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Encyclopedia > Aquaculture
Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi
Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi

Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms. Unlike fishing, aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, implies the cultivation of aquatic populations under controlled conditions. [1] Mariculture refers to aquaculture practiced in marine environments. Particular kinds of aquaculture include algaculture (the production of kelp/seaweed and other algae); fish farming; shrimp farming, shellfish farming, and the growing of cultured pearls. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (422x640, 386 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Aquaculture ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (422x640, 386 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Aquaculture ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... Mariculture is the cultivation of marine organisms for food, either in their natural environment or in seawater in ponds or raceways. ... An open pond Spirulina farm Algaculture is a form of aquaculture involving the farming of species of algae. ... Families Alariaceae Chordaceae Laminariaceae Lessoniaceae Phyllariaceae Pseudochordaceae Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Ascophyllum nodosum exposed to the sun in Nova Scotia, Canada Dead Mans Fingers (Codium fragile) off Massachusetts coast For the band, see; Seaweed (band) For the rock musician, see; Seaweed (musician) Seaweeds are any of a large number of marine benthic algae. ... Algae have conventionally been regarded as simple plants within the study of botany. ... A demonstration aquaculture facility Fish farming is the principal form of aquaculture. ... Shrimp growout pond on a farm in South Korea. ... For other uses, see Pearl (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

Tilapia, a commonly farmed fish due to its adaptability
Tilapia, a commonly farmed fish due to its adaptability

Aquaculture has been used since ancient times and can be found in many cultures. Aquaculture was used in China circa 2500 BC. When the waters lowered after river floods, some fishes, namely carp, were held in artificial lakes. Their brood were later fed using nymphs and silkworm feces, while the fish themselves were eaten as a source of protein. The Hawaiian people practiced aquaculture by constructing fish ponds (see Hawaiian aquaculture). A remarkable example from ancient Hawaii is the construction of a fish pond, dating from at least 1,000 years ago, at Alekoko. According to legend, it was constructed by the mythical Menehune. The Japanese practiced cultivation of seaweed by providing bamboo poles and, later, nets and oyster shells to serve as anchoring surfaces for spores. The Romans often bred fish in ponds. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x3072, 356 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tilapia Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x3072, 356 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tilapia Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Genera Oreochromis (about 30 species) Sarotherodon (over 10 species) Tilapia (about 40 species) and see text Tilapia is the common name for nearly 100 species of cichlid fishes from the tilapiine cichlid tribe. ... (Redirected from 2500 BC) (26th century BC - 25th century BC - 24th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2494 BC -- End of Fourth Dynasty, start of Fifth Dynasty in Egypt. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Common carp or European carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a widespread freshwater fish distantly related to the common goldfish (Carassius auratus), with which it is capable of interbreeding[1]. It gives its name to the carp family Cyprinidae. ... Lake Clearwater, Ontario, Canada A lake is a large body of water, usually fresh water, surrounded by land. ... Praying mantis nymphs, approximately 4mm long, clustered on a leaf In biology, a nymph is the immature form of some insect species, which undergoes incomplete metamorphosis (Hemimetabolism) before reaching its adult stage; unlike a larva, a nymphs overall form already resembles that of an adult. ... Binomial name Bombyx mori Linnaeus, 1758 For other senses of this word, see silkworm (disambiguation). ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Native Hawaiians (in Hawaiian, kānaka ōiwi or kānaka maoli) are member[s] or descendant[s] of the indigenous Polynesian people of the Hawaiian Islands.[2] Native Hawaiians trace their ancestry back to the first Marquesan and Tahitian settlers of Hawaii (possibly as early as AD 400), before the... Fishponds (see water garden) Fishpond is also a term for harmless & humorous taunt, typically a one-liner, which is given to any individual during a group game. ... The Hawaiian people practiced aquaculture through development of fish ponds, the most advanced husbandry of fishes among the original peoples of the Pacific. ... Early Polynesians settled in HawaiÊ»i circa A.D. 7th century, having traveled from Tahiti and Marquesas on double-hulled voyaging canoes Ancient HawaiÊ»i refers to the period of Hawaiian history preceding the unification of the Kingdom of HawaiÊ»i by Kamehameha the Great in 1810. ... In Polynesian mythology, the Menehune are similar to elves or fairies. ... Ascophyllum nodosum exposed to the sun in Nova Scotia, Canada Dead Mans Fingers (Codium fragile) off Massachusetts coast For the band, see; Seaweed (band) For the rock musician, see; Seaweed (musician) Seaweeds are any of a large number of marine benthic algae. ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Oyster (disambiguation). ... The term spore has several different meanings in biology. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


The practice of aquaculture gained prevalence in Europe during the Middle Ages, since fish were scarce and thus expensive. However, improvements in transportation during the 19th century made fish easily available and inexpensive, even in inland areas, causing a decline in the practice. The first North American fish hatchery was constructed on Dildo Island, Newfoundland Canada in 1889, it was the largest and most advanced in the world. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dildo Island, Newfoundland, is the largest of three islands located at the entrance to Dildo Arm in the bottom of Trinity Bay, off the coast of the neighboring town Dildo. ...


Americans were rarely involved in aquaculture until the late 20th century, but California residents harvested wild kelp and made legal efforts to manage the supply starting circa 1900, later even producing it as a wartime resource. (Peter Neushul, Seaweed for War: California's World War I kelp industry, Technology and Culture 30 (July 1989), 561-583) Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ...


In contrast to agriculture, the rise of aquaculture is a contemporary phenomenon. According to professor Carlos M. Duarte About 430 (97%) of the aquatic species presently in culture have been domesticated since the start of the 20th century, and an estimated 106 aquatic species have been domesticated over the past decade. The domestication of an aquatic species typically involves about a decade of scientific research. Current success in the domestication of aquatic species results from the 20thcentury rise of knowledge on the basic biology of aquatic species and the lessons learned from past success and failure. The stagnation in the world's fisheries and overexploitation of 20 to 30% of marine fish species have provided additional impetus to domesticate marine species, just as overexploitation of land animals provided the impetus for the early domestication of land species Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ...


In the 1960s, the price of fish began to climb, as wild fish capture rates peaked and the human population continued to rise. Today, commercial aquaculture exists on an unprecedented, huge scale. In the 1980s, open-netcage salmon farming also expanded; this particular type of aquaculture technology remains a minor part of the production of farmed finfish worldwide, but possible negative impacts on wild stocks, which have come into question since the late 1990s, have caused it to become a major cause of controversy.[1]


Economic role

 The total world production of fisheries product was 132.2 million tonnes of which aquaculture contributed 41.9 million tonnes or about 31% of the total world production. The growth rate of worldwide aquaculture is very rapid (> 10% per year for most species) while the contribution to the total from wild fisheries has been essentially flat for the last decade. 

In the US, approximately 90% of all shrimp consumed is farmed and imported.[2] In recent years salmon aquaculture has become a major export in southern Chile, especially in Puerto Montt and Quellón, Chile's fastest-growing city. Puerto Montt Puerto Montt is a port city in southern Chile, located by the Reloncaví Sound, and is the capital of the Llanquihue Province and the Los Lagos Region, at . ... The end-station of the Panamerican Highway Comuna Quellón Quellón is a Chilean city, commune and port in southern Chiloé Island, Los Lagos Region. ...


Aquaculture is an especially important economic activity in China. Between 1980 and 1997, the Chinese Bureau of Fisheries reports, aquaculture harvests grew at an annual rate of 16.7 percent, jumping from 1.9 million to nearly 23 million tons. China now produces 70% of the world's farmed fish. [3] [4]


Environmental impacts

Types of aquaculture

Algaculture

Main article: Algaculture
An open pond Spirulina farm

Algaculture is a form of aquaculture involving the farming of species of algae. The majority of algae that are intentionally cultivated fall into the category of microalgae, also referred to as phytoplankton, microphytes, or planktonic algae. An open pond Spirulina farm Algaculture is a form of aquaculture involving the farming of species of algae. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Spirulina_farm. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Spirulina_farm. ... Spirulina may refer to: Spirulina (dietary supplement), a popular health-food supplement made from the Arthrospira genus of cyanobacteria. ... Algae have conventionally been regarded as simple plants within the study of botany. ... Microalgae are the most primitive form of plants. ... Diagrams of some typical phytoplankton Phytoplankton are the autotrophic component of plankton. ... Microphytes are microscopic algae and attached diatoms, typically found in freshwater systems, and are sometimes called microalgae. ...


Macroalgae, commonly know as seaweed, also have many commercial and industrial uses, but due to their size and the specific requirements of the environment in which they need to grow, they do not lend themselves as readily to cultivation on a large scale as microalgae and are most often harvested wild from the ocean. Seaweed-covered rocks in the UK Biologists, specifically marine biologists, consider seaweed to be any of a large number of marine benthic algae that are multicellular, macrothallic, and thus differentiated from most algae that tend to be microscopic in size [1]. Many phycologists prefer the term marine macroalgae over seaweeds... Ascophyllum nodosum exposed to the sun in Nova Scotia, Canada Dead Mans Fingers (Codium fragile) off Massachusetts coast For the band, see; Seaweed (band) For the rock musician, see; Seaweed (musician) Seaweeds are any of a large number of marine benthic algae. ...


Fish farming

Main article: Fish farming

Fish farming is the principal form of aquaculture, while other methods may fall under mariculture. It involves raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosures, usually for food. A facility that releases juvenile fish into the wild for recreational fishing or to supplement a species' natural numbers is generally referred to as a fish hatchery. Fish species raised by fish farms include salmon, catfish, tilapia, cod, carp, trout and others. A demonstration aquaculture facility Fish farming is the principal form of aquaculture. ... Mariculture is the cultivation of marine organisms for food, either in their natural environment or in seawater in ponds or raceways. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... A hatchery is a facility where eggs are hatched under artificial conditions, especially those of fish or poultry. ... For other uses, see Salmon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the siluriform catfishes; for the Atlantic catfish, see Seawolf (fish); for other uses, see Catfish (disambiguation). ... Genera Oreochromis (about 30 species) Sarotherodon (over 10 species) Tilapia (about 40 species) and see text Tilapia is the common name for nearly 100 species of cichlid fishes from the tilapiine cichlid tribe. ... COD may refer to many different topics, including: Cash on delivery Completion of discharge, shipping College of DuPage, a public Junior College with campuses in the suburbs of Chicago Call of Duty (series), a series of computer games Canadian Oxford Dictionary Carrier onboard delivery Catastrophic optical damage, a failure mode... For other uses, see Carp (disambiguation). ... Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Biwa trout (or Biwa salmon), Oncorhynchus masou rhodurus Trout is the common name given to a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the salmon family, Salmonidae. ...


Increasing demands on wild fisheries by commercial fishing operations have caused widespread overfishing. Fish farming offers an alternative solution to the increasing market demand for fish and fish protein. A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... Salmon for sale at a marketplace The Fishing industry is the commercial activity of fishing and producing fish and other seafood products. ... × The Traffic Light colour convention, showing the concept of Harvest Control Rule (HCR), specifying when a rebuilding plan is mandatory in terms of precautionary and limit reference points for spawning biomass and fishing mortality rate. ... Look up Market in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The supply and demand model describes how prices vary as a result of a balance between product availability at each price (supply) and the desires of those with purchasing power at each price (demand). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ...


Freshwater prawn farming

Main article: Freshwater prawn farm

A freshwater prawn farm is an aquaculture business designed to raise and produce freshwater prawn or shrimp for human consumption. Freshwater prawn farming shares many characteristics with, and many of the same problems as, marine shrimp farming. Unique problems are introduced by the developmental life cycle of the main species (the giant river prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii).[2] A freshwater prawn farm is an aquaculture business designed to raise and produce freshwater prawn or shrimp1 for human consumption. ... Superfamilies Penaeoidea Aristeidae Benthesicymidae Penaeidae Sicyoniidae Solenoceridae Sergestoidea Luciferidae Sergestidae Prawns are shrimp-like crustaceans, belonging to the sub-order Dendrobranchiata [1]. Prawns are distinguished from the superficially similar shrimp by the gill structure which is branching in prawns (hence the name, dendro=tree; branchia=gill), but is lamellar in... Superfamilies Alpheoidea Atyoidea Bresilioidea Campylonotoidea Crangonoidea Galatheacaridoidea Nematocarcinoidea Oplophoroidea Palaemonoidea Pandaloidea Pasiphaeoidea Procaridoidea Processoidea Psalidopodoidea Stylodactyloidea True shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ... Shrimp growout pond on a farm in South Korea. ... Binomial name de Man, 1879 The giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), also known as the giant freshwater prawn or the Malaysian prawn, is a species of freshwater shrimp (not prawn) native to the Indo-Pacific and northern Australia. ...


The global annual production of freshwater prawns (excluding crayfish and crabs) in 2003 was about 280,000 tons, of which China produced some 180,000 tons, followed by India and Thailand with some 35,000 tons each. Additionally, China produced about 370,000 tons of Chinese river crab (Eriocheir sinensis).[3] Families Astacoidea   Astacidae   Cambaridae Parastacoidea   Parastacidae Crayfish, often referred to as crawfish or crawdad, are freshwater crustaceans resembling small lobsters, to which they are closely related. ... Superfamilies Dromiacea Homolodromioidea Dromioidea Homoloidea Eubrachyura Raninoidea Cyclodorippoidea Dorippoidea Calappoidea Leucosioidea Majoidea Hymenosomatoidea Parthenopoidea Retroplumoidea Cancroidea Portunoidea Bythograeoidea Xanthoidea Bellioidea Potamoidea Pseudothelphusoidea Gecarcinucoidea Cryptochiroidea Pinnotheroidea * Ocypodoidea * Grapsoidea * An asterisk (*) marks the crabs included in the clade Thoracotremata. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Binomial name H. Milne Edwards, 1853 The Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis), also known as big binding crab (大閘蟹) and Shanghai hairy crab (上海毛蟹), is a medium-sized burrowing crab found in the coastal estuaries of eastern Asia from Korea in the north to the Fujian province of China in the south...


Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture

Main article: Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture

Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) is a practice in which the by-products (wastes) from one species are recycled to become inputs (fertilizers, food) for another. Fed aquaculture (e.g. fish, shrimp) is combined with inorganic extractive (e.g. seaweed) and organic extractive (e.g. shellfish) aquaculture to create balanced systems for environmental sustainability (biomitigation), economic stability (product diversification and risk reduction) and social acceptability (better management practices).[4] Harvesting of kelp (Saccharina latissima, previously known as Laminaria saccharina) cultivated in proximity to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at Charlie Cove, Bay of Fundy, Canada. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Superfamilies Alpheoidea Atyoidea Bresilioidea Campylonotoidea Crangonoidea Galatheacaridoidea Nematocarcinoidea Oplophoroidea Palaemonoidea Pandaloidea Pasiphaeoidea Procaridoidea Processoidea Psalidopodoidea Stylodactyloidea True shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ... Ascophyllum nodosum exposed to the sun in Nova Scotia, Canada Dead Mans Fingers (Codium fragile) off Massachusetts coast For the band, see; Seaweed (band) For the rock musician, see; Seaweed (musician) Seaweeds are any of a large number of marine benthic algae. ... Cooked mussels Shellfish is a term used to describe shelled molluscs and crustaceans used as food. ...


"Multi-Trophic" refers to the incorporation of species from different trophic or nutritional levels in the same system.[5] This is one potential distinction from the age-old practice of aquatic polyculture, which could simply be the co-culture of different fish species from the same trophic level. In this case, these organisms may all share the same biological and chemical processes, with few synergistic benefits, which could potentially lead to significant shifts in the ecosystem. Some traditional polyculture systems may, in fact, incorporate a greater diversity of species, occupying several niches, as extensive cultures (low intensity, low management) within the same pond. The "Integrated" in IMTA refers to the more intensive cultivation of the different species in proximity of each other, connected by nutrient and energy transfer through water, but not necessarily right at the same location. For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Trophic can refer to: Trophic level Trophic egg Category: ... Nutrition is interpreted as the study of the organic process by which an organism assimilates and uses food and liquids for normal functioning, growth and maintenance and to maintain the balance between health and disease. ... Polyculture is agriculture using multiple crops in the same space, in imitation of the diversity of natural ecosystems, and avoiding large stands of single crops, or monoculture. ... Synergy (from the Greek synergos, συνεργός meaning working together, circa 1660) refers to the phenomenon in which two or more discrete influences or agents acting together create an effect greater than that predicted by knowing only the separate effects of the individual agents. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Two lichens on a rock, in two different ecological niches In ecology, a niche; (pronounced nich, neesh or nish)[1] is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in its ecosystem[1]. The ecological niche; describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of...


Ideally, the biological and chemical processes in an IMTA system should balance. This is achieved through the appropriate selection and proportions of different species providing different ecosystem functions. The co-cultured species should be more than just biofilters; they should also be harvestable crops of commercial value.[5] A working IMTA system should result in greater production for the overall system, based on mutual benefits to the co-cultured species and improved ecosystem health, even if the individual production of some of the species is lower compared to what could be reached in monoculture practices over a short term period.[6] Biofiltration is a pollution control technique using living material to filter or chemically process pollutants. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Monoculture describes systems that have very low diversity. ...


Sometimes the more general term "Integrated Aquaculture" is used to describe the integration of monocultures through water transfer between organisms.[6] For all intents and purposes however, the terms "IMTA" and "integrated aquaculture" differ primarily in their degree of descriptiveness. These terms are sometimes interchanged. Aquaponics, fractionated aquaculture, IAAS (integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems), IPUAS (integrated peri-urban-aquaculture systems), and IFAS (integrated fisheries-aquaculture systems) may also be considered variations of the IMTA concept. aqua·pon·ics Pronunciation - Spelled: [ak-wuh-pon-iks] IPA: /ˈækwəˈpɒnɪks/ - noun (used with a singular verb) The symbiotic cultivation of plants and aquatic animals in a recirculating environment. ...


Mariculture

Main article: Mariculture

Mariculture is a specialized branch of aquaculture involving the cultivation of marine organisms for food and other products in the open ocean, an enclosed section of the ocean, or in tanks, ponds or raceways which are filled with seawater. An example of the latter is the farming of marine fish, prawns, or oysters in saltwater ponds. Non-food products produced by mariculture include: fish meal, nutrient agar, jewelries (e.g. cultured pearls), and cosmetics. Mariculture is the cultivation of marine organisms for food, either in their natural environment or in seawater in ponds or raceways. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... Ponds Cream is a brand of beauty and healthcare products that is produced by Unilever of England. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Suborders Not necessary complete list: Aristeidae Penaeidae Sergestidae Sicyoniidae Solenoceridae Nematocarcinidae Atyidae Pasiphaeoidae Rhynocinetidae Campylonotidae Palaemonidae Alpheidae Ogyrididae Hippolytidae Proussidae Pandalidae Crangonidae True shrimp are small, swimming, decapod crustaceans usually classified in the suborder Natantia, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ... The name oyster is used for a number of different groups of mollusks which grow for the most part in marine or brackish water. ... Fish Meal - Menhaden, Herring, Anchovy, Redfish, and Whitefish meal Menhaden is the major source of fish meal produced in the U.S. The fish are taken in Atlantic coastal waters from Maine to Florida and in the Gulf of Mexico. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Jewellery (spelled jewelry in American English) consists of ornamental devices worn by persons, typically made with gems and precious metals. ... For other uses, see Pearl (disambiguation). ... “Make-up” redirects here. ...


Shrimp farming

Main article: Shrimp farm

A shrimp farm is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimp for human consumption. Commercial shrimp farming began in the 1970s, and production grew steeply, particularly to match the market demands of the U.S., Japan and Western Europe. The total global production of farmed shrimp reached more than 1.6 million tonnes in 2003, representing a value of nearly 9,000 million U.S. dollars. About 75% of farmed shrimp is produced in Asia, in particular in China and Thailand. The other 25% is produced mainly in Latin America, where Brazil is the largest producer. The largest exporting nation is Thailand. Shrimp growout pond on a farm in South Korea. ... Superfamilies Alpheoidea Atyoidea Bresilioidea Campylonotoidea Crangonoidea Galatheacaridoidea Nematocarcinoidea Oplophoroidea Palaemonoidea Pandaloidea Pasiphaeoidea Procaridoidea Processoidea Psalidopodoidea Stylodactyloidea True shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A tonne or metric ton (symbol t), sometimes referred to as a metric tonne, is a measurement of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms. ... USD redirects here. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


Shrimp farming has changed from traditional, small-scale businesses in Southeast Asia into a global industry. Technological advances have led to growing shrimp at ever higher densities, and broodstock is shipped world-wide. Virtually all farmed shrimp are penaeids (i.e., shrimp of the family Penaeidae), and just two species of shrimp—the Penaeus vannamei (Pacific white shrimp) and the Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn)—account for roughly 80% of all farmed shrimp. These industrial monocultures are very susceptible to diseases, which have caused several regional wipe-outs of farm shrimp populations. Increasing ecological problems, repeated disease outbreaks, and pressure and criticism from both NGOs and consumer countries led to changes in the industry in the late 1990s and generally stronger regulation by governments. In 1999, a program aimed at developing and promoting more sustainable farming practices was initiated, including governmental bodies, industry representatives, and environmental organizations. Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... In aquaculture, the broodstock is a group of sexually mature individuals of a cultured species that is kept separate for breeding purposes. ... Superfamilies Panaeoidea Aristeidae Benthesicymidae Penaeidae Sicyoniidae Solenoceridae Sergestoidea Luciferidae Sergestidae Prawns are edible, shrimp-like crustaceans, belonging to the sub-order Dendrobranchiata. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... Genera Artemesia Atypopenaeus Farfantepenaeus Fenneropenaeus Funchalia Heteropenaeus Litopenaeus Macropetasma Marsupenaeus Megokris Melicertus Metapenaeopsis Metapenaeus Miyadiella Parapenaeopsis Parapenaeus Pelagopenaeus Penaeopsis Penaeus Protrachypene Rimapenaeus Tanypenaeus Trachypenaeopsis Trachypenaeus Trachysalambria Xiphopenaeus Penaeidae is a family of prawns, although they are often referred to as penaeid shrimp. ... Binomial name Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 Whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), also known as Pacific white shrimp, are a variety of prawn (not shrimp) of the eastern Pacific Ocean commonly caught or farmed for food. ... Binomial name Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798 The giant tiger prawn (scientific name Penaeus monodon, also known as the black tiger prawn, leader prawn, sugpo and grass prawn) is a marine crustacean that is widely reared for food. ... Monoculture describes systems that have very low diversity. ... This article is about the medical term. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... “NGO” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Small-scale agriculture be merged into this article or section. ...


Types of fish in aquaculture

There are several species of fish known as Asian carp. ... Binomial name Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758 Atlantic salmon, known scientifically as Salmo salar, is a species of fish in the family Salmonidae, which is found in the northern Atlantic Ocean and in rivers that flow into the Atlantic. ... Binomial name Lates calcarifer (Bloch, 1790) The barramundi (Lates calcarifer) is a species of diadromous fish in family Centropomidae of order Perciformes. ... Binomial name Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845) The bighead carp is a freshwater fish, one of several Asian carps. ... Indigenous to China, the black carp is a voracious fish, which is used in aquaculture across the American South to control disease. ... This article is about the siluriform catfishes; for the Atlantic catfish, see Seawolf (fish); for other uses, see Catfish (disambiguation). ... Catla catla, of the carp family is a tasty fish with a large protruding lower jaw. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Common carp or European carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a widespread freshwater fish distantly related to the common goldfish (Carassius auratus), with which it is capable of interbreeding[1]. It gives its name to the carp family Cyprinidae. ... Binomial name Valenciennes, 1844 The Grass Carp, (Ctenopharyngodon idella), also known as the White Amur, is a herbivorous, freshwater fish. ... Genera Belontiinae Belontia Luciocephalus/Trichogastrinae Colisa Ctenops Luciocephalus Parasphaerichthys Polyacanthus Sphaerichthys Trichogaster Macropodinae Betta Macropodus Malpulutta Parosphromenus Pseudosphromenus Trichopsis Osphroneminae Belontia Osphronemus The gouramies are a family Osphronemidae of freshwater perciform fish. ... Binomial name (Forsskål, 1775) The milkfish, Chanos chanos, is an important food fish in Southeast Asia. ...

See also

An open pond Spirulina farm Algaculture is a form of aquaculture involving the farming of species of algae. ... A demonstration aquaculture facility Fish farming is the principal form of aquaculture. ... Mariculture is the cultivation of marine organisms for food, either in their natural environment or in seawater in ponds or raceways. ... Maine has a tradition of having a large fishing and lobster industry. ... Shrimp growout pond on a farm in South Korea. ...

References

  • Corpron, K.E., Armstrong, D.A., 1983. Removal of nitrogen by an aquatic plant, Elodea densa, in recirculating Macrobrachium culture systems. Aquaculture 32, 347-360.
  • Hepburn, J. 2002. Taking Aquaculture Seriously. Organic Farming, Winter 2002 © Soil Association.
  • Kinsey, Darin, 2006 "'Seeding the water as the earth' : epicentre and peripheries of a global aquacultural revolution. Environmental History 11, 3: 527-66
  • Naylor, R.L., S.L. Williams, and D.R. Strong. 2001. Aquaculture – A Gateway For Exotic Species. Science, 294: 1655-6.
  • The Scottish Association for Marine Science and Napier University. 2002. Review and synthesis of the environmental impacts of aquaculture
  • Higginbotham James Piscinae: Artificial Fishponds in Roman Italy University of North Carolina Press (June, 1997)
  • Wyban, Carol Araki (1992) Tide and Current: Fishponds of Hawai'I University of Hawaii Press :: ISBN 0-8248-1396-0
  • Timmons, M.B., Ebeling, J.M., Wheaton, F.W., Summerfelt, S.T., Vinci, B.J., 2002. Recirculating Aquaculture Systems: 2nd edition. Cayuga Aqua Ventures.
  • Piedrahita, R.H., 2003. Reducing the potential environmental impacts of tank aquaculture effluents through intensification and recirculation. Aquaculture 226, 35-44.
  • Klas, S., Mozes, N., Lahav, O., 2006. Development of a single-sludge denitrification method for nitrate removal from RAS effluents: Lab-scale results vs. model prediction. Aquaculture 259, 342-353.
  • Rapid Domestication of Marine Species, Carlos M. Duarte, Nùria Marbá, Marianne Holmer; Science 20 April 2007: Vol. 316. no. 5823, pp. 382 - 383

Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... This article is about the University of Hawaii system. ...

Notes

  1. ^ American Heritage Definition of Aquaculture
  2. ^ New, M. B.: Farming Freshwater Prawns; FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 428, 2002. ISSN 0429-9345.
  3. ^ Data extracted from the FAO Fisheries Global Aquaculture Production Database for freshwater crustaceans. The most recent data sets are for 2003 and sometimes contain estimates. Accessed June 28, 2005.
  4. ^ Chopin T, Buschmann AH, Halling C, Troell M, Kautsky N, Neori A, Kraemer GP, Zertuche-Gonzalez JA, Yarish C and Neefus C. 2001. Integrating seaweeds into marine aquaculture systems: a key toward sustainability. Journal of Phycology 37: 975-986.
  5. ^ a b Chopin T. 2006. Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture. What it is, and why you should care… and don’t confuse it with polyculture. Northern Aquaculture, Vol. 12, No. 4, July/August 2006, pg. 4.
  6. ^ a b Neori A, Chopin T, Troell M, Buschmann AH, Kraemer GP, Halling C, Shpigel M and Yarish C. 2004. Integrated aquaculture: rationale, evolution and state of the art emphasizing seaweed biofiltration in modern mariculture. Aquaculture 231: 361-391.

Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • AquaLingua ISBN 8252923895

External links

  • Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific: Intergovernmental organization with 17 members that produce > 85% of global aquaculture production. Free news and full-text aquaculture publications for download.
  • The World Aquaculture Society: an international non-profit society with over 3,000 members in 94 countries with the primary focus to improve communication and information exchange within the diverse global aquaculture community.
  • Aquaculture Association of Canada:
  • Aqua Farm Designs - Benefits of Water recirculation systems in Aquaculture: Description of water recirculation aquaculture systems and benefits of using these types of farm designs to produce fish within eco-friendly land based enclosed aquaculture operations.
  • FishingHurts.com/FishFarms: Criticism of aquaculture's effects on animal welfare and the environment
  • Aquaculture Information from the Coastal Ocean Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
  • Aquaculture Resources Directory A directory of reference links and downloadable reports, articles from numerous sources.
  • FAO Fisheries Department and its SOFIA report on fisheries and aquaculture
  • Organic Aquaculture: Articles and references on the merits and otherwise of farming fish organically.
  • Aquaculture Knowledge Environment: A searchable online library of government and United Nations documents covering nearly every aspect of aquaculture from pond construction to international codes of conduct.
  • Watershed Watch Society Salmon farming and sea lice
  • AquaNIC A comprehensive information server for aquaculture topics, including publications, news, events, job announcements, images, and related resources.
  • American Fisheries Society
  • Read Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding Aquaculture
  • FISHING FOR INFORMATION HOME PAGE: Guide to on-line resources in aquaculture, fisheries and aquatic science
  • Aquaculture Resources for Ethno-Anthropologists News mirror service in the field of aquaculture with focus on his social effects
  • Aquaculture
  • Aquaculture and the Protection of Wild Salmon
  • Aquaculture and Information
  • AAAS science magazine feature on aquaculture
  • AAAS science podcast of 20 April 2007 features Carlos M. Duarte on the surprising growth in cultivation of aquatic species

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) is a private, nonprofit research and higher education facility dedicated to the study of all aspects of marine science and engineering and to the education of marine researchers. ...


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Hawaii is an ideal location for aquaculture, the farming of plants and animals in water.
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