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Encyclopedia > Arab Revolt
The neutrality of this article is disputed.
Please see the discussion on the talk page.
Arabia and Southen Arabia Campaigns
Part of Middle Eastern theatre of World War I

Flag of the Arab Revolt
Date June, 1916-October, 1918
Location Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon
Result Armistice of Mudros
Treaty of Sèvres
Combatants
Hashemite Arabs
Great Britain
Ottoman Empire
Commanders
Faisal
T.E. Lawrence
Ahmed Djemal
Strength
5,000 (?) 25,000 (?)
Sinai and Palestine Campaign
SuezRomaniMagdhabaRafa1st Gaza2nd Gaza3rd GazaBeershebaMughar RidgeJerusalemMegiddo
This article is about the Arab Revolt of 1916. For the 1936 revolt, see 1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine.

The Arab Revolt (1916–1918) was initiated by the Sherif Hussein ibn Ali with the aim of securing independence from the ruling Ottoman Turks and creating a single unified Arab state spanning from Aleppo in Syria to Aden in Yemen. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Triple Entente Strength 2,850,000 2 Casualties 550,000 KIA 3 891,000 WIA 240,000 Sickness 103,731 MIO 250,000 POW 1 1 Ottoman casualties are from Republic of Turkey gov. ... Image File history File links Arab_Revolt_flag. ... The Armistice of Mudros was signed between the Ottoman Empire (represented by the Ottoman Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Beg) and the Allies (represented by the British Admiral Arthur Calthorpe), in the Mudros port in the island of Lemnos on 30 October 1918. ... The Treaty of Sèvres of August 10, 1920, was a peace treaty between the Entente and Associated Powers[1] and the Ottoman Empire after World War I. The treaty was signed by the Ottoman Government, but Sultan Mehmed VI never signed that treaty. ... Image File history File links Arab_Revolt_flag. ... Hashemite is the Anglicised version of the Arabic: هاشمي (transliteration: Hashemi) and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim, or clan of Hashem, a clan within the larger Quraish tribe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem At the height of its power (1680) Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Faisal bin Husayn (Arabic:فيصل بن حسين May 20, 1883 – September 8, 1933) was for a short while king of Greater Syria in 1920 and king of Iraq from 1921 to 1933. ... Thomas Edward Lawrence (August 16, 1888 – May 19, 1935), also known as Lawrence of Arabia, and (apparently, among his Arab allies) Aurens or El Aurens, became famous for his role as a British liaison officer during the Arab Revolt of 1916–1918. ... Ahmed Djemal Pasha Ahmed Djemal Pasha (Turkish: Ahmet Cemal PaÅŸa) (May 6, 1872 - July 21, 1922) was born in Midilli. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir John Maxwell Archibald Murray Henry George Chauvel Philip Chetwode Charles Dobell Edmund Allenby Djemal Pasha Kress von Kressenstein Jadir Bey Tala Bey Erich von Falkenhayn Otto Liman von Sanders The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of... The first Suez Offence was an offence in 1915 in World War One. ... Battle of Romani Conflict First World War Date 3– 5 August 1916 Place Sinai peninsula, Egypt Result Allied victory The Battle of Romani took place near the Egyptian town of Romani which lies 23 miles east of the Suez Canal near the Mediterranean shore of the Sinai peninsula. ... Battle of Magdhaba Conflict First World War Date 23 December 1916 Place Sinai peninsula, Australia, New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Gen. ... Battle of Rafa Conflict First World War Date 9 January 1917 Place Rafa, Sinai-Australia, New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Philip Chetwode Unknown Strength 5 mounted brigades 2,000 Casualties 71 killed 415 wounded 200 killed 168 wounded 1,434 prisoners The Battle of Rafa was a World War I... First Battle of Gaza Conflict First World War Date 26 March 1917 Place Gaza, southern Palestine Result Turkish victory The First Battle of Gaza was a World War I battle on the southern border of Palestine. ... Second Battle of Gaza Conflict First World War Date 19 April 1917 Place Gaza, southern Palestine Result Turkish victory The Second Battle of Gaza, fought in southern Palestine during World War I, was the second attempt mounted by the British to break the Turkish defences along the Gaza-Beersheba line. ... Third Battle of Gaza Conflict First World War Date 31 October–7 November 1917 Place Gaza, southern Palestine Result Allied victory The Third Battle of Gaza was fought in 1917 in southern Palestine during World War I. The British forces under the command of General Edmund Allenby successfully broke... The Battle of Beersheba took place on October 31, 1917, as part of the Sinai and Palestine campaign during World War I. The Australian 4th Light Horse Brigade, under Brigadier General William Grant, charged more than four miles at the Turkish trenches, overran them and captured the wells at Beersheba. ... Combatants Australia, United Kingdom New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Kress von Kressenstein The Battle of El Mughar Ridge on 13 November 1917 took place at Junction Station, where the Haifa-Jerusalem line branches to Beersheba. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Edmund Allenby Erich von Falkenhayn Strength Egyption Expeditionary Force Seventh Army Casualties 18,000 (for entire campaign) 25,000 (for entire cmpaign) {{{notes}}} The Battle of Jerusalem resulted in the city of Jerusalem falling to British forces in December 1917. ... Combatants British Empire Australia India New Zealand United Kingdom France Arab insurgents Ottoman Empire German Empire Commanders Edmund Allenby Otto Liman von Sanders Strength 12,000 mounted troops 57,000 infantry 540 guns 3,000 mounted troops 32,000 infantry 402 guns Casualties 782 killed 382 missing 4,179 wounded... An uprising during the British mandate by Palestinian Arabs in Palestine which lasted from 1936 to 1939. ... Hussein ibn Ali or Husayn ibn Ali (died 1931) was the Sherif of Mecca, and Emir of Mecca from 1908 until 1917, when he proclaimed himself king. ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب) are a heterogeneous ethnic group who are predominantly speakers of the Arabic language, mainly found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... Old Town viewed from Aleppo Citadel Aleppo (or Halab Arabic: ‎ meaning he milked, ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... Port of Aden (around 1910). ...

Contents

Background

Further information: Second Constitutional Era (Ottoman Empire)

The Young Turk Revolution began on July 3, 1908 and quickly spread throughout the empire, resulting in the sultan's announcement of the restoration of the 1876 constitution and the reconvening of parliament. The constitutional era had a lapse between Countercoup (1909), which aimed to dismantle the constitution and brining the monarchy of Abdul Hamid II with a dethroned Sultan's bid for a return to the Caliphate by replacing the secular policies, and counter-revolution 31 March Incident that ended with the the sultan Abdul Hamid II deposed and sent to exile in Selanik, and replaced by his brother Mehmed V Reşad. Public Demonstration The Second Constitutional Era in the Ottoman Empire began with the 1908 Young Turk Revolution, shortly after which Sultan Abdul Hamid II restored the 1876 Constitution suspended since 1878. ... The 1908 Young Turk Revolution even though a popular constitutional movement, was a watershed in the history of the late Ottoman Empire. ... Public Demonstration The Second Constitutional Era in the Ottoman Empire began with the 1908 Young Turk Revolution, shortly after which Sultan Abdul Hamid II restored the 1876 Constitution suspended since 1878. ... The Countercoup (March 1909) is the famous coup against the Imperial Government of the Ottoman Empire, which was established by Young Turk Revolution of 1908, aimed to dismantle the Second Constitutional Era (Ottoman Empire) and brining the monarchy of Abdul Hamid II with a dethroned Sultans bid for a... Places where monarchies maintain rule appear in blue. ... Abdülhamid II (Ottoman Turkish: عبد الحميد ثانی , Turkish: Ä°kinci Abdülhamid) (September 21, 1842 – February 10, 1918) was the 34th sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Caliphate (Arabic خلافة Khilafah) is an Islamic federal government which represents political leadership and unity of the Muslim world (Ummah) applying Islamic law (Shariah). ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... 31 March Incident (31 Mart Vakası) was a rebellion of the reactionaries in 1909 in Ä°stanbul toward the Countercoup (1909), who attempted to put an end to the nascent Second Constitutional Era in the Ottoman Empire and to the newly-established influence of the Committee of Union and Progress, in... Abdülhamid II (Ottoman Turkish: عبد الحميد ثانی , Turkish: Ä°kinci Abdülhamid) (September 21, 1842 – February 10, 1918) was the 34th sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... Sultan Mehmed V Mehmed V (sometimes also Mahommed V; known as Mehmed V ReÅŸad (or ReÅŸat) or Reshid Effendi) (November 2, 1844 – July 3, 1918) was the 39th Ottoman Sultan. ...


In the elections held in 1908, The Committee of Union and Progress, managed to gain the upper hand against the rival group led by Prince Sabahaddin, more liberal in outlook, bearing a strong British imprint, and closer to the Palace. The new parliament comprised 142 Turks, 60 Arabs, 25 Albanians, 23 Greeks, 12 Armenians (including four Dashnaks and two Hunchas), 5 Jews, 4 Bulgarians, 3 Serbs and 1 Vlach. Ottoman politics changed and discrimination against non-Turkish inhabitants increased. Foundation: 1890 Dissolved: 1918, Court Martialed Head: Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (Turkish: Ä°ttihad ve Terakki Cemiyeti) was a political organization during the dissolution period of the Ottoman Empire which came to power between 1908 and 1918. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF) (Armenian: Hay Heghapokhakan Dashnaktsutiun, Dashnaktsutiun, Dashnak, or Tashnak) is an Armenian political party founded in Georgia in 1890 by Christofor Mikaelian, Rostom Zarian, and Simon Zavarian. ... The Social Democrat Hunchakian Party is the oldest political party in Armenia. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Vlachs (also called Wallachians, Wlachs, Wallachs, Olahs or Ulahs) is a blanket term covering several modern Latin peoples descending from the Latinised population in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. ...


World War One

Further information: Middle Eastern theatre of World War I

The Ottoman Empire took part in the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I, under the terms of the Ottoman-German Alliance. Many Arab nationalist figures in Damascus and Beirut were arrested, then tortured and executed by the Ottomans. The Arabs were also threatened by the construction of the Hejaz railway, which helped move Turkish troops deep into Arab areas (the railway was actually finished under the old Sultan, but its effects became more noticeable under the CUP government). Combatants Ottoman Empire Triple Entente Strength 2,850,000 2 Casualties 550,000 KIA 3 891,000 WIA 240,000 Sickness 103,731 MIO 250,000 POW 1 1 Ottoman casualties are from Republic of Turkey gov. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Triple Entente Strength 2,850,000 2 Casualties 550,000 KIA 3 891,000 WIA 240,000 Sickness 103,731 MIO 250,000 POW 1 1 Ottoman casualties are from Republic of Turkey gov. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul... Ottoman-German Alliance is the alliance established between Ottoman Empire and Germany before WWI. There was a strong favore toward alliance with the Allied powers. ... Damascus at sunset Damascus ( translit: Also commonly: الشام ash-Shām) is the largest city of Syria and is also the capital. ... Beirut ( translit: ) is the capital, largest city, and chief seaport of Lebanon. ... al Hijaz Station in Damascus, starting point of the railroad The 1050mm gauge Hejaz railway (also Hedjaz, etc. ...


Captain T.E. Lawrence

T.E. Lawrence in the white silk robes of the Sherifs of Mecca.
Enlarge
T.E. Lawrence in the white silk robes of the Sherifs of Mecca.

Because of these reasons, Sherif Hussein, as the head of the Arab nationalists, entered into an alliance with the United Kingdom and France against the Ottomans around June 8, 1916 (the actual date is a bit uncertain). The Arab forces were led by his sons Abdullah and Faisal. The British government in Egypt immediately sent a young officer to work with the Arabs, this man was Captain T.E. Lawrence, known now as Lawrence of Arabia. Image File history File links Thomas_Edward_Lawrence-Lawrence_of_Arabia. ... Image File history File links Thomas_Edward_Lawrence-Lawrence_of_Arabia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sayyid. ... Mecca IPA: or Makkah IPA: (in full: Makkah al-Mukarramah IPA: ; Arabic: ‎, Turkish: Mekke) is the capital city of Saudi Arabias Makkah province, in the historic Hejaz region. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Abdullah I of Jordan King Abdullah I of Jordan (1882 – July 20, 1951) (Arabic: عبد الله الأول), also known as Abdullah bin Husayn (Arabic: عبد الله بن حسين), was, successively, Emir of Trans-Jordan (1921–1946) under a British Mandate, then King of Transjordan (May 25, 1946–1949), and finally King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan... Faisal bin Husayn (Arabic:فيصل بن حسين May 20, 1883 – September 8, 1933) was for a short while king of Greater Syria in 1920 and king of Iraq from 1921 to 1933. ... Thomas Edward Lawrence (August 16, 1888 – May 19, 1935), also known as Lawrence of Arabia, and (apparently, among his Arab allies) Aurens or El Aurens, became famous for his role as a British liaison officer during the Arab Revolt of 1916–1918. ...


Lawrence's major contribution to the revolt was convincing the Arab leaders (Faisal and Abdullah) to co-ordinate their actions in support of British strategy. He persuaded the Arabs not to drive the Ottomans out of Medina, instead, the Arabs attacked the Hejaz railway on many occasions. This tied up more Ottoman troops, who were forced to protect the railway and repair the constant damage. Medina (Arabic: ‎ IPA: or المدينة IPA: ; also transliterated into English as Madinah) is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia. ...


In 1917, Lawrence arranged a joint action with the Arab irregulars and forces under Auda Abu Tayi (until then in the employ of the Ottomans) against the port city of Aqaba. Aqaba was of interest to the British as a supply base for the Egyptian Expeditionary Force as well as the Arab revolt. On July 6, after an overland attack, Aqaba fell to Arab forces. Later in the year, the Arab warriors made small raids on Ottoman positions in support of General Allenby's winter attack on the Gaza-Bersheeba defensive line (see the Battle of Beersheba). Allenby's victories lead directly to the capture of Jerusalem just before Christmas 1917. Auda ibu Tayi (also: Auda Abu Tayi, etc. ... Aqaba (Arabic: العقبة al-ʻAqabah) is a coastal town with a population of 101,290 (2000) and 2% of Jordans population in the far south of Jordan (). It is the capital of Aqaba Governorate. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: it is patent nonsense. ... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... Field Marshal Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby ( April 23, 1861 - May 14, 1936) was a British soldier most famous for his role during World War I, in which he led the Egyptian Expeditionary Force in the conquest of Palestine and Syria in 1917 and 1918. ... The Battle of Beersheba took place on October 31, 1917, as part of the Sinai and Palestine campaign during World War I. The Australian 4th Light Horse Brigade, under Brigadier General William Grant, charged more than four miles at the Turkish trenches, overran them and captured the wells at Beersheba. ... Panoramic view from Mt. ...


1918: The End of Fighting

In 1918, the Arab cavalry gained in strength (as it seemed victory was at hand) and they were able to provide Allenby's army with intelligence on Ottoman army positions. They also harassed Ottoman supply columns, attacked small garrisons, and destroyed railroad tracks. Perhaps due to these attacks, Allenby's last offensive, the Battle of Megiddo (1918), was a stunning success. The Ottoman army was routed in less than 10 days of battle. Australian Lighthorse troops marched unopposed into Damascus on September 30, 1918. T.E. Lawrence and his Arab troops rode into Damascus the next day[citation needed] to receive the surrender. At the end of the war, the Egyptian Expeditionary Force had seized what is today Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, large parts of the Arabian peninsula and southern Syria. Combatants British Empire Australia India New Zealand United Kingdom France Arab insurgents Ottoman Empire German Empire Commanders Edmund Allenby Otto Liman von Sanders Strength 12,000 mounted troops 57,000 infantry 540 guns 3,000 mounted troops 32,000 infantry 402 guns Casualties 782 killed 382 missing 4,179 wounded... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ...


Casualties

It is estimated that the Arab forces involved in the revolt numbered around 5,000 soldiers; by comparison the British had over 240,000 dead/wounded during the Battle of the Somme. Combatants United Kingdom Australia Canada New Zealand Newfoundland South Africa France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Joseph Joffre Max von Gallwitz Fritz von Below Strength 13 British and 11 French divisions (initial) 51 British and 48 French divisions (final) 10½ divisions (initial) 50 divisions (final) Casualties 419,654 British Empire...


The main contribution of the Arab Revolt to the war was to pin down tens of thousands of Turkish troops who otherwise might have been used to attack the Suez Canal, allowing the British to undertake offensive operations with a lower risk of counterattack. Ships moored at El Ballah during transit The Suez Canal (Arabic: ‎, translit: ), is a large artificial maritime canal in Egypt west of the Sinai Peninsula. ...


Conclusion of Hostilities

See also: Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire

The United Kingdom agreed in the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence that it would support Arab independence if they revolted against the Ottomans. The two sides had different interpretations of this agreement. In this event, the United Kingdom, France and Russia divided up the area in ways unfavourable to the Arabs under the 1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement. Further confusing the issue was the Balfour Declaration of 1917, which promised support for a Jewish "national home" in Palestine. The Hedjaz region of western Arabia became an independent state under Hussein's control, until the early 1930's, when it was absorbed by Saudi Arabia. Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire is direct consequence of the World War I with the Ottomans involvement in the Middle Eastern theatre. ... The Hussein-McMahon Correspondence during World War I was a 1915-1916 exchange of letters between the Hejazi (the Hejaz later became part of Saudi Arabia) leader Hussein ibn Ali, Sharif of Mecca, and Sir Henry McMahon, British High Commissioner in Egypt, concerning the future political status of the Arab... Zones of French and British influence and control established by the Sykes-Picot Agreement The Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 16, 1916 was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East. ... The Balfour Declaration was a letter dated November 2, 1917 from the British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour, to Lord Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation, a private Zionist organization. ... This article describes some ethnic, historic, and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity; for a consideration of the Jewish religion, refer to the article Judaism. ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Hejaz (also Hijaz, Hedjaz) is a region in the northwest of present-day Saudi Arabia; its main city is Jeddah, but it is probably better-known for the holy city of Mecca. ...


See also

Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir John Maxwell Archibald Murray Henry George Chauvel Philip Chetwode Charles Dobell Edmund Allenby Djemal Pasha Kress von Kressenstein Jadir Bey Tala Bey Erich von Falkenhayn Otto Liman von Sanders The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of... Pan-Arabism is a movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ...

References

  • History of the Arab Revolt (on King Hussein's website)
  • Arab Revolt at PBS
  • Fromkin, David (1989). A Peace to End All Peace. Avon Books.
World War I
Theatres Main events Specific articles Participants See also

Prelude:
Causes
Sarajevo assassination
The July Ultimatum Hussein bin Talal (Arabic: ; November 14, 1935 – February 7, 1999) was the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan from 1952 to 1999. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul... European military alliances in 1915. ... A plaque commemorating the exact location of the Sarajevo Assassination On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg were shot to death in Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, by Gavrilo Princip, a member of Young... The Austro-Hungarian Ultimatum to Serbia or July Ultimatum was an ultimatum or final list of demands delivered to the government of Serbia on July 23, 1914, following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo. ...


Main theatres:
Western Front
Eastern Front
Italian Front
Middle Eastern Theatre
Balkan Theatre
Atlantic Theatre Combatants Belgium, British Empire, France, United States, other Western Allies of WWI Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then General Ferdinand Foch Kaiser Wilhelm II Casualties ~4,800,000 Unknown though considerably higher Following the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, the German army opened the Western... Combatants German Empire Austria-Hungary Russian Empire Romania Commanders Paul von Hindenburg Erich Ludendorff Conrad von Hötzendorf Nikolay II Grand Duke Nicholas Constantin Prezan The Eastern Front was a theatre of war during World War I in Central and, primarily, Eastern Europe. ... The Italian campaign refers to a series of battles fought between the armies of Italy and Austria Hungary along with their allies in northern Italy between 1915 and 1918. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Triple Entente Strength 2,850,000 2 Casualties 550,000 KIA 3 891,000 WIA 240,000 Sickness 103,731 MIO 250,000 POW 1 1 Ottoman casualties are from Republic of Turkey gov. ... Combatants Central Powers Triple Entente, Serbia, Romania The Balkans Campaign of World War I was fought between Serbia and later Romania who sided with the Allied Powers against the Central Powers, mostly Austria-Hungary and Germany as well as Bulgaria. ... The First Battle of the Atlantic (1914–1918) was a naval campaign of World War I, largely fought in the seas around the British Isles and in the Atlantic Ocean. ...


Other theatres:
African Theatre
Pacific Theatre Combatants Great Britian, South Africa, France, Belgium, Portugal Germany The African Theatre of World War I was a set of unrelated wars for control over German colonies in Africa: the German colonies of Kamerun, Togo, South-West Africa, and German East Africa. ... Combatants Japan, Great Britain, New Zealand, Australia Germany The Asian and Pacific Theatre of World War I was a largely bloodless conquest of a number of German controlled islands in the Pacific Ocean. ...


General timeline:
WWI timeline The following tables list the main events happened during World War I. // 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 Post-1920 Categories: | ...

1914:
Battle of Liège
Battle of Tannenberg
Invasion of Serbia
First Battle of the Marne
First Battle of Arras
Battle of Sarikamis
1915:
Mesopotamian Campaign
Battle of Gallipoli
Italian Campaign
• Conquest of Serbia
1916:
Battle of Verdun
Battle of the Somme
Battle of Jutland
Brusilov Offensive
Conquest of Romania
Great Arab Revolt
1917:
Second Battle of Arras (Vimy Ridge)
Battle of Passchendaele
Capture of Baghdad
• Conquest of Palestine
1918:
Spring Offensive
Hundred Days Offensive
• Meuse-Argonne Offensive
Armistice with Germany
Armistice with Ottoman Empire
The Battle of Liège was the opening battle of the German invasion into Belgium, and the first battle of World War I. // The plan In 1870, soon after the German military defeated the French in the Franco-Prussian War, German military leader Helmuth von Moltke began formulating a plan... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Austria-Hungary German Empire Bulgaria Triple Entente Serbia Greece Italy Commanders Oskar Potiorek Radomir Putnik Maurice Sarrail Adolphe Guillaumat Franchet dEsperey George Milne Panagiotis Danglis The Serbian Campaign was fought from August 1914, when Austria-Hungary invaded Serbia, thus starting the First World War, until the end of... Combatants France United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Joseph Joffre John French Helmuth von Moltke Karl von Bulow Alexander von Kluck Strength 1,071,000 1,485,000 Casualties Approximately 263,000: 250,000 French casualties (80,000 dead) 13,000 British casualties (1,700 dead) Approximately 250,000 total The... Combatants France German Empire Commanders Louis Maudhuy Crown Prince Rupprecht Strength French Tenth Army Three corps of the German First, Second and Seventh Armies The Battle of Arras (also known as the First Battle of Arras), which began on October 1, 1914, was an attempt by the French Army... Combatants Russia Ottoman Empire Commanders General Vorontsov General Yudenich Enver Pasha Strength 100,000 90,000 (plus aprox. ... The Mesopotamian Campaign was a theater of the First World War fought between Allied forces represented by British and Anglo-Indian troops, and Central forces of the Ottoman Empire. ... Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Turkey (Ottoman Empire) Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Otto von Sanders Enver pasha Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) 6 divisions The Battle of Gallipoli (sometimes referred to as the first D-Day) took place on the Turkish peninsula... The Italian campaign refers to a series of battles fought between the armies of Italy and Austria Hungary along with their allies in northern Italy between 1915 and 1918. ... Combatants Austria-Hungary German Empire Bulgaria Triple Entente Serbia Greece Italy Commanders Oskar Potiorek Radomir Putnik Maurice Sarrail Adolphe Guillaumat Franchet dEsperey George Milne Panagiotis Danglis The Serbian Campaign was fought from August 1914, when Austria-Hungary invaded Serbia, thus starting the First World War, until the end of... Combatants France German Empire Commanders Philippe Pétain Robert Nivelle Erich von Falkenhayn Strength About 30,000 on 21 February 1916 About 150,000 on 21 February 1916 Casualties 378,000; of whom 120,000 died 337,000; of whom 100,000 died The Battle of Verdun, fought from 21... Combatants British Empire Australia Canada New Zealand Newfoundland South Africa United Kingdom France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Joseph Joffre Max von Gallwitz Fritz von Below Strength 13 British & 11 French divisions (initial) 51 British and 48 French divisions (final) 10. ... Combatants Royal Navy (Grand Fleet) Kaiserliche Marine (High Seas Fleet) Commanders Sir John Jellicoe, Sir David Beatty Reinhard Scheer, Franz von Hipper Strength 28 battleships, 9 battlecruisers, 8 heavy cruisers, 26 light cruisers, 78 destroyers 16 battleships, 5 battlecruisers, 6 pre-dreadnoughts, 11 light cruisers, 61 torpedo-boats Casualties 6... Combatants Russian Empire Austro-Hungary German Empire Commanders Aleksei Brusilov Conrad von Hötzendorf Alexander von Linsingen Strength 40+ infantry divisions (573,000 men) 15 cavalry divisions (60,000 men) 39 infantry divisions (437,000 men) 10 Cavalry divisions (30,000 men) Casualties ~500,000 men killed and wounded 975... Combatants Central Powers, Bulgaria Romania, Russia Commanders General Falkenhayn General Mackensen General Averescu, General Zaionchovsky Strength 450,000 600,000 Casualties 60,000 roughly 330,000 (50% POWs) The Romanian Campaign was a campaign in the Balkans theatre of World War I fought between Romania and Russia against armies of... Combatants Allies Central Powers Commanders Julian Byng Arthur Currie Ludwig von Falkenhausen Strength 30,000 Unknown Casualties 3,598 dead 7,104 wounded 20,000 The Battle of Vimy Ridge was one of the opening battles in a larger British campaign known as the Battle of Arras. ... Combatants British Empire Australia Canada New Zealand United Kingdom France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Hubert Gough Herbert Plumer Arthur Currie Max von Gallwitz Erich Ludendorff Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties 448,000 killed and wounded 260,000 killed and wounded The 1917 Battle of Passchendaele, also known as the Third... Combatants The Tigris Corps of British India Sixth Army of the Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Frederick Stanley Maude Khalil Pasha Strength 50,000 men 25,000 men Casualties unknown unknown, more than 9,000 were taken prisoner Baghdad was the southern capital of the Ottoman Empire in 1917. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir John Maxwell Archibald Murray Henry George Chauvel Philip Chetwode Charles Dobell Edmund Allenby Djemal Pasha Kress von Kressenstein Jadir Bey Tala Bey Erich von Falkenhayn Otto Liman von Sanders The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of... The 1918 Spring Offensive or Kaiserschlacht was a series of German attacks along the Western Front during the First World War, which marked the deepest advance by either side since 1914. ... The Hundred Days Offensive was the final offensive in World War I by the Allies against the Central Powers on the Western Front from August 8, 1918 to November 11, 1918. ... The Meuse-Argonne Offensive was a major battle of World War I. It was the biggest operation and victory of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) in that war. ... Front page of the New York Times on Armistice Day, 11 November 1918 The armistice treaty between the Allies and Germany was signed in a railway carriage in Compiègne Forest on November 11, 1918, and marked the end of the First World War on the Western Front. ... The Armistice of Mudros was signed between the Ottoman Empire (represented by the Ottoman Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Beg) and the Allies (represented by the British Admiral Arthur Calthorpe), in the Mudros port in the island of Lemnos on 30 October 1918. ...

Military engagements
Naval warfare
Air warfare
Cryptography
People
Poison gas
Railways
Technology
Trench warfare
Partition of Ottoman Empire A German trench in the swamp area near the Mazuric Lakes on the Eastern Front. ... British battleship HMS Irresistible abandoned and sinking, 18 March 1915, during the Battle of Gallipoli. ... Nieuport Fighter Aisne, France 1917 Aerial warfare was introduced alongside many other innovations in World War I. Previously wars had been fought on land and at sea, but the advent of aircraft technology allowed a third dimension: a war in the air. ... In cryptography, trench codes were codes used for secrecy by field armies in World War I. A reasonably-designed code is generally more difficult to crack than a classical cipher, but of course suffers from the difficulty of preparing, distributing, and protecting codebooks. ... A poison gas attack in World War I. The use of poison gas was a major military innovation of the First World War. ... The machine gun was one of the decisive technologies during World War I. Picture: British Vickers machine gun crew on the Western Front. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defence. ... Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire is direct consequence of the World War I with the Ottomans involvement in the Middle Eastern theatre. ...


Civilian impact and atrocities:
Armenian Genocide
Assyrian Genocide Armenian Genocide photo. ... Bodies of Assyrians who perished during the Assyrian Genocide 40 Christians dying a day say Assyrian refugees - The Syracuse Herald, 1915. ...


Aftermath:
Aftermath
Casualties
• Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Paris Peace Conference
Treaty of Versailles
• Treaty of St. Germain
• Treaty of Neuilly
Treaty of Trianon
Treaty of Sèvres
Treaty of Lausanne
League of Nations Woodrow Wilson and the American peace commissioners during the negotiations on the Treaty of Versailles. ... Pie chart showing deaths by alliance and military/civilian. ... The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest, formerly Brest-Litovsk, between Russia and the Central Powers, marking Russias exit from World War I. The treaty was practically obsolete before the end of the year but is significant as a chief... The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 was a conference organized by the victors of World War I to negotiate the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and the defeated Central Powers. ... The Treaty of Versailles (3010) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Central Powers and the German Empire. ... The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the new Republic of Austria on the other. ... The Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine, dealing with Bulgaria for its role as one of the Central Powers in World War I, was signed on the November 27, 1919 at Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. ... The Grand Trianon at Versailles, site of the signing The Treaty of Trianon was the peace agreement imposed on Hungary after World War I by the victorious powers. ... The Treaty of Sèvres of August 10, 1920, was a peace treaty between the Entente and Associated Powers[1] and the Ottoman Empire after World War I. The treaty was signed by the Ottoman Government, but Sultan Mehmed VI never signed that treaty. ... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty that settle a part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire that reflected the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Turkish national movement, (Grand National Assembly... The League of Nations was an international organization founded after the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. ...

Entente Powers
Russian Empire
France
British Empire
  » United Kingdom
  » Australia
  » Canada
  » India
  » New Zealand
  » Newfoundland
  » South Africa
Italy
Romania
United States
Serbia
Portugal
China
Japan
Belgium
Montenegro
Greece
Armenia
more… European military alliances in 1914. ... Image File history File links Russian_Empire_1914_17. ... Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1924) Area Approx. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Australia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada-1868-Red. ... Image File history File links Imperial-India-Blue-Ensign. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Newfoundland. ... National motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Capital St. ... Image File history File links South_Africa_Red_Ensign. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946). ... File links The following pages link to this file: Axis Powers Flag of Romania Categories: Flag images ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Flaf_of_Serbia_(1882-1918). ... KaraÄ‘orÄ‘e Petrović, leader of Serbian uprising in 1804 Serbia gained its autonomy from the Ottoman Empire in two revolutions in 1804 and 1815, though Turkish troops continued to garrison the capital, Belgrade until 1867. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China_1912-1928. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium. ... Image File history File links Old_Flag_of_Montenegro. ... The history of Montenegro begins in the early Middle Ages, after the arrival of the Slavs into that part of the former Roman province of Dalmatia that forms present-day Montenegro. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... European military alliances in 1914. ...


Central Powers
German Empire
Austria-Hungary
Ottoman Empire
Bulgaria
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Triple Alliance. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Polish (Posen, Lower Silesia,Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria-Hungary. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem At the height of its power (1680) Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... The flag of the Kingdom of Bulgaria. ...

• Category: World War I
A war to end all wars
Female roles
Literature
Total war
Spanish flu
Veterans
World War I (then known as The Great War) was at the time and in the years just after described as the war to end all wars (or, in the jargon of the French Poilus: la der des der, i. ... Rosie the Riveter: We Can Do It! - Many women first found economic strength in World War II-era manufacturing jobs. ... World War I has inspired great novels, drama and poetry. ... This article is about the military doctrine of total war. ... Public Notice The Spanish Flu Pandemic (less misleadingly called the 1918 flu pandemic) was a pandemic in 1918 and 1919 caused by an unusually severe and deadly strain of the subtype H1N1 of the species Influenza A virus (which apparently killed via cytokine storm, explaining the severe nature and unusual... The following is a list of known surviving veterans of the First World War (28 July 1914 – 11 November 1918). ...


Contemporaneous conflicts:
First Balkan War (1912-13)
Second Balkan War (1913)
Maritz Rebellion (1914-15)
Easter Rising (1916)
Russian Revolution (1917)
Russian Civil War (1917-21)
Finnish Civil War (1918)
North Russia Campaign (1918-19)
• Wielkopolska Uprising (1918-19)
Polish–Soviet War (1919-21)
Irish War of Independence also known as the Anglo-Irish War (1919-21)
Turkish War of Independence also known as the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922)
Irish Civil War (1922-23)

// Combatants Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Montenegro Greece Serbia Commanders Nizam Pasha, Zekki Pasha, Esat Pasha, Abdullah Pasha, Ali Rizah Pasha Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Serbia: Radomir Putnik, Petar Bojović, Stepa Stepanović Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Strength 350,000 men Bulgaria... The Second Balkan War was fought in 1913 between Bulgaria on one side and Greece and Serbia on the other side. ... The Maritz Rebellion or the Boer Revolt or the Five Shilling Rebellion1, occurred in South Africa in 1914 at the start of World War I, in which men who supported the recreation of the old Boer republics rose up against the government of the Union of South Africa. ... Combatants Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Republican Brotherhood British Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Pádraig Pearse, James Connolly General Sir John Maxwell Strength 1250 in Dublin, c. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the system of autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal Provisional Government (Duma), resulting in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Combatants Red Army (Bolsheviks) White Army (Monarchists, SRs, Anti-Communists) Green Army (Peasants and Nationalists) Black Army (Anarchists) Commanders Leon Trotsky Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Lavr Kornilov, Alexander Kolchak, Anton Denikin, Pyotr Wrangel Alexander Antonov, Nikifor Grigoriev Nestor Makhno Strength 5,427,273 (peak) +1,000,000 Casualties 939,755... Combatants Whites: White Guards, German Empire, Swedish volunteers Reds: Red Guards, Bolshevist Russia Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Ali Aaltonen, Eero Haapalainen, Eino Rahja, Kullervo Manner Strength 80,000-90,000 Finns, 550 Swedish volunteers, 13,000 Germans[1] 80,000-90,000 Finns, 4,000-10,000 Russians[1... North Russia Campaign Arkhangelsk Oblast May 1918 – Sept 1919 Polar Bear Expedition Russian Civil War North Russia Relief Force // Introduction The North Russia Campaign (also known as the Northern Russian Expedition or the Allied Intervention in North Russia) was the involvement of international troops part of the Allied Intervention in... Soldiers of the Great Polish Army Wielkopolska Uprising of 1918–1919 (Polish: powstanie wielkopolskie 1918–19 roku) was a military insurrection of the Polish people in the Greater Poland region (also called the Grand Duchy of Poznań) against the German/Prussian forces. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Second Polish Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Joseph Stalin Józef Piłsudski Edward Rydz-Śmigły Strength 950,000 including reserves 5 million 360,000 including reserves 738,000 Casualties Unknown, dead estimated at 100,000 - 150,000 Unknown, dead estimated at... Combatants Irish Republic and those who supported it, see Irish Republicanism United Kingdom, see Unionism(Ireland) Strength Irish Republican Army c. ... An Irish War of Independence memorial in Dublin The Anglo-Irish War (also known as the Irish War of Independence) was a guerrilla campaign mounted against the British government in Ireland by the Irish Republican Army under the proclaimed legitimacy of the First Dáil, the extra-legal Irish parliament... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Combatants Greece Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Gen Leonidas Paraskevopoulos, Gen Anastasios Papoulas, Gen Georgios Hatzianestis Ali Fethi Okyar, Ismet Inonu, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Fevzi Çakmak Strength 200,000 men 120,000 men (plus thousands more volunteers) Casualties 23,500 dead; 20,820 captured 20,540 dead; 10,000 wounded The... Combatants Irish National Army (pro-Treaty) Irish Republican Army (anti-Treaty) Commanders Michael Collins† Richard Mulcahy Liam Lynch† Frank Aiken Strength National Army c. ...

More information on World War I:

 World War I from Wiktionary
 WWI Textbooks from Wikibooks
 WWI Quotations from Wikiquote
 WWI Source texts from Wikisource
 WWI Images and media from Commons
 WWI News stories from Wikinews
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (770 words)
The 1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine was an uprising during the British mandate by Palestinian Arabs in Palestine which lasted from 1936 to 1939.
The revolt was driven primarily by Arab hostility to Britain's permission of restricted Jewish immigration and land purchases which Palestinian Arabs believed was leading them to becoming a minority in the territory and future nation-state.
With the rejection of this proposal, the revolt resumed during the autumn of 1937, marked by the assassination of Commissioner Andrews in Nazareth.
The Great Arab Revolt (1764 words)
While the colonial powers denied the Arabs their promised single unified Arab state, it is nevertheless testimony to the effectiveness of the Great Arab Revolt that the Hashemite family was able to secure Arab rule over Transjordan, Iraq and Arabia.
Arabs were further threatened by the construction of the Hijaz Railway, connecting Damascus and Mecca, which promised to facilitate the mobility of Turkish troops into the Arab heartland.
Sharif Husseins objective in undertaking the Great Arab Revolt was to establish a single independent and unified Arab state stretching from Aleppo (Syria) to Aden (Yemen), based on the ancient traditions and culture of the Arab people, the upholding of Islamic ideals and the full protection and inclusion of ethnic and religious minorities.
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