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Encyclopedia > Aquila (Roman)

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Military of ancient Rome (Portal)
800 BC–AD 476 The Military of ancient Rome (known to the Romans as the militia) relates to the combined military forces of Ancient Rome from the founding of the city of Rome to the end of the Western Roman Empire. ...

Structural history
Roman army (unit types and ranks,
legions, auxiliaries, generals)
Roman navy (fleets, admirals)
Campaign history
Lists of Wars and Battles
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siege engines, arches, roads)
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Hadrian's Wall)
Denarius minted by Mark Antony to pay his legions. On the reverse, the aquila of his Third legion.
Denarius minted by Mark Antony to pay his legions. On the reverse, the aquila of his Third legion.
A modern reconstruction of an aquila.
A modern reconstruction of an aquila.

The signa militaria were the Roman military ensigns or standards (flags). The most ancient standard employed by the Romans is said to have been a handful (maniple) of straw fixed to the top of a spear or pole. Hence the company of soldiers belonging to it was called Manipulus. The bundle of hay or fern was soon succeeded by the figures of animals, of which Pliny the Elder (H.N. x.4, s5) enumerates five: the eagle, the wolf, the minotaur (Festus, s.v. Minotaur.), the horse, and the boar. In the second consulship of Marius (104 BC) the four quadrupeds were laid aside as standards, the eagle (Aquila) being alone retained. It was made of silver, or bronze, with outstretched wings, but was probably of a small size, since a standard-bearer (signifer) under Julius Caesar is said in circumstances of danger to have wrenched the eagle from its staff and concealed it in the folds of his girdle.[1] The branches of the Roman military at the highest level were the Roman army and the Roman navy. ... The Roman army is the set of land-based military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... This is a list of both unit types and ranks of the Roman army from the Roman Republic to the fall of the Roman Empire. ... This is a list of Roman legions, including key facts about each legion. ... Auxiliaries (from Latin: auxilia = assistants) formed the non-citizen section of the Roman army of the late Republican and Imperial periods who provided general and specialist support to the legions. ... // Manius Acilius Glabrio -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 191 BC) -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 91) -- Titus Aebutius Helva -- Aegidius -- Lucius Aemilius Barbula -- Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir) -- Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus -- Marcus Aemilius Scaurus (praetor 56 BC) -- Flavius Aëtius -- Lucius Afranius (consul) -- Sextus Calpurnius Agricola -- Gnaeus Julius Agricola -- Flavius Antoninus -- Marcus... Roman trireme, a warship, 31 BC. Note the bank of oars (two on the hidden side), the square-rigged sails, the steering oars, the tower on deck, the ram at the prow, the ballistae and the Greek fire. ... Roman trireme, a warship, 31 BC. Note the bank of oars (two on the hidden side), the square-rigged sails, the steering oars, the tower on deck, the ram at the prow, the ballistae and the Greek fire. ... The history of ancient Rome - originally a city-state of Italy, and later an empire covering much of Eurasia and North Africa from the ninth century BC to the fifth century AD - was often closely entwined with its military history. ... The following is a List of Roman wars fought by the ancient Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, organized by date. ... The following is a List of Roman battles (fought by the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire), organized by date. ... As with most other military forces the Roman military adopted a carrot and stick approach to military, with an extensive list of decorations for military gallantry and likewise a range of punishments for the punishment of military transgressions. ... The technology history of the Roman military covers the development of and application of technologies for use in the armies and navies of Rome from the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. ... Roman military engineering is that Roman engineering carried out by the Roman Army - almost exclusively by the Roman legions for the furthering of military objectives. ... Basic ideal plan of a Roman castrum. ... Roman siege engines were, for the most part, adapted from Hellenistic siege technology. ... List of ancient Roman triumphal arches (By modern country) // France Orange Reims: Porte de Mars Saint Rémy de Provence: Roman site of Glanum Saintes: Arch of Germanicus Greece Arch of Galerius, Thessaloniki Hadrians Arch, Athens Italy It has been suggested that List of Roman arches in Rome be... For the one-off TV Drama, see Roman Road (TV Drama) A Roman road in Pompeii. ... Roman military personal equipment was produced in large numbers to established patterns and used in an established way. ... Root directory at Military history of ancient Rome Romes military was always tightly keyed to its political system. ... The strategy of the Roman Military encompasses its grand strategy (the arrangements made by the state to implement its political goals through a selection of military goals, a process of diplomacy backed by threat of military action, and a dedication to the military of part of its production and resources... robert galusha is mad ass fucking hot Root directory at Strategy of the Roman military Roman infantry tactics refers to the theoretical and historical deployment, formation and maneuvers of the Roman infantry from the start of the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. ... Map of all the territories once occupied by the Roman Empire, along with locations of limes Roman military borders and fortifications were part of a grand strategy of territorial defense in the Roman Empire. ... The limes Germanicus, 2nd century. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Mark Anthony. ... Mark Anthony. ... First row : c. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Denarius minted by Mark Antony to pay his legions. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2304x3456, 758 KB) Aquila, the sign of the legion Photographed by myself during a show of Legio XV from Pram, Austria File links The following pages link to this file: User:Panairjdde User talk:Panairjdde Aquila (Roman) User talk:Philx User... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2304x3456, 758 KB) Aquila, the sign of the legion Photographed by myself during a show of Legio XV from Pram, Austria File links The following pages link to this file: User:Panairjdde User talk:Panairjdde Aquila (Roman) User talk:Philx User... Ensign of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... It has been suggested that the section intro from the article Civil flag be merged into this article or section. ... Maniple (Latin: manipulus) was a tactical unit of the Roman Legion, consisting of two centuriae within a single cohort. ... Stacked hay in Romania Haystacks on stilts in Paddy fields, North Kanara, India Hay is dried grass or legumes cut, stored, and used for animal feed, particularly for grazing animals like cattle, horses, goats and sheep. ... Classes Psilotopsida Equisetopsida Marattiopsida Pteridopsida (Polypodiopsida) this dnt make sense A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Genera Several, see below. ... Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... In Greek mythology, the Minotaur (Greek: Μινόταυρος, Minótauros) was a creature that was part man and part bull. ... Festus can be several things: Festus, Missouri is a town in the United States. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... // Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 The Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig. ... Gaius Marius (Latin: C·MARIVS·C·F·C·N)¹ (157 BC - January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and politician elected Consul an unprecedented seven times during his career. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 109 BC 108 BC 107 BC 106 BC 105 BC - 104 BC - 103 BC 102 BC... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... A Scarsdale High School title to make kids who do good in school feel good about themselves. ... Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC or 102 BC–March 15, 44 BC), was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men of classical antiquity. ...

Under the later emperors the eagle was carried, as it had been for many centuries, with the legion, a legion being on that account sometimes called aquila (Hirt. Bell. Hisp. 30). Each cohort had for its own ensign the serpent or dragon, which was woven on a square piece of cloth textilis anguis,[2] elevated on a gilt staff, to which a cross-bar was adapted for the purpose,[3] and carried by the draconarius.[4] Cohort may mean: Cohort (military unit), a Roman legion. ... Serpent is a word of Latin origin (serpens, serpentis) which is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit term serp, that is normally substituted for snake in a specifically mythic or religious context, in order to distinguish such creatures from the field of biology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A gilt is any of the following: A thin covering of gold. ...

Another figure used in the standards was a ball (orb), supposed to have been emblematic of the dominion of Rome over the world;[5] and for the same reason a bronze figure of Victoria was sometimes fixed at the top of the staff, as we see it sculptured, together with small statues of Mars, on the Column of Trajan and the Arch of Constantine.[6] Under the eagle or other emblem was often placed a head of the reigning emperor, which was to the army the object of idolatrous adoration.[7] The name of the emperor, or of him who was acknowledged as emperor, was sometimes inscribed in the same situation.[8] The pole, used to carry the eagle, had at its lower extremity an iron point (cuspis) to fix it in the ground, and to enable the aquilifer in case of need to repel an attack.[9] Victoria on the reverse of this coin by Constantine II. In Roman mythology, Victoria was the goddess of victory. ... Trajans Column is a monument in Rome raised by Apollodorus of Damascus at the order of the Senate. ... The Arch of Constantine seen from the Colosseum The arch seen from Via Triumphalis Detail of the arch (southern side, left) The Arch of Constantine is a triumphal arch in Rome, situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill. ...

The minor divisions of a cohort, called centuries, had also each an ensign, inscribed with the number both of the cohort and of the century. This, together with the diversities of the crests worn by the centurions, enabled each soldier to take his place with ease.[10]

In the Arch of Constantine at Rome there are four sculptured panels near the top, which exhibit a great number of standards, and illustrate some of the forms here described. The first panel represents Trajan giving a king to the Parthians: seven standards are held by the soldiers. The second, containing five standards, represents the performance of the sacrifice called suovetaurilia.[11] The Arch of Constantine seen from the Colosseum The arch seen from Via Triumphalis Detail of the arch (southern side, left) The Arch of Constantine is a triumphal arch in Rome, situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill. ... The suovetaurilia was an ancient Roman sacrifice in which a pig, a sheep, and a bull were sacrificed. ...

When Constantine had embraced Christianity, a figure or emblem of Christ, woven in gold upon purple cloth, was substituted for the head of the emperor. This richly ornamented standard was called labarum.[12] The Labarum An image of the labarum, with the Greek letters Alpha and Omega inscribed. ...

Since the movements of a body of troops and of every portion of it were regulated by the standards, all the evolutions, acts, and incidents of the Roman army were expressed by phrases derived from this circumstance. Thus signa inferre meant to advance,[13] referre to retreat, and convertere to face about; efferre, or castris vellere, to march out of the camp;[14] ad signa convenire, to re-assemble.[15] Notwithstanding some obscurity in the use of terms, it appears that, whilst the standard of the legion was properly called aquila, those of the cohorts were in a special sense of the term called signa, their bearers being signiferi, and that those of the manipuli or smaller divisions of the cohort were denominated vexilla, their bearers being vexillarii. Also those who fought in the first ranks of the legion before the standards of the legion and cohorts were called antesignani.[16]

In military stratagems it was sometimes necessary to conceal the standards.[17] Although the Romans commonly considered it a point of honour to preserve their standards, yet in some cases of extreme danger the leader himself threw them among the ranks of the enemy in order to divert their attention or to animate his own soldiers.[18] A wounded or dying standard-bearer delivered it, if possible, into the hands of his general,[19] from whom he had received it signis acceptis.[20]



  1. ^ Flor. iv.12
  2. ^ Sidon. Apoll. Carm. v.409
  3. ^ Themist. Orat. i. p1, xviii. p267, ed. Dindorf; Claudian, iv. Cons. Honor. 546; vi. Cons. Honor. 566
  4. ^ Veget. de Re Mil. ii.13; compare Tac. Ann. i.18
  5. ^ Isid. Orig. xviii.3
  6. ^ see Causeus de Sig. in Graevii Thes. vol. x p2529
  7. ^ Josephus, B.J. ii.9 §2; Suet. Tiber. 48, Calig. 14; Tac. Ann. i.39, 41, iv.62
  8. ^ Sueton. Vespas. 6
  9. ^ Suet. Jul. 62
  10. ^ Veget. l.c.
  11. ^ Bartoli, Arc. Triumph.
  12. ^ Prudentius cont. Symm. i.466, 488; Niceph. H.E. vii.37
  13. ^ Caesar, B. G. i.25, ii.25
  14. ^ Virg. Georg. i.108
  15. ^ Caesar, B. G. vi.37
  16. ^ Caesar, B. C. i.43, 44, 56
  17. ^ Caesar, B. G. vii.45
  18. ^ Florus, i.11
  19. ^ Florus, iv.4
  20. ^ Tac. Ann. [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=Tac.+Ann.+1.42 i.42

Gaius Sollius Modestus Sidonius Apollinaris (c. ... Vegetius (Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus) was a celebrated military writer of the 4th century. ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... The Annals, or, in Latin, Annales, is a history book by Tacitus covering the reign of the 4 Roman Emperors succeeding to Caesar Augustus. ... Saint Isidore of Seville (Spanish: or ) (c. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 AD/CE)[1], who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Flavius Josephus[2], was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ...


Primary Sources

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Secondary Sources

Title page A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities is single volume encyclopedia in English language first published in 1842. ...

External links

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See also

Military of ancient Rome Portal

  Results from FactBites:
Aquila (327 words)
Two major novae have been observed in Aquila; the first one was in 389 BC and was recorded to be as bright as Venus, the other shone brighter than Altair.
The double star 15 Aquilae is a yellow K star of 5.4 mag accompanied by a 7th mag star; it can easily be observed with small telescopes.
The constellation is said to represent the eagle which, in classical Greek mythology, carried the thunderbolts of Zeus and was sent by him to carry the shepherd boy Ganymede, represented by the neighbouring Aquarius, to Mount Olympus where he became the wine-pourer for all the gods.
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Aquila sailed down from the Olympus and noticed Ganymedes (Ganymedes is associated with Aquarius), the son of the King of Troy, who was peacefully tending his father's herds.
Aquila represented the 'eagle of military Rome', 'the Eagle of Saint John the Evangelist' and Saint 'Catherine the Martyr'.
Among the Greeks and Romans, the eagle was the appointed bird of Jupiter and consequently signified the swiftly moving forces of the Demiurgus; hence it was looked upon as the mundane lord of the birds, in contradistinction to the phoenix, which was symbolic of the celestial ruler.
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