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Encyclopedia > Aqueous solution
The first solvation shell of a sodium ion dissolved in water

An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water. It is usually shown in chemical equations as a subscript (aq). The word aqueous means pertaining to, related to, similar to, or dissolved in water. As water is an excellent solvent as well as naturally abundant, it logically has become a ubiquitous solvent in chemistry. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A shell of any chemical species acting as a solvent, surrounding a solute species. ... Dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about a chemical solution; for other uses of the term solution, see solution (disambiguation). ... A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ... In chemistry, a chemical equation is a symbolic representation of a chemical reaction. ... For the connotation of the term relating to chemistry, see Solvation. ... This article describes water from a scientific and technical perspective. ... A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ... Chemistry - the study of atoms, made of nuclei (conglomeration of center particles) and electrons (outer particles), and the structures they form. ...


Substances that do not dissolve well in water are called hydrophobic ('water fearing') whereas those that do are known as hydrophilic ('water-loving'). An example of a hydrophilic substance would be the sodium chloride (ordinary table salt). Acids and bases are aqueous solutions, as part of their Arrhenius definitions. In chemistry, hydrophobic or lipophilic species, or hydrophobes, tend to be electrically neutral and nonpolar, and thus prefer other neutral and nonpolar solvents or molecular environments. ... The adjective hydrophilic describes something that likes water (from Greek hydros = water; philos = friend). ... Jordanian and Israeli salt evaporation ponds at the south end of the Dead Sea Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with the formula NaCl. ... Acidity redirects here. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Acid-base extraction Acidity function Proton affinity Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit In chemistry, a base is... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction theories pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Electrochemistry Acid-base extraction Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Organic bases edit An acid-base reaction is a chemical reaction between an acid and a...


The ability of a substance to dissolve in water is determined by whether the substance can match or exceed the strong attractive forces that water molecules generate between themselves. If the substance lacks the ability to dissolve in water the molecules form a precipitate. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Aqueous solutions that conduct electric current efficiently contain strong electrolytes, while ones that conduct poorly are considered to have weak electrolytes. Those strong electrolytes are substances that are completely ionised in water, whereas the weak electrolytes exhibit only a small degree of ionisation in water. Nonelectrolytes are substances that dissolve in water but do not produce any ions. Electric current is the flow (movement) of electric charge. ... An electrolyte is a substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... Ionisation can be: the process of creating an ion, see ionization a piece of music by Edgar Varèse; see Ionisation (Varèse) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


When performing calculations regarding the reacting of one or more aqueous solutions, one generally must know the concentration, or molarity, of the aqueous solutions. Solution concentration is given in terms of the form of the solute prior to it dissolving. Vapours of hydrogen chloride in a beaker and ammonia in a test tube meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride A chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances. ... In chemistry, concentration is the measure of how much of a given substance there is mixed with another substance. ... This page refers to concentration in the chemical sense. ...


Identifying Aqueous Solutions

There is no easy way to remember what is soluble in water and what is not. These are some useful guidelines or solubility rules. A solubility chart refers to a chart with a list of ions and how, when mixed with other ions, they can become precipitates or remain aqueous. ...

  1. All compounds with Na+, K+, NH4+ ions are soluble in water.
  2. All nitrates (NO3-) and acetates (CH3COO-) are soluble in water.
  3. Most chlorides (Cl-) and sulfates (SO42-) are soluble in water. Except the following: AgCl, PbCl2, Hg2Cl2, BaSO4 and PbSO4.
  4. Most carbonates (CO32-), phosphates (PO43-), sulfides (S2-), and hydroxides (OH-) are insoluble in water. Exceptions are LiOH, NaOH, KOH and NH3 (aq).[1]

See also

Dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about a chemical solution; for other uses of the term solution, see solution (disambiguation). ... Solubility refers to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which complexes, molecules, or salts separate or split into smaller molecules, ions, or radicals, usually in a reversible manner. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... An electrolyte is a substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction theories pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Electrochemistry Acid-base extraction Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Organic bases edit An acid-base reaction is a chemical reaction between an acid and a...

References

  1. ^ Bettelheim, Frederick A. "Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry" (2007)

  Results from FactBites:
 
#1 Site For Learning Chemistry (828 words)
When the salt is in an aqueous solution, the current flows and the bulb glows brightly.
Solutions of sodium chloride, copper sulphate, dilute sulphuric acid are examples of strong electrolytes.
In an aqueous solution of NaCl, water molecules separate the Na and the Cl ions.
Patent 6,238,664 (1959 words)
An aqueous protein solution buffered with a potassium phosphate buffer, in which the ratio of potassium ions to sodium ions in the solution is at least 10:1, is resistant to the formation of protein aggregates and particles under conditions of freezing, thawing, lyophilization, and reconstitution.
In an embodiment of this invention the solution is buffered with a potassium phosphate buffer in a concentration of from 10 to 300 mmol/liter in the solution.
the solution being buffered at a pH from 6 to 8 with a potassium phosphate buffer in a concentration of from 10 to 300 mmol/liter in the solution.
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