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Encyclopedia > Aquarium
A freshwater aquarium with plants and tropical fish.
A freshwater aquarium with plants and tropical fish.

An aquarium (plural aquariums or aquaria) is a vivarium consisting of at least one transparent side in which water-dwelling plants or animals are kept. Aquaria are primarily used for fishkeeping, although invertebrates, amphibians, and marine mammals are also housed in aquaria. The term combines the Latin root aqua, meaning water, with the suffix -arium, meaning "a place for relating to".[1] This article is about public establishments that contain aquaria, for the water containing vivarium see Aquarium. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 781 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1885 × 1448 pixel, file size: 1,015 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions Originally from cs. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 781 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1885 × 1448 pixel, file size: 1,015 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions Originally from cs. ... Two glass terrariums with plants Vivarium is an area, usually enclosed, for keeping and raising animals or plants for observation or research. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... “Animalia” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Invertebrate is a term that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... Subclasses and Orders    Order Temnospondyli - extinct Subclass Lepospondyli - extinct Subclass Lissamphibia    Order Anura    Order Caudata    Order Gymnophiona Amphibians (class Amphibia; from Greek αμφις both and βιος life) are a taxon of animals that include all living tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) that do not have amniotic eggs, are ectothermic (term for the animals... A Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), a member of Order Cetacea A Leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), a member of infrafamily Pinnipedia A West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus), a member of Order Sirenia A marine mammal is a mammal that is primarily ocean-dwelling or depends on the ocean for its food. ...


The aquarium has a long history and maintaining an aquarium has become immensely popular worldwide. Aquaria can come in a variety of materials, shapes, and sizes. They are typically constructed of glass or high-strength plastic. Cuboid aquaria are also known as fish tanks or simply tanks, while bowl-shaped aquaria are also known as fish bowls. Size can range from a small glass bowl to immense public aquaria. A number of components are used to maintain appropriate water quality and characteristics suitable for the aquarium's residents. There are many types of aquaria, classified by the organisms maintained or the type of environment that is mimicked. Glass can be made transparent and flat, or into other shapes and colors as shown in this sphere from the Verrerie of Brehat in Brittany. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In anatomy, the cuboid bone is a bone in the foot. ... A salad in a bowl sits next to a small pie in a pie dish Chawan, drinking bowls used in a Japanese tea ceremony Bowls used as construction tools in contemporary India. ...

Contents

History and popularization

Fishkeeping in artificial environments has existed for centuries. In the Roman Empire, the first fish to be brought indoors was the sea barbel, kept in small tanks made of marble under guest beds. With the introduction of glass panes around the year 50, the Romans replaced one wall of the marble tank, improving their view of the fish. In 1369, the Chinese Emperor Hongwu established a porcelain company that produced large porcelain tubs for maintaining goldfish; over time, these tubs were produced more and more like modern fish bowls.[2] Leonhard Baldner, who wrote Vogel-, Fisch- und Tierbuch (Bird, Fish, and Animal Book) in 1666, maintained weather loaches and newts.[3] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire. ... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... The Hongwu Emperor (October 21, 1328 - June 24, 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang, was the founder of the Ming Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of this dynasty from 1368 to 1398. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Trinomial name Carassius auratus auratus (Linnaeus, 1758) For the baked snack crackers, please see Goldfish (snack). ... Binomial name Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Cantor, 1842) The Weather loach or Dojo loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus), is a freshwater fish in the loach family Cobitidae. ... “Eft” redirects here. ...


In 1836, soon after his invention of the Wardian case, Ward proposed to use his tanks for tropical animals, and in 1841 he did so, though only with aquatic plants and toy fish. However, real animals were soon housed. In 1838, Félix Dujardin noted owning a saltwater aquarium, though he did not use the term.[4] In 1846, Anna Thynne maintained stony corals and seaweed for almost three years, and was credited as the creator of the first balanced marine aquarium in London.[5] At about the same time, Robert Warington experimented with a 13-gallon container, goldfish, eelgrass, and snails, creating one of the first stable aquaria; he published his findings in 1850 in the Chemical Society's journal.[6] The Wardian case, the direct forerunner of the modern terrarium (and the inspiration for the glass aquarium), was invented by Dr. Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward (1791-1868), of London, in about 1829 after an accidental discovery inspired him. ... Félix Dujardin (1802-1860) was a French biologist who was a professor at Toulouse and Rennes, and known for his study of protozoans and other invertebrates. ... Be it known though, a saltwater aquarium is techincally different for a marine aquarium. ... Families Suborder Astrocoeiina   Acroporidae   Astrocoeniidae   Pocilloporiidae Suborder Caryophylliina   Caryophylliidae Suborder Dendrophylliina   Dendrophylliidae Suborder Faviina   Astrangiidae   Faviidae   Meandrinidae   Mirulinidae   Mussidae   Oculinidae   Pectiniidae   Trachyphyllidae Suborder Fungiina   Agariciidae   Fungiidae   Poritidae   Siderastreidae   Thamnasteriidae Scleractinia, also called Stony star corals, are exclusively marine animals; they are very similar to sea anemones but generate a hard... Ascophyllum nodosum exposed to the sun in Nova Scotia, Canada Dead Mans Fingers (Codium fragile) off Massachusetts coast For the band, see; Seaweed (band) For the rock musician, see; Seaweed (musician) Seaweeds are any of a large number of marine benthic algae. ... Species Vallisneria aethiopica Vallisneria americana Vallisneria alternifolia Vallisneria anhuiensis Vallisneria asiatica Vallisneria natans Vallisneria spiralis Vallisneria is a genus of aquatic plant, commonly called eelgrass or tape grass. ... The name snail applies to most members of the molluscan class Gastropoda that have coiled shells. ... Formed in 1841, as the Chemical Society of London, it was the result of increased interest in scientific matters. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Pike in an aquarium c. 1908, at the Detroit Aquarium, Belle Isle Park.
Pike in an aquarium c. 1908, at the Detroit Aquarium, Belle Isle Park.

The keeping of fish in an aquarium became a popular hobby and spread quickly. In the United Kingdom, it became popular after ornate aquaria in cast iron frames were featured at the Great Exhibition of 1851. In 1853, the first large public aquarium opened in the London Zoo and came to be known as the Fish House.[7] Philip Henry Gosse was the first person to actually use the word "aquarium", opting for this term (instead of "vivarium") in 1854 in his book The Aquarium: An Unveiling of the Wonders of the Deep Sea. In this book, Gosse primarily discussed saltwater aquaria.[8] In the 1850s, the aquarium became a fad in Britain.[9] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... // “Pickerel” redirects here. ... The Great Exhibition in Hyde Park 1851. ... The giant London Zoo aviary London Zoo, or more correctly London Zoological Gardens, is the worlds oldest scientific zoo. ... Philip Henry Gosse (April 6, 1810 – August 23, 1888) was an English naturalist and science popularizer, now best known for his attempt to reconcile biblical literalism with uniformitarianism but also known for his invention of the sea-water aquarium and marine biology studies. ...


Germans soon rivaled the British in their interest. In 1854, two articles about the saltwater aquaria of Britain were published in Die Gartenlaube (The Garden House) entitled Der Ocean auf dem Tische (The Ocean on the Table) by an anonymous author. However, in 1856, Der See im Glase (The Lake in a Glass) was published, discussing freshwater aquaria, which were much easier to maintain in landlocked areas.[10] During the 1870s, some of the first aquarist socities were appearing in Germany.[11] The United States soon joined. Published in 1858, Henry D. Butler's The Family Aquarium was one of the first books written in the United States solely about the aquarium.[12] According to the July issue The North American Review of the same year, William Stimson may have owned some of the first functional aquaria, as many as seven or eight.[13] The first aquarist society in the United States was founded in New York City in 1893, followed by others.[11] The New York Aquarium Journal first published in October 1876 is considered to be the world's first aquarium magazine.[14] Aquarium fish clubs or aquaristic societies are social rather than academic associations for fishkeepers. ... Nickname: Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1625 Government  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area  - City  468. ...


In the Victorian era of Britain a common design for the home aquarium was a glass front with the other sides made of wood (made watertight with a pitch coating). The bottom would be made of slate and heated from below.[15] More advanced systems soon began to be introduced, along with tanks of glass in metal frames.[15] During the later half of the 18th century, a variety of aquarium designs were explored, such as hanging the aquarium on a wall, mounting it as part of a window, or even combining it with a birdcage.[16] Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her Ascension to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... The pitch drop experiment. ... Slate Thick slate fragment Slate roof Slate is a fine-grained, homogeneous, metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low grade regional metamorphism. ... It has been suggested that window frames be merged into this article or section. ... A cage designed for medium-large parrots, with a playtop. ...


Aquaria became more widely popular as houses became almost universally electrified after World War I. With electricity great improvements were made in aquarium technology, allowing artificial lighting as well as aeration, filtration, and heating of the water.[17] Initially, amateur aquarists kept native fish (with the exception of goldfish); the entrance of exotic species from overseas also allowed aquaria to become even more popular.[18] Jugs made from a variety of materials were initially used to import fish from overseas, including innovations such as using a bicycle foot pump for aeration.[19] Plastic shipping bags were introduced in the 1950s, making it easier to ship fish.[20] The eventual availability of air freight, which allowed a much wider variety of fish, especially marine, to be successfully imported from distant regions of origin, consequently attracted new hobbyists.[21] In the 1960s, a great breakthrough was reached. Metal frames made marine aquaria almost impossible due to corrosion, but the development of silicone sealant allowed the first all-glass aquaria. The frames remained, however, though purely for aesthetic reasons.[15] “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... Aeration is the process by which air is circulated through, mixed with or dissolved in a liquid (usually water) or substance (such as soil). ... In chemistry, alchemy and water treatment, filtration is the process of using a filter to mechanically separate a mixture. ... Bicycle Floor Pump Foot operated bike pump Frame mounted bike pump A bicycle pump is a type of positive-displacement pump specifically designed for inflating balls (basket,soccer). ... It has been suggested that Reef aquarium be merged into this article or section. ... Silicones (more accurately called polymerized siloxanes or polysiloxanes) are inorganic-organic polymers with the chemical formula [R2SiO]n, where R = organic groups such as methyl, ethyl, and phenyl. ...


Aquarium keeping is now a popular hobby around the world, with about 60 million enthusiasts worldwide.[citation needed] In the United States, aquarium keeping is the second-most popular hobby after stamp collecting.[22] The number of fish kept in aquaria vary by country. In 1999 it was estimated that over nine million U.S. households own an aquarium.[23] In 2005, it was estimated that 139 million freshwater fish and 9 million saltwater fish were kept in aquaria in the U.S.[24] Similarly, estimates of the numbers of fish kept in aquaria Germany number at least 36 million.[22] The hobby has the strongest following in Europe, Asia, and North America. In the United States, 40 percent of aquarists maintain two or more tanks at any one time.[citation needed] A small thematic collection of stamps featuring birds Stamp collecting is the collecting of postage stamps and related objects, such as covers (envelopes or packages with stamps on them). ...


Design

An 80 litre home aquarium.
An 80 litre home aquarium.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 264 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Aquarium Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 264 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Aquarium Metadata This...

Materials

Most aquaria consist of simple glass panes bonded together by silicone. Usually plastic frames are attached to the upper and lower edges for decoration. Price, availability, and reliability make the glass aquarium an industry standard for sizes up to about 1000 litres (250 gal). However, glass is brittle and has very little give before fracturing, though generally the sealant fails first.[25] Aquaria come in a variety of shapes such as cuboid, hexagonal, angled to fit in a corner (L-shaped), bow-front (the front side curves outwards), and more.[26] Fish bowls are generally either plastic or glass, either spherical or some other round configuration. Glass can be made transparent and flat, or into other shapes and colors as shown in this sphere from the Verrerie of Brehat in Brittany. ... Silicones (more accurately called polymerized siloxanes or polysiloxanes) are inorganic-organic polymers with the chemical formula [R2SiO]n, where R = organic groups such as methyl, ethyl, and phenyl. ... The litre or liter (U.S. spelling, see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ... The gallon (abbreviation: gal) is a unit of volume. ... In anatomy, the cuboid bone is a bone in the foot. ... In geometry, the hexagonal prism is a prism with hexagonal base. ...


Acrylic aquaria are also available, and is the primary competitor with glass. Acrylics are not as strong as glass, but are much lighter. Acrylic-soluble cements are used to directly fuse acrylic together (as opposed to simply sealing the seam).[25] Acrylic allows for the formation of unusual shapes, such as hexagonal.[15] Compared to glass, acrylics are easy to scratch; care must be taken with organisms with shells and teeth.[25] Look up acrylic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Laminated glass might be used, which combines the advantages of both glass and acrylic.[25] Laminated glass is a type of safety glass that holds together when shattered. ...


Large aquaria might use stronger materials such as fiberglass-reinforced plastics. However, this material is not transparent.[25] Reinforced concrete is used for aquaria where weight and space are not factors. Concrete must be coated with a waterproof layer to prevent the water from breaking down the concrete as well as prevent contamination from the concrete.[25] Bundle of fiberglass Fiberglass or glassfibre is material made from extremely fine fibers of glass. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Concrete being poured, raked and vibrated into place in residential construction in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ...


Styles

Aquaria can can come in more creative flavors. Aquariums have been fashioned into coffee tables, sinks, and even toilets. Another such example is the Macquarium, an aquarium made from the shell of an Apple Macintosh computer.[27] A Macquarium is an aquarium made from the shell of an Apple Macintosh computer. ... The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ... A BlueGene supercomputer cabinet. ...


A kreisel tank is a circular aquarium designed to hold delicate animals such as jellyfish. These aquariums provide slow, circular water flow with a lack of physical objects.[28] Originally a German design (kreisel means spinning top), the tank is designed to have no sharp corners, and keeps the housed animals away from the plumbing. Water moving into the tank gives a gentle flow that keeps the inhabitants suspended, and water leaving the tank is covered by a delicate screen that prevents the inhabitants from getting stuck. There are several types of kreisel tanks. In a true kreisel, a perfectly circular tank has a circular, submerged, lid. Pseudokreisels, have a curved bottom surface and a top surface flat, similar to the shape of either a "U" or a semicircle.[29] It is possible to combine these designs; a circular shaped tank is used without a lid or cover, and the surface of the water acts as the continuation of circular flow. Circle illustration This article is about the shape and mathematical concept of circle. ... Orders Stauromedusae Coronatae Semaeostomeae Rhizostomae Jellyfish are marine invertebrates belonging to the Scyphozoan class. ... A plumber wrench for working on pipes and fittings Plumbing, from the Latin for lead (plumbum), is the skilled trade of working with pipes, tubing and plumbing fixtures for potable water systems and the drainage of waste. ... A semicircle of radius r. ...


Aquarium size and volume

A large aquarium at the Osaka Aquarium houses a whale shark.
A large aquarium at the Osaka Aquarium houses a whale shark.

An aquarium can range from a small glass bowl containing less than a litre (34 fl.oz.) of water to immense public aquaria which can house entire ecosystems such as kelp forests. Larger aquaria are typically recommended to hobbyists due to their resistance to rapid fluctuations of temperature and pH, allowing for greater system stability.[26] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 291 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Original summary at enwiki was: Photo taken by Bobak HaEri. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 291 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Original summary at enwiki was: Photo taken by Bobak HaEri. ... Kaiyukan Aquarium Osaka Aquarium Kaiyukan (海遊館 Kaiyūkan, literally playing in the Sea Pavilion) is one of the largest aquariums in the world. ... Binomial name Rhincodon typus (Smith, 1828) Range of whale shark The whale shark, Rhincodon typus, is a slow filter feeding shark that is the largest living fish species. ... The litre or liter (U.S. spelling, see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ... A fluid ounce is a unit of volume in both the Imperial system of units and the U.S. customary units system. ... Kelp Forest Kelp forests are a type of marine ecosystem established around colonies of kelp; they contain rich biodiversity. ... The correct title of this article is . ...


Aquaria kept in homes by hobbyists can be as small as 11 litres (3 gal); this size is widely considered the smallest practical system with filtration and other basic systems. On the other hand, reef aquaria under 100 litres (20 gal) earn a special place in the aquarium hobby; these aquaria, termed nano reefs, are known to be more difficult due to their small water volume. Practical limitations, most notably the weight (One litre of fresh water weighs 1 kilogram (8.3 lb gal-1), and salt water is even denser) and internal water pressure (requiring thick, strong glass siding) of a large aquarium, keep most home aquaria to a maximum of around 1 cubic metre in volume (1000 kg or 2200 lb). Indeed, larger aquariums can even threaten the floor beneath the aquarium.[26] Some dedicated aquarists, however, have been known to construct custom aquaria of up to many thousands of litres, at great effort and expense.[30][31] The gallon (abbreviation: gal) is a unit of volume. ... Three gallon nano reef containing small and large polyped stony corals A nano reef is a reef tank of less than 30 gallons. ... A spring scale measures the weight of an object In the physical sciences, weight is a measurement of the gravitational force acting on an object. ... Fluid pressure is the pressure on an object submerged in a fluid, such as water. ...


Aquaria within public aquariums designed for exhibition of large species or environments can be dramatically larger than any home aquarium. The Shedd Aquarium, for example, features an individual aquarium of 7.7 million litres (2 million gallons). A 335,000 U.S. gallon (1. ... John G. Shedd Aquarium in Chicago in the United States was at one time the largest indoor aquarium in the world with 5 million gallons of water and 22,000 fish; it has since been eclipsed by the 8 million gallon Georgia Aquarium in Atlanta. ...


Components

Filtration system in a typical aquarium: (1) Intake. (2) Mechanical filtration. (3) Chemical filtration. (4) Biological filtration medium. (5) Outflow to tank.
Filtration system in a typical aquarium: (1) Intake. (2) Mechanical filtration. (3) Chemical filtration. (4) Biological filtration medium. (5) Outflow to tank.

The typical hobbyist aquarium includes a filtration system, an artificial lighting system, and a heater or chiller depending on the inhabitants of the aquarium. Many aquaria incorporate a hood, which prevent evaporation and protect fish from leaving the aquarium (or anything else from entering the aquarium). They also often hold lights.[26] Hoods can be opened and closed easily for access into the aquarium. Download high resolution version (646x770, 154 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (646x770, 154 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Combined biological and mechanical aquarium filtration systems are commonly used; these are designed to remove potentially dangerous build up of nitrogenous wastes and phosphates dissolved in the water, as well as particulate matter. Filtration systems are often the most complex component of home aquaria, and various designs and combinations are used.[32] an air-driven corner filter Aquarium filters are critical components of both freshwater and marine aquaria. ... Above is a ball-and-stick model of the inorganic hydrogenphosphate anion (HPO42−). Colour coding: P (orange); O (red); H (white). ...


Aquarium heaters combine a heating element with a thermostat, allowing an aquarist to regulate water temperature at a level above that of the surrounding air, whereas coolers and chillers (refrigeration devices) are for use in cold water aquaria, or anywhere the ambient room temperature is above the desired tank temperature.[26] A variety of different thermometers are used, such as the glass alcohol thermometers, adhesive external plastic strip thermometers, and even battery-powered LCD thermometers.[26] In addition, some aquarists use air pumps attached to airstones or water pumps to increase water circulation and supply adequate gas exchange at the water surface. Wave-making devices have also been constructed to provide wave action.[25] A typical glass-tube immersion style aquarium heater An aquarium heater is a device used in the fishkeeping hobby to warm the temperature of water in aquariums. ... Bi-metallic thermostat for buildings A thermostat is a device for regulating the temperature of a system so that the systems temperature is maintained near a desired setpoint temperature. ... It has been suggested that List of temperature sensors be merged into this article or section. ... An airstone is a piece of aquarium furniture, traditionally a piece of limewood or porous stone, whose purpose is to gradually diffuse oxygen into the tank, eliminating the noise and large bubbles of conventional air filtration systems, and providing other benefits to the health of the fish. ...


An aquarium's physical characteristics form another aspect of aquarium design. Size, lighting conditions, density of floating and rooted plants, placement of bogwood, creation of caves or overhangs, type of substrate, and other factors (including an aquarium's positioning within a room) can all affect the behavior and survival of tank inhabitants. The combined function of these elements is to maintain appropriate water quality and characteristics suitable for the aquarium's residents. Bogwood is wood preserved in a bog due to anaerobic conditions. ... The substrate of an aquarium refers to the material used on the tank bottom. ...


An aquarium is often also placed on a specially-made aquarium stand. Because of the weight of an aquarium, they must be strong as well as level. A tank that is not level may distort, leak, or crack.[26] These are often built like cabinets to allow storage, available in many styles so it can match room decor. Simple metal tank stands are also available.[26] Some sources say that polystyrene should be placed under the aquarium as a safety precaution.[26] However, this may void certain warranties.[citation needed] Interior decoration or décor is the art of decorating a room so that it is attractive, easy to use, and functions well with the existing architecture. ...


Aquarium classifications

A planted freshwater aquarium.
A planted freshwater aquarium.

From the outdoor ponds and glass jars of antiquity, modern aquaria have evolved into a wide range of specialized systems. Individual aquaria can vary in size from a small bowl large enough for a single small fish, to the huge public aquaria that can simulate entire marine ecosystems. A variety of different aquarium types exist; for the most part, many of these classifications are based on the environment the aquarium intends to mimic. Image File history File links 58g_aquascape. ... Image File history File links 58g_aquascape. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ...


One of the most basic ways to classify aquaria is their salinity. Freshwater aquaria are the most popular kind of aquarium due to their lower cost and ease of maintenance.[33] Marine aquaria are generally more difficult to setup and maintain than freshwater aquaria. Along with fish species, marine aquaria frequently feature a diverse range of invertebrates.[33][32] Brackish water aquaria combine elements of both marine and freshwater fishkeeping.[33] Fish kept in brackish water aquaria generally come from habitats with varying salinity, such as mangroves and estuaries. Certain subtypes of aquaria also exist within these types, such as the reef aquarium, a type of marine aquarium that houses coral.[33] A freshwater aquarium is an indoor receptacle or public facility that keeps and maintains a single or a collection of freshwater aquatic organisms, plants and animals for decorative, pet-keeping or research purposes. ... It has been suggested that Reef aquarium be merged into this article or section. ... Invertebrate is a term coined by Chevalier de Lamarck to describe any animal without a backbone or vertebra, like insects, squids and worms. ... A brackish water fish: Siamese tigerfish, Datnioides microlepis Keeping brackish water aquaria is a popular specialization within the fishkeeping hobby. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal Mangroves are woody trees or shrubs that grow in mangrove habitats or mangal (Hogarth, 1999). ... An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water which has a free connection with the open sea and within which sea water mixes with fresh water. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Marine aquarium. ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ...


Another method to classify aquaria is their temperature range. Most aquarists maintain a tropical aquarium as these fish tend to be more colorful.[33] However, the coldwater aquarium is also popular, which often includes fish such as goldfish.[33] Tropical fish include fish found in tropical environments around the world, including both fresh water and salt water species. ... Coldwater fish, in the context of aquariums, refers to fish species that prefer cooler water temperatures than tropical fish, typically below 20 °C (70 °F). ... Trinomial name Carassius auratus auratus (Linnaeus, 1758) For the baked snack crackers, please see Goldfish (snack). ...

A saltwater aquarium.
A saltwater aquarium.

Aquaria may be grouped by their species selection. The community tank is the most common type of aquarium kept today, where several non-aggressive species are housed peacefully together. Aggressive tanks, in contrast, house a limited number of species that can be aggressive toward other fish, or are able to withstand aggression well. Species or specimen tanks usually only house one fish species, along with plants, perhaps found in the fishes' natural environment and decorations simulating a true ecosystem. This type is useful for fish that simply cannot be housed safely with other fish, such as the electric eel, as an extreme example. Some tanks of this sort are used simply to house adults for breeding. In these aquaria, the aquarium fish, invertebrates, and plants may or may not originate from the same geographic region, but generally tolerate similar water conditions. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Community tanks are aquaria that are designed to contain more than one species of fish. ... Binomial name Electrophorus electricus (Linnaeus, 1766) The electric eel, Electrophorus electricus, is a species of fish. ... Invertebrate is a term that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... Nymphaea alba, a species of water lily. ...


Ecotype, ecotope, or biotope aquaria is another type based on species selection. In it, an aquarist attempts to simulate a specific ecosystem found in the natural world, bringing together fish, invertebrate species, and plants found only in that ecosystem in a tank with water conditions and decorations designed to simulate their natural environment. These ecotype aquaria might be considered the most sophisticated hobby aquaria; indeed, reputable public aquaria all use this approach in their exhibits whenever possible. This approach best simulates the experience of observing an aquarium's inhabitants in the wild, and also usually serves as the healthiest possible artificial environment for the tank's occupants. Biotope is a coined word proposed firstly in Germany (Biotop) based on Greek bios=life or organism and topos=place. So biotope is literally an area where life is living. ...


Public aquaria

One of the large aquaria at the Georgia Aquarium, USA.
One of the large aquaria at the Georgia Aquarium, USA.
Main article: Public aquarium

Public aquariums are facilities open to the public for viewing of aquatic species in aquaria. Most public aquariums feature a number of smaller aquaria, as well those greater in size than could be kept by home aquarists. The largest tanks hold millions of U.S. gallons of water and can house large species, including sharks or beluga whales. Dolphinariums are aquaria specifically for housing dolphins. Aquatic and semiaquatic animals, including otters and penguins, may also be kept by public aquariums. Public aquariums may also be included in larger establishments such as a marine mammal park or a marine park. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2515x1552, 1218 KB) Summary The Ocean Voyager exhibit tunnel. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2515x1552, 1218 KB) Summary The Ocean Voyager exhibit tunnel. ... The Georgia Aquarium, located in Atlanta, Georgia at Pemberton Place, is billed as the worlds largest aquarium with more than 8 million US gallons (30,000 m³; 30,000,000 liters) of marine and fresh water, 1. ... A 335,000 U.S. gallon (1. ... Orders Carcharhiniformes Heterodontiformes Hexanchiformes Lamniformes Orectolobiformes Pristiophoriformes Squaliformes Squatiniformes Symmoriida(extinct) Sharks (superorder Selachimorpha) are fish with a full cartilaginous skeleton[1] and a streamlined body. ... Binomial name Delphinapterus leucas (Pallas, 1776) Beluga range This article is about the whale. ... Dolphinarium is a great aquarium for dolphins. ... Genera Amblonyx Aonyx Enhydra Lontra Lutra Lutrogale Pteronura The otter (lutrinae) is a carnivorous aquatic or marine mammal part of the family Mustelidae, which also includes weasels, polecats, badgers, as well as others. ... Modern genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For prehistoric genera, see Systematics Some penguins are curious. ... Marineland of Florida, USA — dolphin show, 1964. ... Gerritsen Avenue is a major traffic corridor in the nighborhood. ...


See also

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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Aquascaping is an art form enjoyed by aquarium enthusiasts around the world. ... A vast number of species of fish have been successfully kept in the home aquarium. ... Aquatic plants are used to give the aquarium a realistic appearance, oxygenate the water, and provide habitat for fish, especially fry (babies) and for invertebrate species. ... Invertebrates are commonly introduced into freshwater aquaria. ... There are a wide range of frogs, salamanders and newts that can be kept in an aquarium. ... A list of fish commonly seen that can be kept in a brackish water aquarium. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... New fish can sometimes introduce diseases to aquaria, and these can be difficult to diagnose and treat. ...

References

  1. ^ Definition of aquarium. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  2. ^ Brunner, Bernd (2003). The Ocean at Home. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 21-22. ISBN 1-56898-502-9. 
  3. ^ Brunner, B: The Ocean at Home, page 25
  4. ^ Brunner, B: The Ocean at Home, page 35
  5. ^ Brunner, B: The Ocean at Home, pages 35-36
  6. ^ Brunner, B: The Ocean at Home, page 36
  7. ^ Brunner, B: The Ocean at Home, pages 99
  8. ^ Brunner, B: The Ocean at Home, page 38
  9. ^ Brunner, B: The Ocean at Home, page 57
  10. ^ Brunner, B: The Ocean at Home, pages 60-61
  11. ^ a b Brunner, B: The Ocean at Home, page 75
  12. ^ Brunner, B: The Ocean at Home, page 69
  13. ^ Brunner, B: The Ocean at Home, page 71
  14. ^ Brunner, B: The Ocean at Home, pages 76-77
  15. ^ a b c d Sanford, Gina (1999). Aquarium Owner's Guide. New York: DK Publishing, 9-13. ISBN 0-7894-4614-6. 
  16. ^ Brunner, B: The Ocean at Home, pages 86-89
  17. ^ Brunner, B: The Ocean at Home, page 93
  18. ^ Brunner, B: The Ocean at Home, page 78
  19. ^ Brunner, B: The Ocean at Home, pages 82-83
  20. ^ Brunner, B: The Ocean at Home, page 82
  21. ^ Brunner, B: The Ocean at Home, page 25
  22. ^ a b Riehl, Rüdiger. Editor.; Baensch, HA (1996. 5th Edn.). Aquarium Atlas. Germany: Tetra Press. ISBN 3-88244-050-3. 
  23. ^ Emerson, Jim (1999-08-01). Aquarium Hobbyists. Retrieved on 2007-05-02.
  24. ^ National Pet Owners Survey. American Pet Products Manufacturers Association (2005). Retrieved on 2007-05-02.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g Adey, Walter H. & Karen Loveland (1991), Dynamic Aquaria, San Diego: Academic Press, ISBN 0-12-043792-9
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i Sanford, Gina (1999). Aquarium Owner's Guide. New York: DK Publishing, 162-169. ISBN 0-7894-4614-6. 
  27. ^ Ihnatko, Andy (1992). The Original MacQuarium. Retrieved on 2007-04-04.
  28. ^ Blundell, Adam (December 2004). Delicatessen Part I: Creating a system for rare and delicate animals. Advanced Aquarist's Online Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-04-04.
  29. ^ Wrobel, Dave. Captive Jellies: Keeping Jellies in an Aquarium. The Jellies Zone. Retrieved on 2007-04-04.
  30. ^ Salvatori, Joe. Building a 1700 gallon Shark Tank. Cichlid-Forum.com. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  31. ^ Building My 50,000 Gallon Monster Mega Tank. MonsterFishKeepers.com (2005-10-30). Retrieved on 2007-04-04.
  32. ^ a b Dakin, Nick (1992). The Macmillan book of the Marine Aquarium. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 
  33. ^ a b c d e f Sanford, Gina (1999). Aquarium Owner's Guide. New York: DK Publishing, 180-199. ISBN 0-7894-4614-6. 

2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... Dorling Kindersley (DK) is an international publishing company specialising in reference books for adults and children. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Dorling Kindersley (DK) is an international publishing company specialising in reference books for adults and children. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... Macmillan Publishers Ltd, also known as The Macmillan Group, is a privately-held international publishing company owned by Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. ... Dorling Kindersley (DK) is an international publishing company specialising in reference books for adults and children. ...

External links

Aquarium at the Open Directory Project The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...

This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A hobby is a spare-time recreational pursuit. ... A freshwater aquarium is an indoor receptacle or public facility that keeps and maintains a single or a collection of freshwater aquatic organisms, plants and animals for decorative, pet-keeping or research purposes. ... It has been suggested that Reef aquarium be merged into this article or section. ... A brackish water fish: Siamese tigerfish, Datnioides microlepis Keeping brackish water aquaria is a popular specialization within the fishkeeping hobby. ... Community tanks are aquaria that are designed to contain more than one species of fish. ... Biotope is a coined word proposed firstly in Germany (Biotop) based on Greek bios=life or organism and topos=place. So biotope is literally an area where life is living. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Marine aquarium. ... Three gallon nano reef containing small and large polyped stony corals A nano reef is a reef tank of less than 30 gallons. ... Aquarium furniture refers to the various ornaments and functional items in an aquarium. ... an air-driven corner filter Aquarium filters are critical components of both freshwater and marine aquaria. ... The Berlin Method of biological filtration is method for keeping an aquarium, typically a saltwater aquarium, clean. ... A protein skimmer or foam fractionator is a device used mostly in saltwater aquaria to remove organic compounds from the water before they break down into nitrogenous waste. ... A deep sand bed (sometimes abbreviated DSB and also called a plenum) is a filtration method used in some saltwater aquariums. ... A typical glass-tube immersion style aquarium heater An aquarium heater is a device used in the fishkeeping hobby to warm the temperature of water in aquariums. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Bogwood is wood preserved in a bog due to anaerobic conditions. ... A piece of waterlogged driftwood Driftwood is wood that has been washed onto a shore or beach by the action of the waves. ... An airstone is a piece of aquarium furniture, traditionally a piece of limewood or porous stone, whose purpose is to gradually diffuse oxygen into the tank, eliminating the noise and large bubbles of conventional air filtration systems, and providing other benefits to the health of the fish. ... Live rock is rock taken from the ocean which is usually encrusted with Coralline and inhabited by marine organisms. ... The substrate of an aquarium refers to the material used on the tank bottom. ... Fishcam refers to a broadcast consisting of a video camera pointed at a fishtank. ... Aquarium fish feeders are electric or electronic gadgets that are designed to feed aquarium fish at regular intervals. ... Hardy fish is a term which refers to any fish which is easy to maintain in home aquaria due to their ability to adapt to a wide range of water parameters. ... The term dither fish refers to an arbitrary group of aquarium fish used by cichlid keeping aquarists to reduce innate timidity in some species of cichlids (Barlow, 1967). ... The true algae eaters are a single-genus family (Gyrinocheilidae, Gyrinocheilus) of small Southeast Asian fish that live in fast-flowing water, hold on to fixed objects using a sucker-like mouth, and feed primarily on algae. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Tropical fish include fish found in tropical environments around the world, including both fresh water and salt water species. ... Coldwater fish, in the context of aquariums, refers to fish species that prefer cooler water temperatures than tropical fish, typically below 20 °C (70 °F). ... Painted Parambassis ranga specimen. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Midge (insect). ... It has been suggested that Sea-Monkey be merged into this article or section. ... Binomial name Tubifex tubifex (Müller, 1774) Tubifex tubifex, also called the sludge worm, is a species of tubificid segmented worm that inhabits the sediments of lakes and rivers on several continents. ... Species Subgenus Daphnia Subgenus Hyalodaphnia D. galeata Subgenus Ctenodaphnia Daphnia are small, mostly planktonic, crustaceans, between 0. ... Infusoria is a collective term for minute aquatic creatures like ciliates, euglena, paramecia, protozoa and unicellular algae that exist in freshwater pond water. ... A vast number of species of fish have been successfully kept in the home aquarium. ... Aquatic plants are used to give the aquarium a realistic appearance, oxygenate the water, and provide habitat for fish, especially fry (babies) and for invertebrate species. ... Invertebrates are commonly introduced into freshwater aquaria. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A list of fish commonly seen that can be kept in a brackish water aquarium. ... New fish can sometimes introduce diseases to aquaria, and these can be difficult to diagnose and treat. ... Aquascaping is an art form enjoyed by aquarium enthusiasts around the world. ... Spawning triggers are environmental cues that cause fish to breed. ... Reef Safe is a somewhat arbitrary distinction used in the saltwater aquarium industry to indicate that a fish or invertebrates is safe to add to a reef tank. ... A Macquarium is an aquarium made from the shell of an Apple Macintosh computer. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Disease in ornamental fishes. ... Cover of the October 2006 edition of Practical Fishkeeping. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Koi magazine April 2006 Koi magazine is Britain’s best-selling practical guide to the Koi keeping hobby and covers everything from pond construction to Koi appreciation. ... Tetra was started almost half a century ago the young German scientist, Dr. rer. ... Sera Company sera was founded in 1970 by Mr. ... EHEIM GmbH & Co. ... Hagen (Officially Rolf C. Hagen Group) is a company founded in 1955 by Rolf C. Hagen with the help of his brothers, Dieter and Horst. ...


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