankhurst. Ethiopian Borderlands, pp.432
  40. ^ Pankhurst. Ethiopian Borderlands, pp.59
  41. ^ Bernard Lewis, Race and Color in Islam (1979)
  42. ^ Emery Van Donzel, "Primary and Secondary Sources for Ethiopian Historiography. The Case of Slavery and Slave-Trade in Ethiopia," in Claude Lepage, ed., Études éthiopiennes, vol I. France: Société française pour les études éthiopiennes, 1994, pp.187-88.
  • [3] Mintz, S., Digital History/Slavery Facts & Myths

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... National Review (NR) is a biweekly magazine of political opinion, founded by author William F. Buckley, Jr. ... Prof. ... Prof. ...

Bibliography

Books in English

  • The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of Islam (Princeton Series on the Middle East) by Eve Troutt Powell (Editor), John O. Hunwick (Editor)
  • Edward A. Alpers, The East African Slave Trade (Berkeley 1967)
  • Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003) ISBN 978-1403945518
  • Allan G. B. Fisher, Slavery and Muslim Society in Africa, ed. C. Hurst (London 1970, 2nd edition 2001)
  • Murray Gordon, Slavery in the Arab world (New York 1989)
  • Bernard Lewis, Race and slavery in the Middle East (OUP 1990)
  • Ibn Khaldun, The Muqaddimah trans. F.Rosenthal ed. N.J.Dawood (Princeton 1967)]
  • Paul E. Lovejoy, Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in Africa (Cambridge 2000)
  • Ronald Segal, Islam's Black Slaves (Atlantic Books, London 2002)

Prof. ... Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332/732AH – March 19, 1406/808AH), was a famous Arab Muslim historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher and sociologist born in present-day Tunisia. ...

Audio Material

Books and articles in French

  • Serge Daget, De la traite à l'esclavage, du Ve au XVIIIe siècle, actes du Colloque international sur la traite des noirs (Nantes, Société française d'histoire d'Outre-Mer, 1985)
  • Jacques Heers, Les Négriers en terre d'islam (Perrin, Pour l'histoire collection, Paris, 2003) (ISBN 2-262-01850-2)
  • Murray Gordon, L'esclavage dans le monde arabe, du VIIe au XXe siècle (Robert Laffont, Paris, 1987)
  • Bernard Lewis, Race et esclavage au Proche-Orient, (Gallimard, Bibliothèque des histoires collection, Paris, 1993) (ISBN 2-07-072740-8)
  • Olivier Petré-Grenouilleau, Les Traites oubliée des négrières (la Documentation française, Paris, 2003)
  • Jean-Claude Deveau, Esclaves noirs en Méditerranée in Cahiers de la Méditerranée, vol. 65, Sophia-Antipolis
  • Olivier Petré-Grenouilleau, La traite oubliée des négriers musulmans in L'Histoire, special number 280 S (October 2003), pages 48-55.

Websites

Racism is a belief or concept that inherent differences between people (such as those upon which the concept of race is based) determine cultural or individual achievement, and may involve the idea that ones own race is superior. ... For the legal definition of apartheid, see Crime of apartheid. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Racism in the United States has been a major issue in America since the colonial era. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Historically, the civil rights movement was a period of time around the world of approximately one generation (1954–1980) wherein there was much worldwide civil unrest and popular rebellion. ... Description: Colored Waiting Room sign from segregationist era United States Medium: Black_and_white photograph Location: Rome GA, United States Date: September 1943 Author: Esther Bubley Source: Library of Congress Provider: Images of American Political History at the College of New Jersey [1] License: Public domain Misc: Borders cropped with with GIMP... White supremacy is a racist ideology which holds the belief that white people are superior to other races. ... Black supremacy is a racist[1] ideology which holds that black people are superior to other people and is most often thought of in connection with anti-white racism, anti-Semitism and bigotry towards non-black people. ... Social Darwinism is the idea that Charles Darwins theory can be extended and applied to the social realm, i. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Aryan race is a notion mentioned in the Old Persian inscriptions and other Persian sources from c. ... Institutional racism (or structural racism or systemic racism) is a theoretical form of racism that occurs in institutions such as public bodies and corporations, including universities. ... State racism is a concept used by French philosopher Michel Foucault to designate the reappropriation of the historical and political discourse of race struggle, In the late seventeenth century. ... Racial profiling, also known as ethnic profiling, is the inclusion of racial or ethnic characteristics in determining whether a person is considered likely to commit a particular type of crime (see Offender Profiling). ... The article describes the state of race relations and racism in a number of countries. ... Ethnic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from historical cultural or hereditary groupings (ethnicities); the underlying assumption is that ethnicities should be politically distinct. ... Hate speech is a controversial term for speech intended to degrade, intimidate, or incite violence or prejudicial action against a person or group of people based on their race, gender, age, ethnicity, nationality, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, disability, language ability, moral or political views, socioeconomic class, occupation or appearance... The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterized by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home[1]. Segregation... For the 1996 Blur single, see Stereotypes (song). ... It has been suggested that Race science be merged into this article or section. ... Slave redirects here. ... The crime of apartheid is defined by the 2002 treaty establishing the International Criminal Court as inhumane acts of a character similar to other crimes against humanity committed in the context of an institutionalised regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial group over any other racial group or... Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory in order to create a supposedly ethnically pure society. ... A Jewish cemetery in France after being defaced by Neo-Nazis. ... Race war is a slang term referring to developing hostilities between ethnic groups divided on the basis of race. ... Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction of an ethnic or national group. ... Lynching is a form of violence, usually murder, conceived of by its perpetrators as extrajudicial punishment for offenders or as a terrorist method of enforcing social domination. ... Wise American Indian chief from the movie Drums Across the River This article discusses the various stereotypes of American Indians present in Western societies. ... Anti-Arabism is prejudice or hostility against Arabs. ... This article discusses stereotypes of blacks of African descent present in American culture. ... Antiziganism or Anti-Romanyism is hostility, prejudice or racism directed at the Romani people, commonly called Gypsies. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... DJs dad from the show Thugaboo: Sneaker Madness is portrayed as an overly proper white American This article discusses the various stereotypes of Europeans/whites present in Western societies. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... Youths supporting Grey Wolves movement. ... The National Party (Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from June 4th 1948 until May 9th 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP, generally pronounced as EN Double AY SEE PEE) is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. ... Anti-Defamation League Logo The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... Anti-Fascist Action (or AFA) is a British left-wing organisation founded in 1986. ... Historically, the civil rights movement was a period of time around the world of approximately one generation (1954–1980) wherein there was much worldwide civil unrest and popular rebellion. ... The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) is an American non-profit legal organization, whose stated purpose is to combat racism and promote civil rights through research, education and litigation. ...


 
 

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