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Encyclopedia > April Uprising
Development of the April Uprising
Development of the April Uprising

The April Uprising (Bulgarian: Априлско въстание) was an insurrection organised by the Bulgarians in the Ottoman Empire from April to May 1876, the indirect result of which was the liberation of Bulgaria in 1878. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x777, 164 KB) Map of the April Uprising of 1876 in Bulgaria, created by kle4kar. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x777, 164 KB) Map of the April Uprising of 1876 in Bulgaria, created by kle4kar. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) is a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


The uprising was the most powerful manifestation of the Bulgarian liberation movement. It was the result of a long process of resurgence of Bulgarian national sentiments, known as the Bulgarian National Revival. The Bulgarian population was suppressed socially and politically for the past few centuries under Ottoman rule and the resentment towards it was historically high. Additionally, more immediate causes for the greater mobilisation compared to earlier revolts were the severe internal and external problems which the Ottoman Empire experienced in the middle of the 1870s. In 1875, taxes levied on non-Muslims were raised for fear of a state bankruptcy, which, in its turn, caused additional tension between Muslims and Christians and facilitated the breakout of the Herzegovinian rebellion. The failure of the Ottomans to handle the uprising successfully showed the weakness of the Ottoman state while the brutalities which ensued, discredited additionally the empire to the outside world. The Bulgarian national revival (Vazrazdane) was a period of socio-economic development and national integration among Bulgarian people in the Ottoman Empire. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), İstanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl... // Events and Trends Technology The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ... 1875 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... The Herzegovinian Rebellion is a name used for the most infamous of the rebellions against the Ottoman Empire in Herzegovina that took place in 1875. ...

Contents


Preparation

In November 1875, activists of the Bulgarian Revolutionary Central Committee met in the Romanian town of Giurgiu and decided that the political situation was suitable for a general uprising. The uprising was scheduled for April or May 1876. The territory of the country was divided into five revolutionary districts with centres in Vratsa, Veliko Tarnovo, Sliven, Plovdiv and Sofia. 1875 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Bulgarian Revolutionary Central Committee (Bulgarian: Български революционен централен комитет) or BRCK was a Bulgarian revolutionary organisation founded in 1869 among the Bulgarian emigrant circles in Romania. ... County Giurgiu County Status County capital Mayor Lucian Iliescu, National Liberal Party, since 2000 Population (2002) 73,586 Geographical coordinates , Web site http://www. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) is a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Vratsa or Vraca or Vratza (Bulgarian: Враца) is a city in northwestern Bulgaria, at the foothills of the Balkan mountains. ... Veliko Tarnovo (Bulgarian: Велико Търново; also transliterated as Veliko Turnovo) is a city in central northern Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Veliko Tarnovo Province. ... Sliven (Bulgarian: Сливен) is a town in southeast Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Sliven Province. ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: Пловдив) is the second largest city in Bulgaria, with a population of 376,918 citizens. ... Official website: sofia. ...

The flag of the April Uprising, sewn by Rayna Knyaginya
The flag of the April Uprising, sewn by Rayna Knyaginya

In the progress of the preparation of the uprising, the organisers gave up the idea of a fifth revolutionary district in Sofia due to the deplorable situation of the local revolutionary committees and moved the centre of the fourth revolutionary district from Plovdiv to Panagyurishte. On 14 April 1876, a general meeting of the committees from the fourth revolutionary district was held in the Oborishte locality near Panagyurishte to discuss the proclamation of the insurrection. One of the delegates, however, disclosed the plot to the Ottoman authorities. On 20 April 1876, Ottoman police made an attempt to arrest the leader of the local revolutionary committee in Koprivshtitsa, Todor Kableshkov. Image File history File links Zname_Aprilskoto_vastanie. ... Image File history File links Zname_Aprilskoto_vastanie. ... Rayna Knyaginya Rayna Popgeorgieva Futekova (Райна Попгеоргиева Футекова), better known as Rayna Knyaginya (Райна Княгиня) (1856-1917) was a Bulgarian teacher and revolutionary born in Panagyurishte that is famous for having sewn the flag of the April Uprising of 1876. ... Official website: sofia. ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: Пловдив) is the second largest city in Bulgaria, with a population of 376,918 citizens. ... Panagyurishte is a town in Pazardzhik Province, western Bulgaria. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (105th in leap years). ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) is a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Panagyurishte is a town in Pazardzhik Province, western Bulgaria. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... Koprivchtitsa Koprivshtitsa (Bulgarian: Копривщица) is a town in the Sofia region of Bulgaria, lying on the Topolnitsa river among the Sredna Gora mountains. ... Todor Kableshkov Todor Kableshkov (Тодор Каблешков) (13 January 1851-16 June 1876) was a 19th-century Bulgarian revolutionary and one of the leaders of the April Uprising. ...


Outbreak and reaction

In conformity with the decisions taken at Oborishte, the local committee attacked the headquarters of the Ottoman police in the town and proclaimed the insurrection two weeks in advance. Within several days, the rebellion spread to the whole Sredna Gora and to a number of towns and villages in the northwestern Rhodopes. The insurrection broke out in the other revolutionary districts, as well, though on a much smaller scale. The areas of Gabrovo, Tryavna, and Pavlikeni also revolted in force, as well as several villages north and south of Sliven and near Berovo (in the present-day Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia). A view of Sredna Gora from the Thracian tomb near Starosel Sredna Gora (Средна Гора) is a mountain range in central Bulgaria, situated parallel with Stara Planina and extending to the river Iskar to the west and the elbow of Tundzha north of Yambol to the east. ... The Rhodopes (also spelled Rodopi) are a mountain range, with over 83% of its area in southern Bulgaria and the remainder in Greece. ... Gabrovo municipality is located in Northern Bulgaria, in Gabrovo micro region. ... Typical architecture of Tryavna Tryavna (Трявна) is a town in central Bulgaria, located near Gabrovo. ... Bogomils was the name of an ancient Gnostic religious community which is thought to have originated in Bulgaria. ... Sliven (Bulgarian: Сливен) is a town in southeast Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Sliven Province. ... Berovo is a small city near the MaleÅ¡evo mountains, 161 km far away from Skopje, 47 km from Strumica and 52km from Kočani, in the Republic of Macedonia. ... Motto: (English: ) Anthem: (Transliteration: ) (English: ) Capital Skopje Largest city Skopje Official language(s) Macedonian, Albanian1 Government President Prime Minister Parliamentary republic Branko Crvenkovski Vlado Bučkovski Independence Declared From Yugoslavia September 8, 1991 Area  - Total    - Water (%)   25,333 km² (146th) 9,779 sq mi  1. ...


The reaction of the Ottoman authorities was quick and ruthless. Detachments of regular and irregular Ottoman troops (bashi-bazouks) were mobilised and attacked the first insurgent towns as early as 25 April. By the middle of May, the insurrection was completely suppressed. As no records were kept at the time, it is impossible to know exactly how many people were killed. The figure ranges from around 3,000 [1] to over 12,000,[2] with the latter being the generally accepted figure. Some 80 villages and towns were burned and destroyed and 200 others were plundered.[citation needed] The atrocities which accompanied the suppression of the insurrection reached its peak in the northern Rhodopes. Nearly the whole population of the town of Batak was slaughtered or burned alive by Ottoman irregulars who left piles of dead bodies around the town square and church.[citation needed] Irregular soldiers in Beauharnois, Quebec, 19th century Irregular military refers to any non-standard military. ... A bashi-bazouk (in Turkish başıbozuk, meaning disorganized, leaderless) was an irregular soldier of the Ottoman army. ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (116th in leap years). ... The Rhodopes (also spelled Rodopi) are a mountain range, with over 83% of its area in southern Bulgaria and the remainder in Greece. ... Batak (Bulgarian Батак) is a town in Southern Bulgaria. ...


Results

The organisers of the uprising did not realistically expect to overthrow the Ottoman oppression but had the goal of drawing attention to the plight of the Bulgarians and placing Bulgaria on the political agenda of the Great Powers. Although the insurrection was a military failure, it succeeded in causing an enormous public outcry in Europe. The pictures of burned or slaughtered human bodies and the articles on the Ottoman atrocities went round all European newspapers and were condemned by a number of leading European political and cultural figures, including William Gladstone, Charles Darwin, Oscar Wilde, Victor Hugo and Giuseppe Garibaldi. Indeed, it has been argued that the massacre was the catalyst behind Gladstone's resurgence in British politics. In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... William Ewart Gladstone (December 29, 1809 - May 19, 1898) was a British Liberal politician and Prime Minister (1868-1874, 1880-1885, 1886 and 1892-1894). ... In his lifetime Charles Darwin gained international fame as an influential scientist examining controversial topics: portrait by Julia Margaret Cameron. ... Oscar Wilde Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Anglo-Irish playwright, novelist, poet, short story writer and Freemason. ... Victor-Marie Hugo. ... Garibaldi in 1866 Giuseppe Garibaldi (July 4, 1807 – June 2, 1882) was an Italian patriot and soldier of the Risorgimento. ...


The tumult caused by the uprising led to the Conference of Constantinople in 1876 and the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78. 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) is a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 had its origins in the Russian goal of gaining access to the Mediterranean Sea and dominating Constantinople (Istanbul) and the adjacent Turkish Straits. ...


See also

  • History of Bulgaria

The history of Bulgaria as a separate country began in the 7th century with the arrival of the Bulgars and the foundation of the First Bulgarian Empire together with the local seven Slavic tribes, a union recognized by Byzantium in 681. ...

Further Reading and other Links

  • "Balkan Crisis and the Treaty of Berlin: 1878" from The Balkans Since 1453 by L.S. Stavrianos; http://www.suc.org/culture/history/berlin78/

References

  1. ^ Richard Millman, "The Bulgarian Massacres Reconsidered," in The Slavonic and East European Review, Vol. 58, No. 2, (April, 1980), p230
  2. ^ Robert Seton-Watson, Disraeli, Gladstone and the Eastern Question: a study in diplomacy and party politics, (London: Macmillan, 1935), p58

  Results from FactBites:
 
Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal (949 words)
The April Uprising (, Aprilsko vastanie) was an insurrection organised by the Bulgarians in the Ottoman Empire from April to May 1876, the indirect result of which was the establishment of Bulgaria as an independent nation in 1878.
On 14 April 1876, a general meeting of the committees from the fourth revolutionary district was held in the Oborishte locality near Panagyurishte to discuss the proclamation of the insurrection.
The tumult caused by the uprising led to the Conference of Constantinople in 1876 and the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78, which was concluded by the Treaty of San Stefano in March 1878, followed in July that year by the Treaty of Berlin.
April Uprising - definition of April Uprising in Encyclopedia (609 words)
In the progress of the preparation of the uprising, the organisers gave up the idea of a fifth revolutionary district in Sofia due to the deplorable situation of the local revolutionary committees and moved the centre of the fourth revolutionary district from Plovdiv to Panagyurishte.
On April 14th, 1876, a general meeting of the committees from the fourth revolutionary district was held in the Oborishte locality near Panagyurishte to discuss the proclamation of the insurrection.
The tumult caused by the uprising led to the Conference of Constantinople in 1876 and the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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