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Encyclopedia > Applied Behavior Analysis
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Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is a systematic process of studying and modifying observable behavior through a manipulation of the environment. Its principles are derived from extensive basic research, often with non-humans, but has seen recent popularity in applied therapy with autism and other developmental disorders. It is comprised of an experimental approach to manipulating the environment and tracking alterations in behavior.[1] This allows the discovery and manipulation of functional relationships between behavior and environmental variables. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Concept A is a generalization of concept B if and only if: every instance of concept B is also an instance of concept A; and there are instances of concept A which are not instances of concept B. Equivalently, A is a generalization of B if B is a specialization... Autism is classified by the World Health Organization and American Psychological Association as a developmental disability that results from a disorder of the human central nervous system. ...

Contents

Definition

Definitions of ABA vary considerably; one example states:


"[ABA is] the design, implementation, and evaluation of environmental modifications to produce socially significant improvement in human behavior. ABA includes the use of direct observation, measurement, and functional analysis of the relations between environment and behavior. ABA uses antecedent stimuli and consequences, based on the findings of descriptive and functional analysis, to produce practical change."[2] This definition places emphasis on socially significant changes, but ABA can be used to alter virtually any behavior irrespective of its social relevance.


The components of any behavior are as follows:

  • Antecedent: a verbal or physical stimulus such as a command or request. This may come from the environment or from another person, or be internal to the subject
  • Behavior: the subject's response
  • Consequence: outcome, conditional to the behavior. In controlled situations the consequence depends on the subject's behavior and goal of the program and can include reinforcement of desired behavior, no response or punishment.

The key aspects of ABA are:[3] In operant conditioning, reinforcement is an increase in the strength of a response following the presentation of a stimulus contingent on that response. ... Extinction in psychology refers to extinction of conditional reflexes when a reinforcement is witheld. ... In psychology, punishment has a precise definition based on the modification of a human or animals behavior. ...

  • Observation of current behavior for topography (what the movement looks like), frequency, antecedents and consequences
  • Breaking down desired skills into steps
  • Teaching the steps through repeated presentation of discrete trials
  • Data on performance is tracked to show changes over time

A signature of both the basic and applied field of behavior analysis is the almost exclusive use of single-subject research designs. Single Subject Research Designs aka small-n research designs, quasi-experimental research designs. ...


ABA and autism

ABA is one of the most common, and only proven method used to treat autism.[4][5][6][7] ABA has been shown to be an effective means of intervention for adults and children with pervasive developmental disorder and is one of the most widely used with this population. The ABA approach teaches social, motor, and verbal behaviors as well as reasoning skills.[8] ABA therapy is especially useful in teaching behaviors to children with autism who may not otherwise "pick up" these behaviors spontaneously through imitation. ABA teaches these skills through use of careful behavioral observation and positive reinforcement or prompting to teach each step of a behavior.[9] Generally ABA involves intensive training of the therapists, extensive time spent in ABA therapy (20-40 hours per week) and weekly supervision by experienced clinical supervisors known as a certified behavior analyst.[10] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Biomedical intervention for autism. ... Autism is classified by the World Health Organization and American Psychological Association as a developmental disability that results from a disorder of the human central nervous system. ...


An increasing amount of research in the field of ABA is concerned with autism; and it is a common misconception that Behavior Analysts work almost exclusively with individuals with autism and that ABA is synonymous with discrete trials teaching. ABA principles can also be used with a range of typical or atypical individuals whose issues vary from developmental delays, significant behavioral problems or undesirable habits. Autism is classified by the World Health Organization and American Psychological Association as a developmental disability that results from a disorder of the human central nervous system. ... Neurotypical (or NT) is a term used to describe a person whose neurological development and state are typical, conforming to what most people would perceive as normal. ...


ABA is often confused as a table-only therapy. Properly performed, ABA should be done in both table and natural environments depending on the student's progress and needs. Once a student has mastered a skill at the table, the ABA team should move the student into a natural environment for further training and generalization of the skill.


Frequently, the Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills (ABLLS) is used to create a baseline of the autistic (or otherwise diagnosed) learner's functional skill set. The ABLLS breaks down the learner's strengths and weaknesses to best tailor the ABA curriculum to them. By focusing on the exact skills that need help, the teacher does not teach a skill the student knows. This can also prevent student frustration at attempting a skill for which he or she is not ready. The Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills (ABLLS) is an educational tool used frequently with Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) to measure the basic linguistic and functional skills of an individual with developmental delays or disabilities. ...


Discrete trials

Discrete trials were originally used by B. F. Skinner in his experimental studies with rats and pigeons to demonstrate how learning was influenced by rates of reinforcement. The discrete trials method was adapted as a therapy for developmentally delayed children and children with autism. For example, Ole Ivar Lovaas pioneered the use of discrete trials for autistic children to help them learn skills ranging from making eye contact and following simple instructions to advanced language and social skills. Discrete trials involve breaking a behavior into its most basic functional unit and presenting the units in a series. Drawing of B. F. Skinner Burrhus Frederic B. F. Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990) was an American psychologist and author. ... In operant conditioning, reinforcement is an increase in the strength of a response following the presentation of a stimulus contingent on that response. ... Developmental disability is a term used to describe life-long disabilities attributable to mental and/or physical or combination of mental and physical impairments, manifested prior to age twenty-two. ... Ole Ivar Lovaas is a clinical psychologist considered one of the fathers of Applied Behavior Analysis therapy for autism. ...


A discrete trial usually consists of the following: The antecedent, possibly combined with a prompt (a non-essential element used to assist learning or correct responding), the behavior of the student, and a consequence. If the student's behavior is what is desired, the consequence is something positive: food, candy, a game, praise, etc. If the behavior was not correct, the teacher offers the correct answer, then repeats the trial, possibly with more prompting if needed.


There is usually an inter-trial interval that allows for a few seconds to separate each trial, to allow the student to process the information, teaches the student to wait, and makes the onset of the next trial more discrete. Discrete trials can be used to develop most skills, which includes cognitive, verbal communication, play, social and self-help skills.


Techniques used in Applied Behavior Analysis

Chaining

Main article: Chaining

The skill to be learned is broken down into the smallest units for easy learning. For example, a child learning to brush teeth independently may start with learning to unscrew the toothpaste cap. Once the child has learned this, the next step may be squeezing the tube, and so on. Chaining is an instructional procedure used in Behavioral Psychology. ...


Prompting

The parent or therapist provides assistance to encourage the desired response from the child. Prompts are faded systematically and as quickly as possible from a more intrusive prompt to the least intrusive prompt, with completely independent responding as the goal. Prompts include:

  • Verbal prompts - e.g., "Take the toothpaste cap off" (Should be avoided when possible as verbal prompts are the hardest to fade);
  • gestural prompts - e.g., pointing at the toothpaste;
  • Physical prompts - (often called spatial fading) involves fading from full physical (i.e., hand over hand) to hand on wrist, hand on elbow, hand on shoulder, shadowing, to fading your proximity; and
  • Modeling - e.g., taking the cap off to show the child how it is done

Fading

The overall goal is for a child to eventually not need prompts. This is why the least intrusive prompts are used, so the child does not become overly dependent on them when learning a new behavior or skill. Prompts are gradually faded out as then new behavior is learned. Learning to unscrew the toothpaste lid may start with physically guiding the child's hands, to pointing at the toothpaste, then just a verbal request.


Generalization

Once a skill is learned in a controlled environment (usually table-time), the skill is taught in more general settings. Perhaps the skill will be taught in the natural environment. If the student has successfully mastered learning colors at the table, the teacher may take the student around the house or his school and then re-teach the skill in these more natural environments.


Shaping

Main article: Shaping (psychology)

Shaping involves gradually modifying the existing behavior of a child into the desired behavior. If a child engages with a dog by hitting it, the child could have their behavior shaped by reinforcing interactions in which the child touches the dog more gently. Over many interactions, successful shaping would replace the hitting behavior with patting or other gentler behavior. The differential reinforcement of successive approximations, or more commonly, shaping is a conditioning procedure used primarily in behavioral psychology. ...


Differential reinforcement

Reinforcement provides a response to a child’s behavior that will most likely increase that behavior. It is “differential” because the level of reinforcement varies depending on the child’s response. Difficult tasks may be reinforced heavily whereas easy tasks may be reinforced less heavily. We must systematically change our reinforcement so that the child eventually will respond appropriately under natural schedules of reinforcement (occasional) with natural types of reinforcers (social). In operant conditioning, reinforcement is an increase in the strength of a response following the presentation of a stimulus contingent on that response. ...


Video modeling

One teaching technique found to be effective with some children is the use of video modeling (the use of taped sequences as exemplars of behavior). It can be used by therapists to assist in the acquisition of both verbal and motor resoponses, in some cases for long chains of behavior.[11] A voluntary action is a motor response induced by a processed response to external stimulus. ... Chaining is an instructional procedure used in Behavioral Psychology. ...


Maintaining parental and professional relationships in the ABA approach

An adequate communication and a supportive relationship between educational systems and families allow children to receive a beneficial education. This pertains to typical learners as well as to children who need additional services. It was not until the 1960s that researchers began exploring Applied Behavior Analysis as a method to educate those children who fall somewhere on the autism spectrum. Behavioral analysts agree that consistency in and out of the school classroom is key in order for autistic children to maintain proper standing in school and continue to develop to their greatest potential.


Applied behavior analysis involves an entire team working together to address a child's needs. This team includes professionals such as speech therapists as well as the children's primary caregivers, who are treated as key to the implementation of successful therapy in the ABA model. The ABA method relies on behavior principles and a recommended curriculum that reflects an individual child's needs and abilities. As such, regular meetings with professionals to discuss programming are one way to establish a successful working relationship between a child's family and their school. When a caregiver can be the outlet source for the generalization of skills outside of school, it helps the child's therapy process by catering to the child's individual needs. In the ABA framework, developing and maintaining a structured working relationship between parents and professionals is essential to ensure consistency of thought and practice of behavioral methods.


Criticisms of ABA

Applied behavioral analysis has been criticized for several perceived failings:

  • Outcomes - The long term outcomes of ABA therapy on quality of life, relationships and employment have not been established and are still being debated scientifically and in courts[12] (for example, the case of Auton v. B.C. Attourney General[13] which is attempting to force the Canadian health care system to pay for ABA treatment)
  • Language - ABA and discrete trials are seen as less effective for improving the ability to use language to communicate effectively; best practices for learning language now involve naturalized teaching that mimics the functions of language - requesting, labeling and obeying commands[14]

The well-being or quality of life of a population is an important concern in economics and political science. ... Auton (Guardian ad litem of) v. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Autism rights movement

The Autism rights movement oppose ABA for several reasons: Ethical challenges to autism treatment have been made by people who feel that autism therapies intended to be helpful are actually harmful to autistic people. ... The autism rights movement (which has also been called autistic self-advocacy movement [2] and autistic liberation movement [3]) was started by adult autistic individuals in order to advocate and demand tolerance for what they refer to as neurodiversity. ...

  • The use of aversives in the 1960s when ABA started to be used to treat autism (currently aversives are only used for potentially injurious behaviors)
  • The effort by some practitioners to render individuals indistinguishable from peers by eliminating harmless behaviors
  • ABA has also been challenged on ethical grounds by autistic individuals[15] and their advocates[citation needed]

This article needs cleanup. ... Stimming is a behavior observed in people who have Aspergers syndrome or autism. ... Ethics (from the Ancient Greek Ä“thikos, the adjective of Ä“thos custom, habit), a major branch of philosophy, including genetics is the study of values and customs of a person or group. ... Michelle Dawson is an autistic, autism researcher and autism rights activist who is most well known for writing a paper challenging the ethical and scientific foundations of Applied Behavioral Analysis(ABA)-based autism interventions and challenging ABA in the Supreme Court of Canada. ...

History

Applied behavior analysis is the applied side of the experimental analysis of behavior. Its origin can be traced back to Teodoro Ayllon & Jack Michael's 1959 article The psychiatric nurse as a behavioral engineer.[16] as well as initial efforts to implement teaching machines[17].The research basis of ABA can be found in the theoretical work of behaviorism and radical behaviorism originating with the work of B. F. Skinner. Much like Skinner himself attracted controversy for the perceived cruelty and inhumanity of his theories, ABA has itself been criticized with some justification for the methods used by early interventions with autistic individuals. Initially ABA used far more aversives such as cattle prods,[citation needed] shouting and slaps to reduce unwanted behaviors,[18] though currently these practices are used only in unusual situations. The experimental analysis of behavior is the name given to the approach to psychology founded by B. F. Skinner. ... Jack Michael is a researcher, professor and author in the field of the experimental analysis of behavior best known for his elucidations of the motivating operation(MO), comprised of Establishing Operation (EO) and Abolishing Operations (AO). ... Behaviorism (also called learning perspective) is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things which organisms do—including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors. ... Radical behaviorism is a philosophy that underlies the experimental analysis of behavior approach to psychology, developed by B. F. Skinner. ... Drawing of B. F. Skinner Burrhus Frederic B. F. Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990) was an American psychologist and author. ... // A cattle prod, also called a stock prod, is a handheld device commonly used to make cattle or other livestock move by striking or poking them, or (in the case of a hotshot) through a (relatively) high voltage, low current electric shock. ...


Applied behavior analysis now encompasses treatments in applied settings in things as varied as leisure skills development, improving sports performance, cigarette smoking cessation, increasing exercise, and other areas.


ABA and gendered behavior

In 1973 the American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. In 1974, Ole Ivar Lovaas (who pioneered the use of ABA to treat autism) was second author on an journal article in ABA was used to reduce 'feminine' behaviors and increase 'masculine' behaviors of a male child in an effort to prevent adult transsexualism.[19] The promotion of traditional sex-role behaviors was not unopposed within the field of behavior analysis, with at least one author arguing that it was not justified [20] Due to the epidemic of medical errors, readers are cautioned to be aware that the American Psychiatric Association isnt immune to this. ... Homosexuality and psychology have a closely intertwined history. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association The poopDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association, is the handbook used most often in diagnosing mental disorders in the United States. ... Ole Ivar Lovaas is a clinical psychologist considered one of the fathers of Applied Behavior Analysis therapy for autism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Look up Transsexualism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


See also

Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Chiesa, Mecca (2004). Radical behaviorism: The philosophy & the science. Authors Cooperative, 241. ISBN 0962331147. 
  2. ^ What is ABA. Retrieved on 2007-05-25.
  3. ^ Autism and ABA: Frequently Asked Questions about Autism and Behavior Analysis. Retrieved on 2007-05-25.
  4. ^ Smith, T; Groen, A.D & Wynn, J.W. (2000). "Randomized Trial of Intensive Early Intervention for Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder". American Journal on Mental Retardation 105 (4): 269-285. PMID 10934569. Retrieved on 2007-05-24. 
  5. ^ McConachie, H; Diggl, T. (2006). "Parent implemented early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review". Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (1): 120-9. PMID 17286734. Retrieved on 2007-05-24. 
  6. ^ Sallows, G.O.; Graupner, T. D. (2005). "Intensive behavioral treatment for children with autism: Four-year outcome and predictors". American Journal on Mental Retardation 110 (2): 417-438. PMID 16212446. Retrieved on 2007-05-24. 
  7. ^ Eikeseth, S; Smith, T., Jahr, E. & Eldevik, E. (2002). "Intensive behavioral treatment at school for 4- to 7-year-old children with autism: A 1-year comparison controlled study". Behavior Modification 26 (1): 49-68. PMID 11799654. Retrieved on 2007-05-24. 
  8. ^ Harris, S.L.P.; Delmolino, L.P. (2002). "Applied behavior analysis: Its application in the treatment of autism and related disorders in young children". Infants and Young Children 14 (3): 11-17. 
  9. ^ Simpson, R.L. (2001). "ABA and students with autism spectrum disorders: Issues and considerations for effective practice". Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities 16 (2): 68-71. Retrieved on 2007-05-25. 
  10. ^ Shook, G.L.; Neisworth, J.T. (2005). "Ensuring appropriate qualifications for Applied Behavior Analyst professionals: The behavior analyst certification board". Exceptionality 13 (1). DOI:10.1207/s15327035ex1301_2. Retrieved on 2007-05-25. 
  11. ^ D'Ateno, P; Mangiapanello, K. & Taylor, B. (2003). "Using video modeling to teach complex play sequences to a preschooler with autism". Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 5 (1): 5-11. Retrieved on 2007-05-25. 
  12. ^ Auton et al. v. Attourney General of British Columbia, 2000 BCSC 1142 (CanLII),  [1] (Supreme Court of British Columbia 2000-07-26)
  13. ^ Auton (Guardian ad litem of) v. British Columbia (Attorney General),  [2] (Supreme Court of Canada 2004-11-19)
  14. ^ Delprato, D.J. (2001). "Comparisons of discrete-trial and normalized behavioral language intervention for young children with autism". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 31 (3): 315-325. PMID 11518484. Retrieved on 2007-05-25. 
  15. ^ Michelle Dawson. An Autistic at the Supreme Court - The Auton Case: The Intervener's Factum. Retrieved on 2007-07-08.
  16. ^ Teodoro, Ayllon; Jack Michael (1959). "The psychiatric nurse as behavioral engineer". Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 2: 323-334. PMID 13795356. Retrieved on 2007-05-25. 
  17. ^ Skinner, B. F. (1968/2003). The Techology of Teaching. B. F. Skinner Foundation. ISBN 68-12340 E 81290. 
  18. ^ Moser, Dan (1965). "Screams, Slaps & Love: A surprising, shocking treatment helps far-gone mental cripples". Life Magazine. 
  19. ^ Rekers, G.A.; Lovaas, O. I. (1974). "Behavioral treatment of deviant sex-role behaviors in a male child" 7 (2): 173-190. PMID 4436165. Retrieved on 2007-06-04. 
  20. ^ Wikler, R.C. (1977). "What types of sex-role behavior should behavior modifiers promote?". Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 10: 549–552. PMID 1311224. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Auton (Guardian ad litem of) v. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Drawing of B. F. Skinner Burrhus Frederic B. F. Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990) was an American psychologist and author. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Scientific publications

  • Baer, D.M.; M.M. Wolf & T.R. Risley (1968), "Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis", Journal of Applied Behavior analysis 1: 91-97
  • Howard (2005), "A comparison of intensive behavior analytic and eclectic treatments for young children with autism", Research in Developmental Disabilities 26: 359-383
  • Lovaas, O. I. (1987), "Behavioral treatment and normal education and intellectual functioning in young autistic children", Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 55: 3-9
  • McEachin, J.J (1993), "Long-term outcome for children with autism who received early intensive behavioral treatment", American Journal of Mental Retardation 97: 359-372
  • Moran, D.J.; Malott R.W. (2004). [Evidence-based educational methods Evidence-based educational methods]. San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press, 408. ISBN 0125060416. 
  • Schoneberger, T. (2006), "EIBT research after Lovaas (1987): A tale of two studies", The Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Applied Behavior Analysis 1: 207-217
  • Shea, Victoria (2004), "A perspective on the research literature related to early intensive behavioral intervention (Lovaas) for young children with autism", Autism 8 (4): 349-367
  • Skinner, B. F (2002). Verbal Behavior. B. F. Skinner Foundation. ISBN 1-58390-021-7. 

Drawing of B. F. Skinner Burrhus Frederic B. F. Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990) was an American psychologist and author. ... Verbal Behavior (1957) is a book written by psychologist B.F. Skinner in which the author presents his ideas on what is typically called language. ...

Websites

  • Cal State University Stanislaus Professors Publish Revealing Report on Methods for Treating Autism (2005-08-05).
  • Connecticut Families for Early Autism Treatment (CTFEAT) (2006). Articles, reports, and opinion pieces describing Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) and the research that supports it.. Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
  • Hagopian, Louis P.; Boelter, Eric W. (2005). Applied Behavioral Analysis: Overview and summary of scientific support.. The Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
  • Dawson, Michelle (2004). The misbehaviour of behaviourists: Ethical challenges to the autism-ABA industry. Retrieved on 2007-05-25.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Michelle Dawson is an autistic, autism researcher and autism rights activist who is most well known for writing a paper challenging the ethical and scientific foundations of Applied Behavioral Analysis(ABA)-based autism interventions and challenging ABA in the Supreme Court of Canada. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • HealingThresholds. Retrieved on 2007-05-25. - Provides lay summaries of current research in the field of Applied Behavioral Analysis and other autism therapies

  Results from FactBites:
 
Behavior Modification: Applied Behavior Analysis and Other Therapies (536 words)
Like other forms of autism treatments, behavioral therapy is not a cure for autism, but rather a form of social training that makes it easier for autistic children to cope with the world around them.
Applied behavior analysis concentrates on teaching autistic children academic skills, social skills, and "adaptive living" skills.
Applied behavior analysis research on pivotal response and its impact on autistic children is ongoing.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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