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Encyclopedia > Apportionment (politics)

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Apportionment is also applied in party-list proportional representation elections to distribute seats between different parties once they've won a particular percentage of the vote, much like how different U.S. states obtain different shares of the population from the census. Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems used in multiple-winner elections (e. ... A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ...

Because there is almost certain to be some degree of rounding error, different mathematical schemes for calculating apportionment can produce different results in terms of seats for the relevant party or sector. These methods include the Jefferson method, the Webster method, the Huntington-Hill method, and the Hamilton method. The DHondt method is a highest averages method for allocating seats in party-list proportional representation. ... The Sainte-LaguÃ« method of the highest average (sometimes identified with Websters method or divisor method with standard rounding) is one way of allocating seats proportionally for representative assemblies with party list voting systems. ... The Huntington-Hill method of apportionment assigns seats by finding a modified divisor D such that each constinuencys quotient (population divided by D), when rounded by geometric mean of the lower and upper quota, yields the correct number of seats. ... The largest remainder method is one way of allocating seats proportionally for representative assemblies with party list voting systems. ...

## Contents

Malapportionment, or unequal representation, is broad and systematic variance in the size of electoral constituencies resulting in disproportionate representation for a given voter. Malapportionment is only possible within electoral systems that have districted constituencies - an electoral system with only one national constituency, such as those in Israel and the Netherlands, cannot be malapportioned.

It is a tendency for the size of constituencies to vary according to some factor such as geographic location. Well-known examples include the differences between urban and rural constituency sizes in many Australian states (currently Western Australia, though Queensland and South Australia in the past afforded far more notorious examples), and the recently abolished smaller United Kingdom parliamentary constituencies in Scotland. The UK retains a substantial malapportionment in favour of urban voters, which currently benefits the British Labour Party. The effects of malapportionment vary with time: deliberate over-representation of rural Queensland changed from favouring Labor to favouring the National Party. Motto: Cygnis Insignis (Distinguished by its swans) Nickname: Wildflower State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Governor Premier Const. ... Motto: Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Nickname: Sunshine State/Smart State Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Governor Premier Const. ... Motto: United for the Common Wealth Nickname: Festival State Other Australian states and territories Capital Adelaide Government Governor Premier Const. ... ... The Labour Party is a centre-left or social democratic political party in Britain (see British politics), and one of the United Kingdoms three main political parties. ...

### Malapportionment of the United States Senate

In contrast to the United States House of Representatives, which is only malapportioned slightly due to rounding error, the United States Senate is deliberately malapportioned, granting two senators to every state regardless of population size. This results in two senators representing over 33 million Californians and two senators representing less than half a million citizens of Wyoming, leading to an individual voter in Wyoming having nearly 66 times the voting power of a Californian. At the time the United States Constitution was written, the Senate was intended to represent the interests of the states themselves rather than the residents of those states, and thus apportionment was divided equally among the states rather than among the population at large. In fact, the Constitution specifies that the equal representation of states in the Senate cannot be changed by amendment except with the consent of all affected states (Article V). This effectively entrenched that system. Seal of the Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... State nickname: The Golden State Official languages English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (R) Senators Dianne Feinstein (D) Barbara Boxer (D) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 3rd 410,000 kmÂ² 4. ... State nickname: Equality State Official languages English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Governor Dave Freudenthal (D) Senators Craig Thomas (R) Mike Enzi (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th 253,554 kmÂ² 0. ... The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America. ...

The United States Senate has become steadily more malapportioned since its creation. In 1787, it would have taken a theoretical 30 percent of the nation to elect half of the Senate. Today, in 2005, it would take only 17 percent of the nation to elect half the Senate. Extremes of representation have also increased. Virginia's population in 1787 was only twelve times Delaware's. Today, California's population is over 66 times greater than Wyoming's. (see History of the United States Senate and Connecticut Compromise) Debate over Compromise of 1850 in the Old Senate Chamber. ... The Connecticut Compromise of 1787 in the United States, later known as the Great Compromise, was struck in the creation of legislative bodies. ...

Senate malapportionment leads to great distortions in federal spending. As an example, in the 2005 federal highway bill, California and Texas, the two most populous states, only received \$77 and \$36 per person, respectively. Wyoming and Vermont, the two least populous states, received \$269 and \$544, respectively. Alaska, the state with the third lowest population, received \$1,501 per person.

### Malapportionment of the Diet of Japan

Another example is the systematic over-representation of voters in more rural prefectures and under-representation of voters in more urban prefectures in elections to the Japanese parliament. The conservative Liberal Democratic Party thus wins more seats in the Japanese parliament because its voters are concentrated in more rural prefectures. The National Diet of Japan (å›½ä¼š kokkai) is Japans legislature. ... The Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), also known as JiyÅ« MinshutÅ (è‡ªç”±æ°‘ä¸»å…š, or the abbreviation Jimin-tÅ è‡ªæ°‘å…š) is a liberal conservative political party and the largest political party in Japan, as of 2005. ...

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Results from FactBites:

 Apportionment - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1040 words) The lessee is not bound, however, by an apportionment of rent made upon the grant of part of the reversion unless it is made either with his consent or by the verdict of a jury. Apportionment by operation of law may be brought about where by act of law a lease becomes inoperative as regards its subject-matter, or by the "act of God" (as, for instance, where part of an estate is submerged by the encroachments of the sea). An equitable apportionment, apart from statute law, arises where property is bequeathed on trust to pay the income to a tenant for life and the reversion to others, and the realization of the property in the form of a fund capable of producing income is postponed for the benefit of the estate.
 Lalor, Cyclopaedia of Political Science, V.1, Entry 69, APPORTIONMENT: Library of Economics and Liberty (6884 words) The term apportionment was applied in the federal constitution to the distribution of representatives in the lower chamber of the federal congress between the several states and to the allotment of direct taxes upon the basis of population. The census of 1797 was assumed as a basis of the apportionment made by the constitution, but it is difficult to reconcile its allotment of representation with the returns of population; Valencia and Granada, with a nearly equal population, having respectively 19 and 2 deputies. An apportionment based on representation was demanded at every rising for the next half century by Spanish liberals, and in 1868 the electoral law, promulgated by the provisional government, declared an apportionment by provinces for every 45,000 inhabitants, a fraction over 22,500 to count as a full ratio; 350 deputies being distributed on this basis.
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