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Encyclopedia > Arab music

Arab music is the music of Arabic-speaking people or countries, especially those centered around the Arabian Peninsula.The world of Arab music has long been dominated by Cairo, a cultural center, though musical innovation and regional styles abound from Morocco to Saudi Arabia. Beirut has, in recent years, also become a major center of Arabic music. Classical Arab music is extremely popular across the population, especially a small number of superstars known throughout the Arab world. Regional styles of popular music include Algerian raï, Moroccan gnawa, Kuwaiti sawt ,Egyptian al-jil and Turkish Arabesque-pop music. Music is an art, entertainment, or other human activity which involves organized and audible sound, though definitions vary. ... Arabic (; , less formally, ) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Although technically in Giza, The Great Pyramids have become a symbol of Cairo internationally Cairo (Arabic: القاهرة; transliterated: al-Qāhirah) is the capital city of Egypt (and previously the United Arab Republic) and has a metropolitan area population of approximately 15. ... Central Beirut (2004) Beirut (Arabic: , BayrÅ«t) is the capital, largest city, and chief seaport of Lebanon. ... Arab music is the music of Arabic-speaking people or countries, especially those centered around the Arabian Peninsula, though Peter van der Merwe (1989, p. ... Popular music is music belonging to any of a number of musical styles that are accessible to the general public and mostly distributed commercially. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Gnawas around 1920s Gnawa or Gnaoua (in Arabic چنّاوة) is a group of musicians who might be descendants of former slaves originating from Sub-Saharan Africa or came freely to Morocco with Caravans during the Trans-Saharan trade trade, or both. ... Sawt (also spelled sout) is a kind of popular music found in the Persian Gulf area, especially in Kuwait and Bahrain. ... Arabesque music in Turkey is a different genre than its Turkish pop music conterpart. ...


Habib Hassan Touma (1996, p.xix-xx) lists "five components" which "characterize the music of the Arabs:

  1. The Arab tone system (a musical tuning system) with specific interval structures, invented by al-Farabi in the tenth century (p.170).
  2. Rhythmic-temporal structures that produce a rich variety of rhythmic patterns, awzan, used to accompany the metered vocal and instrumental genres and give them form.
  3. Musical instruments that are found throughout the Arabian world and that represent a standardized tone system, are played with standardized performance techniques, and exhibit similar details in construction and design.
  4. Specific social contexts for the making of music, whereby musical genres can be classified as urban (music of the city inhabitants), rural (music of the country inhabitants), or Bedouin (music of the desert inhabitants)....
  5. A musical mentality that is responsible for the aesthetic homogeneity of the tonal-spatial and rhythmic-temporal structures in Arabian music, whether composed or improvised, instrumental or vocal, secular or sacred. The Arab's musical mentality is defined by:
    1. The maqām phenomenon....
    2. The predominance of vocal music...
    3. The prediliction for small instrumental ensembles...
    4. The mosaiclike stringing together of musical form elements, that is, the arrangement in a sequence of small and smallest melodic elements, and their repetition, combination, and permutation within the framework of the tonal-spatial model.
    5. The absence of polyphony, polyrhythm, and motivic development. Arabian music is, however, very familiar with the ostinato, as well as with a more instinctive heterophonic way of making music.
    6. The alternation between a free rhythmic-temporal and fixed tonal-spatial organization on the one hand and a fixed rhythmic-temporal and free tonal-spatial structure on the other. This alternation...results in exciting contrasts."

Much Arab music is characterized by an emphasis on melody and rhythm rather than harmony. Thus much Arabic music is homophonic in nature. Some genres of Arab music are polyphonic—as the instrument Qanoun is based upon the idea of playing two-note chords—but quintessentially, Arabic music is melodic. The modern Arab tone system, or system of musical tuning, is based upon the theoretical division of the octave into twenty-four equal divisions or 24-tone equal temperament, the distance between each successive note being a quarter tone (50 cents). ... This page is about musical systems of tuning, for the musical process of tuning see tuning. ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... Rhythm (Greek ρυθμός = tempo) is the variation of the duration of sounds or other events over time. ... In Arab music a wazn (plural, awzān) is a rhythmic pattern or cycle, literally translated as measure (also called darb, mizan, and usul). ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... This page is about musical systems of tuning, for the musical process of tuning see tuning. ... Bedouin resting at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic , a generic name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western Desert, Sinai, and Negev... Compose is a key found on computer keyboards that allows entry of characters with diacritical marks. ... Improvisation is the act of making something up as you go along. ... An instrumental is, in contrast to a song, a musical composition or piece without lyrics or any other sort of vocal music; all of the music is produced by musical instruments. ... In music a singer or vocalist is a type of musician who sings, i. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... In various religions, sacred (from Latin, sacrum, sacrifice) or holy, objects, places or concepts are believed by followers to be intimately connected with the supernatural, or divinity, and are thus greatly revered. ... Look up melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Rhythm (Greek ρυθμός = tempo) is the variation of the duration of sounds or other events over time. ... Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity and chords, actual or implied, in music. ... Homophony is a musical term that describes the texture of two or more instruments or parts moving together and using the same rhythm. ... In music, the word texture is often used in a rather vague way in reference to the overall sound of a piece of music. ... The qanún is a musical string instrument used in Middle-Eastern music. ... In music and music theory, a chord (from the Middle English cord) short for accord is three or more different notes or pitches sounding simultaneously, or nearly simultaneously, over a period of time. ...


It would be incorrect though to call it modal, for the Arabic system is more complex than that of the Greek modes. The basis of the Arabic music is the maqam (pl. maqamat), which looks like the mode, but is not quite the same. The maqam has a "tonal" note which the piece must end with (unless modulation occurs). In music, a mode is an ordered series of musical intervals, which, along with the key or tonic, define the pitches. ... In Arab music a maqam [sic] (plural maqamat) is, a technique of improvisation that defines the pitches, patterns, and development of a piece of music and which is unique to Arabian art music. ... Tonality is a system of writing music according to certain hierarchical pitch relationships around a center or tonic. ...


The maqam consists of at least two jins, or scale segments. "Jins" in Arabic comes from the ancient Greek word "genus," meaning type. In practice, a jins (pl. ajnas) is either a trichord, a tetrachord, or a pentachord. The trichord is three notes, the tetrachord four, and the pentachord five. The maqam usually covers only one octave (two jins), but sometimes it covers more than one octave. Like the melodic minor scale and Indian ragas, some maqamat have different ajnas, and thus notes, while descending or ascending. Because of the continuous innovation of jins and because most music scholars don't agree on the existing number anyway, it's hard to give an accurate number of the jins. Nonetheless, in practice most musicians would agree on the 8 most frequently used ajnas: Rast, Bayat, Sikah, Hijaz, Saba, Kurd, Nahawand, and Ajam--and a few of the most commonly used variants of those: Nakriz, Athar Kurd, Sikah Beladi, Saba Zamzama. Mukhalif is a rare jins used exclusively in Iraq, and it does not occur in combination with other ajnas. In music, especially in musical set theory, a trichord is a collection of three pitch classes, often one of the four ordered trichords in a tone row or set form. ... The tetrachord is a concept of music theory borrowed from ancient Greece. ... In music, an octave (sometimes abbreviated 8ve or 8va) is the interval between one musical note and another with half or double the frequency. ...


The main difference between the western chromatic scale and the Arabic scales is the existence of many in-between notes, which are sometimes referred to as quarter tones for the sake of practicality. However, while in some treatments of theory the quarter tone scale or all twenty four tones should exist, according to Yūsuf Shawqī (1969) in practice there are many fewer tones (Touma 1996, p.170). The chromatic scale is any musical scale that contains more than one consecutive half-step (in other words two adjacent pairs of scale degrees or members which are separated by a semitone). ... A quarter tone is an interval half as wide (aurally, or logarithmically) as a semitone, which is half a whole tone. ...


In fact, the situation is much more complicated than that. In 1932, at International Convention on Arabic music held in Cairo, Egypt (attended by such Western luminaries as Bela Bartok and Henry George Farmer), experiments were done which determined conclusively that the notes in actual use differ substantially from an even-tempered 24-tone scale, and furthermore that the intonation of many of those notes differ slightly from region to region (Egypt, Turkey, Syria, Iraq). The commission's recommendation is as follows: "The tempered scale and the natural scale should be rejected. In Egypt, the Egyptian scale is to be kept with the values, which were measured with all possible precision. The Turkish, Syrian, and Iraqi scales should remain what they are..." (translated in Maalouf 2002, p. 220). Both in modern practice, and based on the evidence from recorded music over the course of the last century, there are several differently-tuned "E"s in between the E-flat and E-natural of the Western Chromatic scale, depending on the maqam or jins in use, and depending on the region. B la Bart k (March 25, 1881 – September 26, 1945) was a composer, pianist and collector of East European folk music. ...


Musicians and teachers refer to these in-between notes as "quarter-tones" ("half-flat" or "half-sharp") for ease of nomenclature, put perform and teach the exact values of intonation in each jins or maqam by ear. It should also be added, in reference to Touma's comment above, that these "quarter-tones" are not used everywhere in the maqamat: in practice, Arabic music does not modulate to 12 different tonic areas like the Well-Tempered Klavier, and so the most commonly used "quarter tones" are on E (between E-flat and E-natural), A, B, D, F (between F-natural and F-sharp) and C.


The prototypical Arab ensemble in Egypt and Syria is known as the takht, which includes, (or included at different time periods) instruments such as the 'oud, qanún, rabab, nay, violin (which was introduced in the 1840s or 50s), riq and dumbek. In Iraq, the traditional ensemble, known as the chalghi, includes only two melodic instruments--the jowza (similar to the rabab but with four strings) and santur--with riq and dumbek. Takht (bed, seat, or podium) is the representative musical ensemble, the orchestra, of Arab music. ... Front and rear views of an oud. ... The qanún or kanun is a musical string instrument used in Middle-Eastern music. ... The rebab is a musical string instrument which was heavily used in old Arabic music its considered as part of the Lute familiy (Oud in Arabic). ... The pitches of open strings on a violin The violin is a bowed stringed musical instrument that has four strings tuned a perfect fifth apart, the lowest being the G just below middle C. It is the smallest and highest-tuned member of the violin family of string instruments, which... The riq (also spelled riqq or rik) is a type of tambourine used as a traditional instrument in Arabic music. ... The goblet drum is a goblet shaped finger drum used in Arab music, Persian music, Balkan music and Turkish music. ... The santur (سَنتور) is a hammered dulcimer of Persia. ... The riq (also spelled riqq or rik) is a type of tambourine used as a traditional instrument in Arabic music. ... The Goblet drum is a goblet or hour-glass shaped hand drum used in Arab music, Persian music, Balkan music and Turkish music. ...


Arab classical music is known for its famed virtuoso singers, who sing long, elaborately ornamented, melismatic tunes, and who are known for driving audiences into ecstasy. Its traditions come from pre-Islam days, when female singing slaves entertained the wealthy, and inspired warriors on the battlefield with their rajaz poetry; the also performed at weddings and later, for the hajj. Male performers were limited to mukhanathin, or transvestite slaves, who were scorned by most Muslims. Early Islam largely looked down upon music, and considered it sinful and vile. Music in most of the Arab countries is entirely secular in nature. Arab music is the music of Arabic-speaking people or countries, especially those centered around the Arabian Peninsula, though Peter van der Merwe (1989, p. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( (help· info)), submission (to the will of Allah)) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and generally recognised as the worlds second-largest religion. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... The examples and perspective in this article do not represent a worldwide view. ... The Hajj or Haj (Arabic: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca (Makkah) in Islam. ... For a discussion of the history and current usage of the term transvestite, see transvestism. ...


In the 20th century, Egypt was the first in a series of Arab countries to see a sudden emergence of nationalism, as it became independent after 2000 years of foreign rule. Turkish music was replaced by national music, and Cairo became a center for musical innovation, hosting a 1932 conference of musicians from across the Arab world. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... // Nationalism is an ideology which holds that the nation, ethnicity or national identity is a fundamental unit of human social life, and makes certain cultural and political claims based upon that belief; in particular, the claim that the nation is the only legitimate basis for the state, and that each... 1932 (MCMXXXII) is a leap year starting on Friday. ...


Soon, the Arab world was inundated with new instruments from the west, including the electric guitar, cello, double bass and oboe, and adding influences from jazz and other foreign musical styles. The singers remained the stars, however, especially after the development of the recording and film industry in the 1920s in Cairo. These singing celebrities include Abd el-Halim Hafez, Farid el-Atrache, Asmahan, Sayed Darweesh, Mohammed Abd el-Wahaab, Warda Al-Jazairia, and possibly the biggest star of modern Arab classical music, Umm Kalthum. An electric guitar is a type of guitar with a solid or semi-solid body that utilizes electronic pickups to convert the vibration of the steel-cored strings into electrical current. ... A cello The cello (often formally referred to as the violoncello) is a stringed instrument and a member of the violin family. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... Modern Oboe The oboe is a musical instrument of the woodwind double reed family. ... Jazz master Louis Armstrong remains one of the most loved and best known of all jazz musicians. ... The 1920s were a decade sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... Although technically in Giza, The Great Pyramids have become a symbol of Cairo internationally Cairo (Arabic: القاهرة; transliterated: al-Qāhirah) is the capital city of Egypt (and previously the United Arab Republic) and has a metropolitan area population of approximately 15. ... Abd el-Halim Hafez (1927-1977) was known as the Nightingale of the Nile. In a society that generally reserves true respect for the old, it surprised everyone when Abd El-Halim Hafez took over the musical arena in his early twenties to become the golden boy of the nationalist... Farid el-Atrache (1915 - 1974), was born in Syria to a Druze Royal family who fought the French Colonial armies. ... Mohammed Abdel Wahab, also transliterated Mohammed Abd el-Wahaab (1907 - March 31, 1991), is a prominent 20th century Arab-Egyptian singer and composer. ... Warda Al-Jazairia (وردة الجزائرية), commonly referred to as just Warda (ﺓﻭﺭﺩ), is a female singer from Algeria. ... Umm Kulthum (أم كلثوم, Oum Kalsoum) (c. ...

Contents


Genres

Secular art music

Secular genres include maqam al-iraqi, andalusi nubah, muwashshah, Fjiri songs, qasidah, layali, mawwal, taqsim, bashraf, sama'i, tashmilah, dulab, and sawt. (Touma 1996, p.55-108) Maqam al-iraqi is a four hundred year old genre of Arab music found in Iraq and often considered the most perfect form of maqam. ... Andalusi nubah is a genre found in the North African Maghrib states of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya but, as the name indicates, of Spanish origin. ... Muwashshah is an Arab poetic form and an eastern secular musical genre which uses muwashshah texts for lyrics. ... A qasida (also spelled qasidah) in Arabic قصيدة, in Persian قصیده, is a form of poetry from pre-Islamic Arabia. ... Sawt (also spelled sout) is a kind of popular music found in the Persian Gulf area, especially in Kuwait and Bahrain. ...


Sacred music

Arab religious music includes Christian and Islamic music. However, Islamic music, including sung Qur'an reading, is structurally equivalent to Arabic secular music, while Christian Arab music is influenced by Catholic, Greek Orthodox, Angilican, Coptic, and Maronite church music. (ibid, p.152) Islamic music is Muslim religious music, as sung or played in public services or private devotions. ... Quran reading is the reading (tartil, tajwid, or taghbir) aloud, reciting, chanting, or singing of portions of the Quran. ...


History

Early years

By the 11th century, Moorish Spain was a centre for the manufacture of instruments. These spread gradually through France, influencing French troubadours and reaching the rest of Europe. The English words lute, rebec, guitar, organ and naker are derived from Arabic oud, rabab, qitara, urghun and nagqara'. al-Ghazali (1059 - 1111) wrote a treatise on music in Persia, including the words "Ecstasy means the state that comes from listening to music". The oud was popular between the tenth and sixteenth centuries then fell into disuse, but re-emerged in the nineteenth century. The Persians invented the Ghazal (love song). Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... For the article about the night club in West Hollywood, California, see: Troubadour (nightclub). ... The lute is a plucked string instrument with a fretted neck and a deep round back. ... The rebec (sometimes rebeck, and originally various other spellings) is a bowed string musical instrument. ... A guitar is a stringed musical instrument. ... The Casavant pipe organ at Notre-Dame de Montréal Basilica, Montreal The organ is one of the oldest musical instruments in the western musical tradition, with a rich history connected with the Christian religion and civic ceremony. ... A Naker is a small drum, of Arabic origin, and the forebearer of the European Timpani (kettledrum). ... Front and rear views of an oud. ... The rebab is a musical string instrument which was heavily used in old Arabic music its considered as part of the Lute familiy (Oud in Arabic). ... Al-Ghazali Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali (Arabic: ابو حامد محمد بن محمد الغزالى for short: الغزالى ) (born 1058 in Tus, Khorasan province of Persia, modern day Iran, died 1111 in Tus) was a Muslim theologian, and philosopher, known as Algazel to the Western Medieval world, Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali, or al-Ghazzali as it... In poetry (and as the lyrics in songs), the ghazal (Arabic: غزل; Turkish gazel) is a poetic form consisting of couplets which share a rhyme and a refrain. ...


The sixteenth century

Bartol Gyurgieuvits (1506 - 1566) spent 14 years as a slave in the Turkish empire. After escaping, he published "De Turvarum ritu et caermoniis" in Amsterdam in 1544. It is one of the first European books to describe music in Islamic society. In India the Islamic Mughal emperors ruled both Muslims and Hindus. The greatest of these, Akhbar (1542 - 1605) had a team of at least 50 musicians. 36 of these are known to us by name. Akhbar was not a strict Muslim, and even started a new faith called Din-i-Ilahi, a mixture of Islam, Hinduism, Christianity and Jainism. The origins of the "belly dance" are very obscure as depictions and descriptions are rare. It may have originated in Persia or Turkey, possibly developed with the harems. Essential elements of belly dancing are the zills (finger cymbals). Examples have been found from 200 BC, suggesting a possible pre-Islamic origin. Imperial motto: unknown The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul (Constantinople) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million (at most) Area (1683) 11 955 000 km² Establishment 1281 Dissolution October 29, 1923 Currency Akçe The flag of the later... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Din-i-Ilahi (دين إلهي) or Divine Faith, was a syncretic religion propounded by the Mughal emperor Akbar, intended to merge the best elements of the religions of his empire (primarily Hinduism and Islam; elements were also taken from Christianity, Jainism and Zoroastrianism), and thereby reconcile the sectarian differences that divided his... Islam (Arabic: ; ( (help· info)), submission (to the will of Allah)) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and generally recognised as the worlds second-largest religion. ... Hinduism (Sanskrit/Hindi: ; also known as Sanātana Dharma - , and Vaidika Dharma - ) is a worldwide religious tradition that is based on the Vedas, and is generally regarded as one of the oldest religions still practised in the world. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion centered on the life, teachings, and actions of Jesus as recounted in the New Testament. ... Pre-Kushana Ayagapatta from Mathura Jainism (pronounced in English as //), traditionally known as Jain Dharma (जैन धर्म) , is a religion and philosophy originating in the prehistory of South Asia. ... Belly dance is a Western name coined for a style of dance developed in the Middle East and other Arabic-influenced areas. ... A pair of zils from the Khan el Khalili market in Cairo Zils (also zills or finger cymbals) are tiny cymbals used in belly dancing and similar performances. ... A pair of zils from the Khan el Khalili market in Cairo Zils or finger cymbals are tiny cymbals used in belly dancing and similar performances. ...


Female slaves

Slavery was widespread in early Islam. Just as in the Roman empire, they were often brought from Africa. The Qu'ran specifically allows them to earn money. Black slaves from Zanzibar were noted in the eleventh century for the quality of their song and dance. The "Epistle on Singing Girls", written in Baghdad in the ninth century satirises the excessive money that can be made by singers. The author mentioned an Abyssinian girl who fetches 120,000 dinars at an auction - far more than an ordinary slave. A festival in the eighth century mentions fifty singing slave-girls with lutes who acted as backing musicians for a singer called Jamilia. In 1893, "Little Egypt", a belly-dancer from Syria, appeared at the Chicago world's fair and caused a sensation. Islam (Arabic: ; ( (help· info)), submission (to the will of Allah)) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and generally recognised as the worlds second-largest religion. ... The Quran ( Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; its literal meaning is the recitation and is often called Al Quran Al Karim: The Noble Quran, also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar, Tanzania, comprises a pair of islands off the east coast of Africa called Zanzibar (Unguja) (1994 est. ... Location of Baghdad within Iraq Baghdad (Arabic: , from Persian بغداد , meaning given by God) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Province. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The lute is a plucked string instrument with a fretted neck and a deep round back. ... Chicago (officially named the City of Chicago) is the third largest city in the United States (after New York City and Los Angeles), with an official population of 2,896,016, as of the 2000 census. ... A Worlds Fair is any of various large expositions held since the mid 19th century. ...


Male instrumentalists

Male instrumentalists were condemned in a treatise in the ninth century. They were associated with vices such as chess, love poetry, wine drinking and homosexuality. Many Persian treatises on music were burned by zealots. Following the invasion of Egypt, Napoleon commissioned reports on the state of Ottoman culture. Villoteau's account reveals that there were guilds of male instrumentalists, who played to male audiences and "learned females" who sang and played for women. The instruments included the oud, the zither and the ney (flute). By 1800 several instruments that were first encountered in Turkish military bands had been adopted into European classical orchestras: the piccolo, the cymbal and the kettle drum. The Santur or hammered dulcimer was cultivated within Persian classical schools of music that can be traced back to the middle of the nineteenth century. There was no written notation for the santur until the 1970s. Everything was learned face-to-face (to chest-to-chest as the Persian language has it). Chess is an abstract strategy board game for two players. ... Since the first coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Front and rear views of an oud. ... A Musima Guitar Zither 45 strings with 21 melody, 24 chords The zither is a musical string instrument, mainly used in folk music. ... Woman playing the ney in a painting from the Hasht-Behesht Palace in Isfahan Iran, 1669 The ney (also nai, nye, nay) is an end-blown flute that figures prominently in Middle Eastern music--in some of these musical traditions, it is the only wind instrument used. ... A Yamaha piccolo. ... Sabian Paragon cymbals Cymbals (Fr. ... Timpani, or kettledrums, are musical instruments in the percussion family. ... The santur (سَنتور) is a hammered dulcimer of Persia. ... Hammered dulcimers have two or sometimes three bridges, and are played by striking the strings with small hammers. The hammers are sometimes covered with leather to create a softer sound. ... Persian (known variously as: فارسی Fârsi, local name in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, پارسی Pârsi, older, local name still used by some speakers, Tajik, a Central Asian dialect, or Dari, another local name in Tajikistan and Afghanistan) is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia...


The Twentieth century

The first Conference of Arab Music was held in Cairo in 1932. Umm Kalthum (1904 - 1975) was by far the most popular singer of the Arab world. There are many spellings of her name, including "Oom Kalsoum". More recent popular artists are Cheb Khaled, Elissa, Amr Diab, Nancy Ajram, Ehab Tawfik, Hisham Abbass, Haifa Wahbi, and Natacha Atlas. Radio Tarifa play a mixture of electric guitars and antique instruments. Their music consists of historical styles from Moorish Spain and the Maghreb countries of Northern Africa. Traditionally Arab music has no chords but over the past 40 years they have been used more frequently. Islam has an obligation called Tajwid or Tajweed - to recite every letter correctly. Records broadcast in Islamic countries often have to pass a test of clarity. Compared to the rest of the world, the diction of singers is of very high quality. Although technically in Giza, The Great Pyramids have become a symbol of Cairo internationally Cairo (Arabic: القاهرة; transliterated: al-Qāhirah) is the capital city of Egypt (and previously the United Arab Republic) and has a metropolitan area population of approximately 15. ... Umm Kulthum (أم كلثوم, Oum Kalsoum) (c. ... Algerian raï musician from Oran. ... Elissa is also another name for Dido, the queen of Carthage in Greek mythology. ... Promotional Photo from 2005s Kammel Kalamak Album Amr Abdel Basset Abdel Aziz Diab (October 11, 1961 in Port Said, Egypt). ... Nancy Ajram (Arabic: نانسي عجرم) is a Lebanese singer increasingly popular in much of the Middle East. ... Ehab Tawfik is perhaps the most popular musical artist of the arab world. ... Haifa Wahbe picture with autograph Haifa Wehbe (also spelled Haifaa Wehbe, Haifa Wahbi, Hayfa Wehbeh, Hayfa Wehbi) is a Lebanese musician who took the Arab world by storm after the release of her first album Howa el-Zaman (He is time). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Radio Tarifa is a Spanish flamenco band of the Arab-Andalucian variety. ... The Maghreb (المغرب العربي ; sometimes also rendered Moghreb), meaning western in Arabic, is the region of the continent of Africa north of the Sahara desert and west of the Nile — specifically, the modern countries of Morocco, Western Sahara (annexed and occupied by Morocco), Algeria, Tunisia, Libya — and to a much lesser extent... Categories: Africa geography stubs | North Africa ... Tajwid (تجويد) is an Arabic word meaning proper pronunciation during recitation, as well as recitation at a moderate speed. ...

Arab and Muslim music

Algeria - Bahrain - Egypt - Iraq - Jordan - Kuwait - Lebanon - Libya - Morocco - Oman
Palestine - Qatar - Saudi Arabia - Syria - Tunisia - UAE - Yemen - Andalusian classical music Islamic music is Muslim religious music, as sung or played in public services or private devotions. ... In the areas now controlled by Israel and Palestinian National Authority, multiple ethnic groups, races and religions have long held on to a diverse culture. ... The United Arab Emirates are a part of the Persian Gulf khaleeji tradition, and is also known for Bedouin folk music. ... Andalusian classical music is a style of classical music found across North Africa, though it evolved out of the music of Andalusia between the 10th and 15th centuries. ...

See also

Turkish music, in the sense described here, is not really music of Turkey, but rather a musical style that was occasionally used by the European composers of the Classical music era. ...

External links

Source

  • Habib Hassan Touma (1996). The Music of the Arabs, trans. Laurie Schwartz. Portland, Oregon: Amadeus Press. ISBN 0931340888.
  • van der Merwe, Peter (1989). Origins of the Popular Style: The Antecedents of Twentieth-Century Popular Music. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0193161214.

Further reading

  • Lodge, David and Bill Badley. "Partner of Poetry". 2000. In Broughton, Simon and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie, James and Duane, Orla (Ed.), World Music, Vol. 1: Africa, Europe and the Middle East, pp 323-331. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0

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Turath Theory of Arab Music by Ali Jihad Racy Maqam (3788 words)
Arab music covers a vast geographical area ranging from the Atlas Mountains and parts of the Sahara in Africa to the Arabian Gulf region and the banks of the Euphrates.
Music, or al-musiqa, a term that came from the Greek, emerged as a speculative discipline and as one of al-ulum al-riyadiyyah, or "the mathematical sciences," which paralleled the Quatrivium (arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy) in the Latin West.
The third major process affecting Arab music was the contact between the Islamic Near East and Europe at the time of the Crusades in the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries and during the Islamic occupation of Spain (713-1492.) This contact had a widespread impact on both Islamic and European traditions.
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