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Encyclopedia > Apportionment (politics)

Politics Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Politics Look up Politics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Politics (disambiguation) Democracy History of democracy List of democracy and elections-related topics List of years in politics List of politics by country articles Progressivism Progressive Logic Political corruption Political economy Political movement...

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Apportionment, or reapportionment, is the process of determining representation in politics within a legislative body by creating constituencies. This is typically done in proportion to the population in the individual sectors. The United States, for instance, delimits the House of Representatives seats proportionally between states, who then create districts for House members to run in. This is a list of politics articles available for every country. ... A political campaign is an organized effort to influence the decision making process within a group. ... Political science is a social science discipline that deals with the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior. ... Political philosophy is the study of the fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, property, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should... An ideology is a collection of ideas. ... The history of democracy traces back from its origins in prehistoric times to its reemergance from the 17th century to the present day. ... Direct democracy comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein all [[citizenship|citizens]traditional form of direct democracy sovereignty was lodged in the assembly of the people. ... Representative democracy is a form of democracy and theory of civics in which voters choose (in free, secret, multi-party elections) representatives to act in their interests, but not as their proxies—i. ... Participatory democracy is a broadly inclusive term for many kinds of consultative decision making in a democracy. ... Soviet Democracy is a form of democracy in which workers elect representatives in the organs of power called Soviets (councils). ... Liberal democracy is a form of representative democracy where the ability of elected representatives to exercise decision-making power is subject to the rule of law and moderated by a constitution which emphasizes the protection of the rights and freedoms of individuals and minorities (also called constitutional democracy and constitutional... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... The Elections and Parties Series Democracy Liberal democracy History of democracy Representative democracy Representation Voting Voting systems Elections Elections by country Elections by calender Electoral systems Politics Politics by country Political campaigns Political science Political philosophy Related topics Political parties Parties by country Parties by name Parties by ideology Representative... Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ... Announcement of elections in Brunate (near Como), Italy A voting system is a process that allows a group of individuals to choose between a number of options, and determines the preferred or winning option based on the number of votes each option receives. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... Elections by country gives information on elections. ... This electoral calendar lists the national/federal direct elections in the countries listed in the list of countries. ... A political party is a political organization that subscribes to a certain ideology and seeks to attain political power within a government. ... This article is 200KB or more in size. ... Welcome to the index of political parties, an alphabetical list of (mainly) present-day political parties listed in the list of political parties. ... This is a list of political parties around the world by ideology. ... This is an overview of the ideologies of parties. ... The Elections and Parties Series Democracy Liberal democracy History of democracy Representative democracy Representation Voting Voting systems Elections Elections by country Elections by calender Electoral systems Politics Politics by country Political campaigns Political science Political philosophy Related topics Political parties Parties by country Parties by name Parties by ideology Representative... A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures, goals or loyalty. ... The chamber of the United States House of Representatives is located in the south wing of the Capitol building, in Washington, D.C.. The United States House of Representatives is one of the two houses of the Congress of the United States. ... The process known as redistricting in the United States and redistribution in many Commonwealth countries is the changing of political borders (in many countries, specifically the electoral district/constituency boundaries) usually in response to periodic census results. ...


Apportionment is also applied in party-list proportional representation elections to distribute seats between different parties once they've won a particular percentage of the vote, much like how different U.S. states obtain different shares of the population from the census. Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems used in multiple-winner elections (e. ... A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ...


Because there is almost certain to be some degree of rounding error, different mathematical schemes for calculating apportionment can produce different results in terms of seats for the relevant party or sector. These methods include the Jefferson method, the Webster method, the Huntington-Hill method, and the Hamilton method. The DHondt method is a highest averages method for allocating seats in party-list proportional representation. ... The Sainte-Laguë method of the highest average (sometimes identified with Websters method or divisor method with standard rounding) is one way of allocating seats proportionally for representative assemblies with party list voting systems. ... The Huntington-Hill method of apportionment assigns seats by finding a modified divisor D such that each constinuencys quotient (population divided by D), when rounded by geometric mean of the lower and upper quota, yields the correct number of seats. ... The largest remainder method is one way of allocating seats proportionally for representative assemblies with party list voting systems. ...

Contents


Malapportionment

Malapportionment, or unequal representation, is broad and systematic variance in the size of electoral constituencies resulting in disproportionate representation for a given voter. Malapportionment is only possible within electoral systems that have districted constituencies - an electoral system with only one national constituency, such as those in Israel and the Netherlands, cannot be malapportioned.


It is a tendency for the size of constituencies to vary according to some factor such as geographic location. Well-known examples include the differences between urban and rural constituency sizes in many Australian states (currently Western Australia, though Queensland and South Australia in the past afforded far more notorious examples), and the recently abolished smaller United Kingdom parliamentary constituencies in Scotland. The UK retains a substantial malapportionment in favour of urban voters, which currently benefits the British Labour Party. The effects of malapportionment vary with time: deliberate over-representation of rural Queensland changed from favouring Labor to favouring the National Party. Motto: Cygnis Insignis (Distinguished by its swans) Nickname: Wildflower State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Governor Premier Const. ... Motto: Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Nickname: Sunshine State/Smart State Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Governor Premier Const. ... Motto: United for the Common Wealth Nickname: Festival State Other Australian states and territories Capital Adelaide Government Governor Premier Const. ... ... The Labour Party is a centre-left or social democratic political party in Britain (see British politics), and one of the United Kingdoms three main political parties. ...


Malapportionment of the United States Senate

In contrast to the United States House of Representatives, which is only malapportioned slightly due to rounding error, the United States Senate is deliberately malapportioned, granting two senators to every state regardless of population size. This results in two senators representing over 33 million Californians and two senators representing less than half a million citizens of Wyoming, leading to an individual voter in Wyoming having nearly 66 times the voting power of a Californian. At the time the United States Constitution was written, the Senate was intended to represent the interests of the states themselves rather than the residents of those states, and thus apportionment was divided equally among the states rather than among the population at large. In fact, the Constitution specifies that the equal representation of states in the Senate cannot be changed by amendment except with the consent of all affected states (Article V). This effectively entrenched that system. Seal of the Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... State nickname: The Golden State Official languages English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (R) Senators Dianne Feinstein (D) Barbara Boxer (D) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 3rd 410,000 km² 4. ... State nickname: Equality State Official languages English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Governor Dave Freudenthal (D) Senators Craig Thomas (R) Mike Enzi (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th 253,554 km² 0. ... The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America. ...


The United States Senate has become steadily more malapportioned since its creation. In 1787, it would have taken a theoretical 30 percent of the nation to elect half of the Senate. Today, in 2005, it would take only 17 percent of the nation to elect half the Senate. Extremes of representation have also increased. Virginia's population in 1787 was only twelve times Delaware's. Today, California's population is over 66 times greater than Wyoming's. (see History of the United States Senate and Connecticut Compromise) Debate over Compromise of 1850 in the Old Senate Chamber. ... The Connecticut Compromise of 1787 in the United States, later known as the Great Compromise, was struck in the creation of legislative bodies. ...


Senate malapportionment leads to great distortions in federal spending. As an example, in the 2005 federal highway bill, California and Texas, the two most populous states, only received $77 and $36 per person, respectively. Wyoming and Vermont, the two least populous states, received $269 and $544, respectively. Alaska, the state with the third lowest population, received $1,501 per person.


Malapportionment of the Diet of Japan

Another example is the systematic over-representation of voters in more rural prefectures and under-representation of voters in more urban prefectures in elections to the Japanese parliament. The conservative Liberal Democratic Party thus wins more seats in the Japanese parliament because its voters are concentrated in more rural prefectures. The National Diet of Japan (国会 kokkai) is Japans legislature. ... The Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), also known as Jiyū Minshutō (自由民主党, or the abbreviation Jimin-tō 自民党) is a liberal conservative political party and the largest political party in Japan, as of 2005. ...

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See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Apportionment - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1040 words)
The lessee is not bound, however, by an apportionment of rent made upon the grant of part of the reversion unless it is made either with his consent or by the verdict of a jury.
Apportionment by operation of law may be brought about where by act of law a lease becomes inoperative as regards its subject-matter, or by the "act of God" (as, for instance, where part of an estate is submerged by the encroachments of the sea).
An equitable apportionment, apart from statute law, arises where property is bequeathed on trust to pay the income to a tenant for life and the reversion to others, and the realization of the property in the form of a fund capable of producing income is postponed for the benefit of the estate.
Lalor, Cyclopaedia of Political Science, V.1, Entry 69, APPORTIONMENT: Library of Economics and Liberty (6884 words)
The term apportionment was applied in the federal constitution to the distribution of representatives in the lower chamber of the federal congress between the several states and to the allotment of direct taxes upon the basis of population.
The census of 1797 was assumed as a basis of the apportionment made by the constitution, but it is difficult to reconcile its allotment of representation with the returns of population; Valencia and Granada, with a nearly equal population, having respectively 19 and 2 deputies.
An apportionment based on representation was demanded at every rising for the next half century by Spanish liberals, and in 1868 the electoral law, promulgated by the provisional government, declared an apportionment by provinces for every 45,000 inhabitants, a fraction over 22,500 to count as a full ratio; 350 deputies being distributed on this basis.
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