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Encyclopedia > Apraxia
Apraxia
Classifications and external resources
ICD-10 R48.2
ICD-9 438.81, 784.69
DiseasesDB 31600
MedlinePlus 003203
eMedicine neuro/438 

Apraxia is a neurological disorder characterized by loss of the ability to execute or carry out learned (familiar) movements, despite having the desire and the physical ability to perform the movements. It is a disorder of motor planning which may be acquired or developmental, but may not be caused by incoordination, sensory loss or failure to comprehend simple commands (which can be tested by asking the person tested to recognize the correct movement from a series). The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... // R00-R99 - Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified (R00-R09) Symptoms and signs involving the circulatory and respiratory systems (R00) Abnormalities of heart beat (R000) Tachycardia, unspecified (R001) Bradycardia, unspecified (R002) Palpitations (R008) Other and unspecified abnormalities of heart beat (R01) Cardiac murmurs and other... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Diseases Database is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems. ...


The root word of Apraxia is praxis which is Greek for an act, work, or deed. It is preceded by a privative a, meaning without. The privative a (or a privativum) is the prefix a- expressing negation (e. ...

Contents

Types

There are several types of apraxia including:

  • ideomotor (inability to carry out a motor command, for example, "act as if you are brushing your teeth" or "salute") - the form most frequently encountered by physicians,
    • limb apraxia when movements of the arms and legs are involved,
    • nonverbal-oral or buccofacial (inability to carry out facial movements on command, e.g., lick lips, whistle, cough, or wink),
  • ideational (inability to create a plan for or idea of a specific movement, for example, "pick up this pen and write down your name"),
  • limb-kinetic (inability to make fine, precise movements with a limb),
  • verbal (difficulty planning the movements necessary for speech), also known as Apraxia of Speech
  • constructional (inability to draw or construct simple configurations),
  • and oculomotor (difficulty moving the eyes).

Each type may be tested at decreasing levels of complexity; if the person tested fails to execute the commands, you can make the movement yourself and ask that the person mimics it, or you can even give them a real object (like a tooth brush) and ask them to use it. The Doctor by Samuel Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ... The mouth, also known as the buccal cavity or the oral cavity, is the opening through which an animal or human takes in food. ... A whistle is a one-note woodwind instrument which produces sound from a stream of forced air. ... A wink is an intentional facial expression, made by closing one eye and tensing the facial muscles above and below. ... Look up Speech in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article refers to the sight organ. ...


Apraxia may be accompanied by a language disorder called aphasia. Speech disorders, or speech impediments as they are also called, are a type of communication disorders where normal speech is disrupted. ... Look up aphasia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Developmental Apraxia of Speech (DAS) presents in children who have no evidence of difficulty with strength or range of motion of the articulators, but are unable to execute speech movements because of motor planning and coordination problems. This is not to be confused with phonological impairments in children with normal coordination of the articulators during speech.


Symptoms of Acquired Apraxia of Speech (AOS) and Developmental Apraxia of Speech (DAS) include inconsistent articulatory errors, groping oral movements to locate the correct articulatory position, and increasing errors with increasing word and phrase length. AOS often co-occurs with Oral Apraxia (during both speech and non-speech movements) and Limb Apraxia.


Causes

Ideomotor apraxia is almost always caused by lesions in the dominant hemisphere of the brain, and as such these patients often have concomitant aphasia, especially of the Broca or conduction type. Left-side ideomotor apraxia may be caused by a lesion of the anterior corpus callosum. In animals, the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system. ... Look up aphasia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Expressive aphasia, known as Brocas aphasia in clinical neuropsychology and agrammatic aphasia in cognitive neuropsychology, is an aphasia caused by damage to Brocas area in the brain. ... Conduction aphasia is a relatively rare form of aphasia, caused by damage to the nerve fibres connecting Wernickes and Brocas areas (arcuate fasciculus). ... In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... The corpus callosum is a structure in the mammalian brain that connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres. ...


Ideational apraxia is commonly associated with confusion states and dementia.


Treatment

Generally, treatment for individuals with apraxia includes physical therapy, occupational therapy or speech therapy and IVIG. If apraxia is a symptom of another disorder (usually a neurologic disorder), the underlying disorder should be treated. This article concerns the health profession. ... It has been suggested that Occupational therapist be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Speech-Language Pathology, Speech pathology, Phoniatrics be merged into this article or section. ... Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a blood product used in the treatment of inflammatory or autoimmune diseases, hypogammaglobulinemia and other diseases featuring low antibody levels. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ...


Prognosis

The prognosis for individuals with apraxia varies. With therapy, some patients improve significantly, while others may show very little improvement. Some indivdiuals with apraxia may benefit from the use of a communication aid. Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) refers to an area of research, clinical, and educational practice. ...


References

  • Epstein, O.; D. Perkin, J. Cookson, D.P. de Bono (2003). Clinical Examination. London: Mosby, 294. ISBN 0-7234-3229-5.
  • Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005. ISBN 0-07-139140-1.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Apraxia of eyelid opening (1082 words)
Apraxia of lid opening patients typically elevate their brows in an attempt to open their eyelids until the eyelids eventually open.
After apraxia of lid opening the next most common cause of inability to adequately open the eyelids is ptosis, brow ptosis, and dermatochalasis (Fig 3).
Blepharospasm patients with apraxia of lid opening are treated by an upper myectomy and tightening of the levator tendon that raises the eyelids (aponeurotic ptosis repair).
Apraxia-KIDS (a program of The Childhood Apraxia of Speech Association) - Apraxia-KIDS (360 words)
Welcome to your Guide To Childhood Apraxia of Speech. ; Designed especially to those new to the diagnosis of Childhood Apraxia of Speech. ; Click on the link to enter your guide to learning and helping your child...
ASHA recently approved the Childhood Apraxia of Speech Position Statement and the CAS Technical Report.
This web site is a program of the Childhood Apraxia of Speech Association, the national organization representing the needs and interests of children affected by apraxia of speech.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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