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Encyclopedia > Aqidah

Part of a series on the Islamic creed:
Aqidah
For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For other uses, see Creed (disambiguation). ...


Five Pillars of Islam

Shahādah - Profession of faith
Salah - Prayer
Zakâh - Paying of alms (giving to the poor)
Sawm - Fasting during Ramadan
Hajj - Pilgrimage to Mecca
Image File history File links Mosque02. ... The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ... White flag featuring the Shahada text as used by the Taliban. ... Salat redirects here. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Ramadan. ... This article is about religious observances during the month of Ramadan. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ...

Sunni Six articles of belief

Tawhīd - Oneness
Nabi and Rusul - Prophets and Messengers
Kutub - Divinely Revealed Books.
Malā'ikah - Angels
Qiyâmah - Judgment Day
Qadr (Predestination) Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Six articles of belief is a set of beliefs enumerated by the Sunnis: The six Sunni articles of belief are: Belief in God (Allah), the one and only one worthy of all worship (tawhid). ... TawhÄ«d (also Tawhid or Tauhid or Tawheed; Arabic توحيد) is the Islamic concept of monotheism, derived from Ahad. ... Nabi can refer to the Arabic and Hebrew word for Prophet the Korean word for butterfly one of the Nabis, a group of artists in Paris in the 1890s the 2005 Typhoon Nabi North American Bus Industries, a major transit bus manufacturing company Nabi Biopharmaceuticals, a Biopharmaceutical company based in... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... The Islamic holy books are the records believed from Muslims that were dictated by God to prophets. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Yawm al-QÄ«yāmah (Arabic: literally: Day of the Resurrection) is the Last Judgement in Islam. ... Qadr as an Islamic term is parallel to the western doctrines of Predestination. ...

Shi'a Twelvers
Principles of the Religion (Usul al-Din)

Tawhīd - Oneness
Adalah - Justice
Nubuwwah - Prophethood
Imamah - Leadership
Qiyâmah - Judgment Day
Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ... In Shia Islam, Theology of Shia (UsÅ«l al-DÄ«n) is the five main beliefs that Shia Muslims must possess. ... TawhÄ«d (also Tawhid or Tauhid or Tawheed; Arabic توحيد) is the Islamic concept of monotheism, derived from Ahad. ... Adalah means Justice and denotes The Justice of God The Shias consider Justice of God as part of Usool-e-Deen (Roots of Religion). ... Nubuwwah means Prophethood and denotes that God has appointed perfect Prophets and Messengers to teach mankind Gods religion. ... This is a sub-article to Imamah (Shia doctrine) and is specifically about the Shia twelver conception of the term. ... Yawm al-QÄ«yāmah (Arabic: literally: Day of the Resurrection) is the Last Judgement in Islam. ...

Shi'a Twelvers
Practices of the Religion (Furu al-Din)

Salah - Prayer
Sawm - Fasting during Ramadan
Hajj - Pilgrimage to Mecca
Zakâh - Poor-rate
Khums - One-fifth tax
Jihad - Struggle
Amr-Bil-Ma'rūf - Commanding good
Nahi-Anil-Munkar - Forbidding evil
Tawalla - Loving the Ahl al-Bayt
Tabarra - Disassociating Ahl al-Bayt's enemies
Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ... In Shia Islam, the ten Branches of Religion (FurÅ« al-DÄ«n) are the ten practices that Shia Muslims must perform. ... Salat redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Ramadan. ... This article is about religious observances during the month of Ramadan. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... Khums (خمس) is the Arabic word for One Fifth (1/5). ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Amr-Bil-MarÅ«f - Commanding the good, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and means to encourage people to do the necesary good in life, when they forget to do so; for example forgeting Salah. ... Nahi-Anil-Munkar - Forbiding evil, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and means for example to oppose injustice. ... Tawalla - Loving the Ahl al-Bayt, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and is derived from a Quranic verse. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... AS SALAM AU ALIKUM, not to mistaken, this salam was not for shias its only for muslims. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ...

Shi'a Ismaili 7 pillars

Walayah - Guardianship
Taharah - Purity & cleanliness
Salah - Prayers
Zakâh - Purifying religious dues
Sawm - Fasting during Ramadan
Hajj - Pilgrimage to Mecca
Jihad - Struggle
Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the ShÄ«a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... Shia Ismaili Seven Pillars of Islam have three doctrines that are not included in the Sunni Five Pillars of Islam: Walayah, Taharah and Jihad. ... Guardianship is a Ismaili and Druze pillar of Islam. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... Salat redirects here. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Ramadan. ... This article is about religious observances during the month of Ramadan. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ...

Others

Kharijite Sixth pillar of Islam. Kharijites were members of an Islamic sect in late 7th and early 8th century AD, concentrated in todays southern Iraq. ... The term Sixth pillar of Islam refers to an addition to the Five Pillars of Islam; the five pillars of Islam explain the basic tenets of the Sunni Islam faith, Shia Islam uses other concepts. ...

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Aqidah (sometimes spelled as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah) (Arabic: عقيدة) is an Islamic term meaning creed. Any religious belief system, or creed, can be considered an examples of aqidah with the condition that it's source is mutawatir (it means that it is passed down through a large chain of Narrators so that there are no possibilities of error or forgery)and its meaning not ambigious. The term was spread by the Mutakallimin, islamic scholastic scholars from the 2nd and 3rd islamic century (8th and 9th christian century). However this term has taken a significant technical usage in Muslim history and theology, denoting those matters over which Muslims hold conviction. There are three main accepted schools of Aqidah by the majority of the Sunnis: Ashari, Maturidi and Athari. It should be noted that everything in this three schools is not part of the Aqida just because they are widely accepted. There are strict criterion for something to be held as Aqida amongst the Sunni Muslims, esp by the Hanafis, Shafiis and Malikis. In contrast, the Hanbalis accept even Ahad Hadith (Narrations which came down through a chain of one two or three narrators) if they do not contradict the Quran and other accepted Ahadith. But the majority of Sunni Classical Muslims Scholars are very strict concerning Aqida matters. They allow "Taqlid" (Imitation) and "Dshann" (assumption) in Fiqhi matters (islamic verdicts concerning human deeds) but not in Aqida matters. So in theory there is no possibilites of different opinions concerning the Aqida because per definition anything that could cause difference of opinion because the texts (Quran and Sunna) itself has left space for is not part of the Aqida. Nothing can be counted as islamic Aqida if its meaning is not clear and if its source is not mutawatir. In recent times we have beliefs held by the laymen who have inherited them from their arab (former christian arabs), indian, persian, turk, roman and greek past. We also have beliefs held by different sects which are apostacy per definition. So it is not considered difference of opinion by the Sunni Muslims but Apostacy. Apostacy is any belief which contradicts clear islamic texts which are mutawatir. Any additional belief not supported by a unambigious text is considered Bidah (new inventions in belief or deeds) While Apostacy is clear Kufr (Disbelief), Bidat (new inventions) could either be Kufr or great sins. Example: The Muslims believe that there are angels and that these angels have wings (sura 35). Why? Because it is mentioned in the Quran, and the Quran is a mutawatir narration. But if someone comes and says that these wings are white or that they are like the wings of the eagles then this is not considered part of the Aqidah. The one who claims this must bring proof and if he can't he has invented a bidah. Believing in this bidah is a sin and if it contradicts any clear text then it is Disbelief and the one believing in it is considered a disbeliever even if he claims to be a muslim or he is considered a sinner if what he believes does not clearly contradict islamic text. The Muslim believes in the "Ruh" or soul but is this soul the same as the hellenistic soul which Plato has defined or the same as the hindu mystic describes? Anyone claiming the soul to be the same as the greek philosophy has defined must bring proofs (islamic text which must be mutawatir in traditon and unambigious in meaning). Like for example some Muslims believe that the soul of the death comes on the seventh day. There is no proof for this belief. Anyone believing in it is a sinner. Some Muslims rejects the idea of Jinn. Not believing in the existence of the Jinnat is clear disbelief as another example. Arabic redirects here. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For other uses, see Creed (disambiguation). ... The Asharite school of early Muslim philosophy were instrumental in drastically changing the direction of Islamic philosophy, separating its development drastically from that of philosophy in the Christian world. ... In Islam, one who follows Abu Mansur Al Maturidis theology, which is a close variant of Ashari school of thought. ... Athari ((al-Athariyya), the textualists, from the word Athar, report) is the smallest of the four schools of Sunni Islamic theology. ...


According to the majority of Sunni belief, there is no difference between Shia and Sunni Aqida just because the Shias take the Imamah as part of their Aqidah. They have added something to their Aqidah for which there is no clear text in the Quran or in the mutawatir Ahadith according to the Sunni understanding. The texts which the Shia cite as a proof for their Aqidah in Imamah is not clearly formulated so in the Quran. They have to be interpretated and that is not enough according to Sunni Scholars. But because for the Shias the Muslims cannot stay without a leader chosen by God Himself the saying of the Imams are part of the guidance and hence Aqidah.


The Shias in contrast take the saying of their Imams as part of the Aqidah. Due to different definition of the Sunnah which is only the saying and deeds and silent tolerance of the Prophet himself according to the Sunnis, the shias definition of the Sunnah is wider. So most difference could be traced back to this difference of definition of the Sunnah. Besides the idea of mutawatir and ahad traditions is not wide spread amongst the Shiits. They even have a different science of Hadith (or science of traditons).

Contents

Introduction

Muslims enumerate their creeds to include the Six articles of belief. There is a consensus on the elements of this creed across all spectrums as they are clearly articulated in the Quran. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ...


Sectarian differences between Shias and Sunnis are often expressed in differences in branches or elaboration of creedal beliefs as opposed to the core creed (aqidah). Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ...


For example, Muslims may have different ideas regarding the attributes of God or about the purpose of angels. However there is no dispute on the existence of God, that he has sent his revelation via messengers nor that man will be accounted and rewarded or punished with heaven or hell.


Six articles of belief

In the Hadith Sahih Al-Muslim and Sahih Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muhammad explains, "It (Al-Iman/faith) is to affirm your faith in Allah, His angels, His Books, His Messengers and the Last Day, and to believe in the Divine Destiny whether it be good or bad." Abul Husayn Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Qushayri al-Nisaburi (Arabic: أبو الحسين مسلم بن الحجاج القشيري النيسابوري) (born 204... For other uses, see Al-Bukhari (name) Popularly known as just Bukhari, Al-Bukhari or Imam Bukhari (810-870), he was a famous Sunni Islamic scholar of Persian ancestry,[1] most known for authoring the hadith collection named Sahih Bukhari, a collection which Sunni regard as the most authentic (Arabic... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...


The six Sunni and Shia articles of belief are:

  1. Belief in God (Allah), the one and only one worthy of all worship (tawhid).
  2. Belief in the Angels (mala'ika).
  3. Belief in the Books (kutub) sent by God (including the Qur'an).
  4. Belief in all the Prophets (nabi) and Messengers (rusul) sent by God.
  5. Belief in the Day of Judgment (qiyama) and in the Resurrection (life after death).
  6. Belief in Destiny (Fate) (qadar).

In Sunni and Shia view, having "Iman" literally means to have belief in Six articles. However the importance of Iman relies heavily upon reasons. Islam explicitly asserts that belief should be maintained in that which can be proven using faculties of perception and conception. Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Annunciation - the Angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear Jesus (El Greco, 1575) An angel is an ethereal being found in many religions, whose duties are to assist and serve God. ... The Islamic holy books are the records believed from Muslims that were dictated by God to prophets. ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... Yaum al-Qiyâmah (يوم القيامة; literally: Day of the Resurrection (Quran 71. ... Qadar in Arabic means fate or divine destiny. ... Iman (Arabic: إيمان) is an Islamic term, literally meaning to learn, to fully observe ones faith or to learn ones faith, and lexically meaning affirmation and confirmation in the heart, as can be found in a verse of the Quran: Josephs brothers said, Our father! Indeed, we...


Shi'a beliefs and practices

Roots of Religion (Usūl al-Dīn)

  1. Tawhīd (Oneness): The Oneness of God
  2. Adalah (Justice): The Justice of God
  3. Nubuwwah (Prophethood): God has appointed perfect and infallible prophets and messengers to teach mankind the religion (i.e. a perfect system on how to live in "peace".)
  4. Imamah (Leadership): God has appointed specific leaders to lead and guide mankind — a prophet appoints a custodian of the religion before his demise.
  5. Qiyamah (The Day of Judgment): God will raise mankind for Judgment

In Shia Islam, the five Roots of Religion (Usūl al-Dīn) are the five beliefs that Shia Muslims must possess. ... Tawhīd (also Tawhid or Tauhid or Tawheed; Arabic توحيد) is the Islamic concept of monotheism, derived from Ahad. ... Adalah means Justice and denotes The Justice of God The Shias consider Justice of God as part of Usool-e-Deen (Roots of Religion). ... Nubuwwah means Prophethood and denotes that God has appointed perfect Prophets and Messengers to teach mankind Gods religion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Yawm al-Qīyāmah (Arabic: literally: Day of the Resurrection) is the Last Judgement in Islam. ...

Branches of Religion (Furū al-Dīn)

  1. Salat- The 5 daily prayers.
  2. Sawm (Fast) - Fasting during the month of Ramadan.
  3. Hajj (Pilgrimage) - Undertaking the pilgrimage to Mecca.
  4. Zakaat (Poor-rate) - Paying the poor-due.
  5. Khums (One-fifth) - Paying a tax of 20%, which is levied on un-taxed, annual profit.
  6. Jihad (Struggle) - Struggling to earn the favour of God. The greater jihad, "al-Jihad al-Akbar", is the struggle against the evil within one's own soul. The lesser jihad, "al-Jihad al-Asghar", is where one fights on the battlefield in defence of his religion when attacked.
  7. Amr-Bil-Ma'rūf - Encouraging people to perform good deeds.
  8. Nahi-Anil-Munkar - Dis-couraging people from performing sin.
  9. Tawalla - To love Ahl al-Bayt.
  10. Tabarra - To disassociate oneself from the enemies of the Ahl al-Bayt.

In Shia Islam, the ten Branches of Religion (FurÅ« al-DÄ«n) are the ten practices that Shia Muslims must perform. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... Zakât (or Zakaat or Zakah) (Arabic: زكاة, Old (Quran) Arabic: زكوة) is the third of the Five Pillars of Islam. ... Khums (خمس) is the Arabic word for One Fifth (1/5). ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Amr-Bil-MarÅ«f - Commanding the good, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and means to encourage people to do the necesary good in life, when they forget to do so; for example forgeting Salah. ... Nahi-Anil-Munkar - Forbiding evil, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and means for example to oppose injustice. ... Tawalla - Loving the Ahl al-Bayt, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and is derived from a Quranic verse. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... AS SALAM AU ALIKUM, not to mistaken, this salam was not for shias its only for muslims. ...

Ismaili beliefs

The branch of Islam known as Isma'ili is the second largest Shi'a community. The majority of Muslims do not believe they are in the fold of Islam given their rejection of core creedal ideas. They observe the following pillars of Islam: The Ismaili (Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmâiliyân) branch of Islam is the second largest Shia community, after the Twelvers who are dominant in Iran. ...

  1. Tawhid
  2. Imamah
  3. Nabuah
  4. Qiyamah
  5. Dua(Namaz)

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Yawm al-Qīyāmah (Arabic: literally: Day of the Resurrection) is the Last Judgement in Islam. ...

Druze beliefs

The Druze are a small Islamic sect residing mainly in Lebanon, Israel, Syria, Turkey and Jordan. Majority of Muslims do not believe they are in the fold of Islam given their rejection of core creedal ideas. They observe the following seven pillars: Religions Druze Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom) Languages Arabic. ...

  1. Shahuudah
  2. Sallaahh
  3. Zakât
  4. Sawm
  5. Hajj
  6. Walayah
  7. Jihad

This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... Guardianship is a Ismaili and Druze pillar of Islam. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ...

Literature

Many Muslim scholars have attempted to explain Islamic creed in general, or specific aspects of aqidah. The following list contains some of the most well-known literature.


Sunni Literature

  • Aqidah at-Tahawiyya or "The Fundamentals of Islamic Creed by Imam Tahawi. Has been accepted by almost all Sunni Muslims (Atharis, Ash'aris, Maturidis).[1] It was well explained by Ibn Abu al-Iz.[2]
  • Aqidah al-Waasittiyah by Ibn Taymiya.[3]
  • Sharh as Sunnah or the Explanation of the Creed by Al-Barbahaaree. Lists approximately 170 points pertaining to the fundamentals of Aqidah.[4]
  • Khalq Af'aal al-Ibad (The Creation of the acts of Servants) by Bukhari. It shows the opinion of early scholars (Salaf) but it does not cover all topics.
  • Ulu by al-Dhahabi. Details the opinions of early scholars.
  • Ibaanah by Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari. Accepted by Atharis and early Ash'aris.

Tahawi (239-321 A.H) (Arabic: أبو جعفر الطحاوي) Imam Abu Jafar al-Tahawi is a famous Hanafi scholar. ... Athari ((al-Athariyya), the textualists, from the word Athar, report) is the smallest of the four schools of Sunni Islamic theology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In Islam, one who follows Abu Mansur Al Maturidis theology, which is a close variant of Ashari school of thought. ... Ibn Abu al-Iz (731-792 A.H) (Arabic: ابن أبي العز) Imam Sadru-Deen Ali ibn Abu al-Iz - Hanafi scholar. ... Taqi Ad-din Abu Al-abbas Ahmad Ibn abd As-salam Ibn abd Allah Ibn Muhammad Ibn Taymiya (Arabic: أبو عباس تقي الدين أحمد بن عبد السلام بن عبد الله ابن تيمية الحراني) (January 22, 1263 - 1328), was an Islamic scholar born in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, close to the Syrian border. ... Al-Barbaharee was a Sunni Islamic theologian from Iraq. ... Muhammad Ibn Ismail Ibn Ibrahim Ibn al-Mughirah Ibn Bardiziyeh al-Bukhari محمد بن اسماعيل بن ابراهيم بن المغيرة بن بردزبه البخاري), was the author of a collection of traditions, compiled in Sahih Bukhari. ... This article is on the group of early Muslims. ... Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Uthman ibn Qaymaz, Abu Abdullah Shams al-Din al-Dhahabi, ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﻤﺰ ﺍﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺷﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺒﻲ the great Shafii hadith master (hafiz) and historian of Islam, born in Damascus in 673/1274. ... Abu al-Hasan bin Ismael al-Ashari (Arabic ابو الحسن بن إسماعيل اﻷشعري) (c. ... Athari ((al-Athariyya), the textualists, from the word Athar, report) is the smallest of the four schools of Sunni Islamic theology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Shia Literature

Allameh Tabatabaei (1892-1981) is one of the most prominent thinkers of contemporary Shia Islam. ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, (Persian: سيد حسين نصر) A lifelong student and follower of Frithjof Schuon, Persian philosopher and renowned scholar of comparative religion, is a prominent authority in the fields of Islamic esoterism, sufism, philosophy of science, and metaphysics. ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, (Persian: سيد حسين نصر) A lifelong student and follower of Frithjof Schuon, Persian philosopher and renowned scholar of comparative religion, is a prominent authority in the fields of Islamic esoterism, sufism, philosophy of science, and metaphysics. ...

References

  1. ^ http://islamicweb.com/beliefs/creed/Aqeedatut_Tahaawiyyah.htm
  2. ^ http://arabic.islamicweb.com/Books/creed.asp?book=5
  3. ^ http://www.salafipublications.com/sps/sp.cfm?subsecID=AQD04&articleID=AQD040003&articlePages=1
  4. ^ http://www.al-muwahhideen.com/exp_creed.htm

External links


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