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Encyclopedia > Apple Macintosh
The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K "Fat Mac".
The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K "Fat Mac".
Apple Macintosh Portal

The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. Named after the MacIntosh apple, the original Macintosh was released on January 24, 1984. It was the first commercially successful personal computer to use a graphical user interface (GUI) and mouse instead of the then-standard command line interface. The current range of Macintoshes varies from Apple’s entry level Mac mini desktop, to a mid-range server, the Xserve. Macintosh systems are mainly targeted towards the home, education, and creative professional markets. Production of the Macintosh is based upon a vertical integration model in that Apple facilitates all aspects of its hardware and creates its own operating system; vertical integration is also used in the manufacture of gaming consoles. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (533x625, 526 KB) Description: A w:Macintosh 128K on transparent background. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (533x625, 526 KB) Description: A w:Macintosh 128K on transparent background. ... For in-depth technical information, see Macintosh 128K technical details. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... Apple Computer, Inc. ... Macintosh can refer to: Apple Macintosh (computer) Charles Macintosh (Scottish inventor) Mackintosh (raincoat) The Scottish clan Mackintosh or MacIntosh McIntosh (apple cultivar) The town of McIntosh, Alabama The hi-fi manufacturer McIntosh Laboratory This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same... For in-depth technical information, see Macintosh 128K technical details. ... January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Operating a mechanical mouse. ... Screenshot of a sample Bash session, taken on Gentoo Linux. ... The Mac mini is the smallest desktop computer marketed by Apple Computer. ... A small Xserve cluster with an Xserve RAID. Xserve is the name of Apple Computers Macintosh 1U rackmount line of server computers. ... In microeconomics and strategic management, the term vertical integration describes a style of ownership and control. ... A video game console is a dedicated electronic machine designed to play video games. ...


Original Macintosh computers used the Motorola 68k family of microprocessors, before switching to IBM's PowerPC range of CPU chips in 1994. In 2005, it was announced that Apple would be transitioning to Intel's processor architecture throughout 2006, which for the first time allowed Macs to run any x86 operating system natively. Current Macintoshes use varying configurations of the Intel Core microarchitecture, except for the Power Mac and Xserve lines which are yet to switch from the PowerPC G5. All models of Macintosh are pre-installed with a native version of the latest Mac OS, which is currently at version 10.4 and is called 'Tiger'. Motorola (NYSE: MOT) is an international communications company based in Schaumburg, Illinois, a Chicago suburb. ... The Motorola 680x0/0x0/m68k/68k/68K family of CISC microprocessor CPU chips were 32-bit from the start, and were the primary competition for the Intel x86 family of chips. ... Microprocessors, including an Intel 80486DX2 and an Intel 80386. ... Big Blue redirects here. ... IBM PowerPC 601 Microprocessor PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple-IBM-Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... CPU can stand for: in computing: Central processing unit in journalism: Commonwealth Press Union in law enforcement: Crime prevention unit in software: Critical patch update, a type of software patch distributed by Oracle Corporation in Macleans College is often known as Ash Lim. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... Intel Core is the name used for the processor code named Yonah (Hebrew transliteration for Jonah - יונה), released on January 5, 2006. ... Power Macintosh, or Power Mac, is the name of a line of Apple Macintosh personal computers based on various models of PowerPC microprocessors. ... A small Xserve cluster with an Xserve RAID. Xserve is the name of Apple Computers Macintosh 1U rackmount line of server computers. ... PowerPC 970 In computing, the PowerPC 970, PowerPC 970FX, and PowerPC 970MP, also known as PowerPC G5, are 64-bit processors in the PowerPC family from IBM, which was introduced in 2002. ... Mac OS, which stands for Macintosh Operating System, is a series of graphical user interface-based operating systems developed by Apple Computer for their Macintosh line of computer systems. ... Mac OS X version 10. ...

Contents


Current product line

Image Name Type Market Description
The Mac mini Mac mini Desktop Consumer The Mac mini is the least expensive Macintosh currently in production, and it ships without a monitor, keyboard, or mouse. It comes in two versions, one with a 1.5 GHz Intel Core Solo and one with a 1.66 GHz Core Duo.
The iMac G5 iMac Desktop Consumer The iMac is Apple’s current flagship consumer desktop computer, powered by the Intel Core Duo CPU; the current models were the first in the Macintosh's history to use an Intel processor of any kind.
The PowerMac G5 Power Mac Desktop Professional The Power Mac is Apple’s most expensive, high-end workstation computer. The current models feature dual-core PowerPC G5 CPUs; Apple sells them in single CPU configurations as the “Power Mac G5 Dual” and in a two CPU configuration as the “Power Mac G5 Quad". They do not include displays.
The white MacBook MacBook Portable Consumer The MacBook is Apple’s consumer portable. It uses an Intel Core Duo processor at slightly slower speeds than the MacBook Pro line. It replaces both the iBook G4 and the 12-inch PowerBook, which used PowerPC G4 processors.
The MacBook Pro MacBook Pro Portable Professional The MacBook Pro is a high-end portable workstation computer which runs an Intel Core Duo-powered processor at 2.0 GHz, or 2.16 GHz, with 15.4 or 17-inch screens. The 17-inch model only comes at 2.16 GHz.
The Xserve G5 Xserve Server Enterprise The Xserve G5 is an enterprise-grade 1U rack-mount server, specifically marketed towards mission critical data centers and enterprise client services. It uses the PowerPC 970FX version of the G5, shipping with either one or two PowerPC G5s.

This is a comparison of the current models of Apple Macintosh computers, designed by Apple Computer (in California). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Mac_mini_Intel_Core. ... The Mac mini is the smallest desktop computer marketed by Apple Computer. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... Intel Core is the name used for the processor code named Yonah (Hebrew transliteration for Jonah - יונה), released on January 5, 2006. ... Intel Core is the name used for the processor code named Yonah (Hebrew transliteration for Jonah - יונה), released on January 5, 2006. ... Image File history File links IMac_transparency. ... The title of this article should be iMac. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (667x1079, 98 KB) This image comes from the italian wikipedia : http://it. ... Power Macintosh, or Power Mac, is the name of a line of Apple Macintosh personal computers based on various models of PowerPC microprocessors. ... PowerPC 970 In computing, the PowerPC 970, PowerPC 970FX, and PowerPC 970MP, also known as PowerPC G5, are 64-bit processors in the PowerPC family from IBM, which was introduced in 2002. ... Power Mac G5 The Power Mac G5 is Apple Computers name for models of the Power Mac which contain the PowerPC G5 CPU. The professional-grade computer is the most powerful in Apples lineup and is touted by Apple as one of the fastest personal computers ever built... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2237x1963, 868 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Apple Macintosh MacBook Comparison of Macintosh models Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... The MacBook is a line of consumer Macintosh laptop computers developed and marketed by Apple Computer. ... Following the success of the iMac and its ongoing hardware simplification strategy, Apple introduced the iBook, a laptop computer targeted to consumer and education market segments. ... The PowerBook is a laptop computer line manufactured by Apple Computer; a portable version of the Macintosh aimed at the professional market. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1595x1249, 271 KB) An Apple MacBook Pro. ... The MacBook Pro is a line of Macintosh laptop computers developed by Apple Computer for the professional market. ... Image File history File links Xserve_G5. ... A small Xserve cluster with an Xserve RAID. Xserve is the name of Apple Computers Macintosh 1U rackmount line of server computers. ... A rack unit is a unit of measure used to describe the height of a server, network switch or other similar device mounted in a 19-inch rack. ... Equipment mounted in several 19-inch racks. ...

History

This article is about the History of Apple Computer, a Silicon Valley company based in Cupertino, California, whose core business is computer technologies. ...

1979 to 1984: Development

Part of the original Macintosh design team, as seen on the cover of Revolution in the Valley. Left to right: George Crow, Joanna Hoffman, Burrell Smith, Andy Hertzfeld, Bill Atkinson, Jerry Mannock.
Part of the original Macintosh design team, as seen on the cover of Revolution in the Valley.
Left to right: George Crow, Joanna Hoffman, Burrell Smith, Andy Hertzfeld, Bill Atkinson, Jerry Mannock.

The Macintosh project started in early 1979 with Jef Raskin, an Apple employee, who envisioned an easy-to-use, low-cost computer for the average consumer. In September 1979, Raskin was given permission to start hiring for the project, and he began to look for an engineer who could put together a prototype. Bill Atkinson, a member of the Lisa team (which was developing a similar but higher-end computer), introduced him to Burrell Smith, a service technician who had been hired earlier that year as Apple employee #282. Over the years, Raskin hired a large development team that designed and built the original Macintosh hardware and software; besides Raskin, Atkinson and Smith, the team included Chris Espinosa, Joanna Hoffman, George Crow, Jerry Manock, Susan Kare, and Andy Hertzfeld. Image File history File links Mac_Design_Team. ... Image File history File links Mac_Design_Team. ... George Crow was a member of the original Apple Macintosh team in 1984 at Apple Computer. ... Joanna Hoffman was an Apple Computer employee in the 1980s when she worked on the Apple Macintosh team in 1984. ... Burrell who worked at apple, and designed the digital board for the original Macintosh. ... Andy Hertzfeld (born April 6, 1953), was a key member of the original Apple Macintosh development team, and some would consider him a pioneer among software engineers. ... Bill Atkinson worked at Apple Computer in the late 1970s and early 1980s. ... Jerry Manock while at Apple Jerry Manock is an industrial designer, known for creating the enclosures of the Apple II and Macintosh personal computers. ... Jef Raskin outdoors, photographed by his son Aza Raskin. ... Bill Atkinson worked at Apple Computer in the late 1970s and early 1980s. ... Burrell who worked at apple, and designed the digital board for the original Macintosh. ... Hardware is the general term that is used to describe physical artifacts of a technology. ... A screenshot of computer software in action. ... Chris Espinosa is the senior employee of Apple Computer, beginning at the age of fifteen in 1976 in Steve Jobs garage, writing software manuals and coding after school. ... Joanna Hoffman was an Apple Computer employee in the 1980s when she worked on the Apple Macintosh team in 1984. ... George Crow was a member of the original Apple Macintosh team in 1984 at Apple Computer. ... Jerrold Manock is an industrial designer well known for creating the enclosures of the Apple II and Macintosh personal computers. ... Susan Kare (* 1954 in Ithaca, New York) is the original designer of many of the interface elements for the original Apple Macintosh after she received a call from friend Andy Hertzfeld in 1983. ... Andy Hertzfeld (born April 6, 1953), was a key member of the original Apple Macintosh development team, and some would consider him a pioneer among software engineers. ...


Smith’s first Macintosh board design was built to Raskin’s specifications: it had 64 kilobytes (KB) of RAM, used the Motorola 6809E microprocessor, and was capable of supporting a 256×256 pixel black-and-white bitmap display. (The final product used a 9-inch, 512x342 monochrome display.) Bud Tribble, a Macintosh programmer, was interested in running the Lisa’s graphical programs on the Macintosh, and asked Smith whether he could incorporate the Lisa’s Motorola 68000 microprocessor into the Mac while still keeping the production cost down. By December 1980, Smith had succeeded in designing a board that not only used the 68000, but made it faster, bumping it from 5 to 8 megahertz (MHz); this board also had the capacity to support a 384×256 bitmap display. Smith’s design used fewer RAM chips than the Lisa, and because of this, production of the board was significantly more cost-efficient.[1] The final Mac design was self-contained and had far more programming code in ROM than most other computers; it had 128 KB of RAM, in the form of sixteen, 64 kilobit (Kb) RAM chips soldered to the logicboard. Though there were no memory slots, it was expandable to 512 KB of RAM by means of soldering sixteen 256 Kb RAM chips in place of the factory-installed chips. Depending on the context in which it is used, the word kilobyte may mean either 1,000 or 1,024 bytes. ... A four-megabyte RAM card for the VAX 8600 computer (circa 1986). ... Motorola (NYSE: MOT) is an international communications company based in Schaumburg, Illinois, a Chicago suburb. ... Microprocessors, including an Intel 80486DX2 and an Intel 80386. ... This example shows an image with a portion greatly enlarged. ... Black-and-white or black and white) can refer to a general term used in photography, film, and other media (see black-and-white). ... For the use of the term raster in radio regulation, see frequency raster. ... Something which is monochromatic has a single color. ... Guy Bud Tribble, MD, PhD, is Vice President of Software Technology at Apple Computer. ... Apple Lisa The Apple Lisa was a revolutionary personal computer designed at Apple Computer during the early 1980s. ... The Motorola 68000 is a 32 bit CISC microprocessor, the first member of a successful family of microprocessors from Motorola, which were all mostly software compatible. ... MegaHertz (MHz) is the name given to one million (106) Hertz, a measure of frequency. ... Read-only memory (ROM) is a class of storage media used in computers and other electronic devices. ... A kilobit is a unit of information storage, abbreviated kbit or sometimes kb. ... A solder is a fusible metal alloy (often of tin and lead, although lead-based solders were outlawed in many parts of the world in the 1980s), with a melting point or melting range below 450 °C (840 °F) and is melted to join metallic surfaces, especially in the fields... An old Octek Jaguar V main board with an AMD 386DX-40 processor. ...


The innovative design caught the attention of Steve Jobs, the co-founder of Apple. Realizing that the Macintosh was more marketable than the Lisa, he began to focus his attention on the project. Raskin finally left the Macintosh project in 1981 over a personality conflict with Jobs, and the final Macintosh design is said to be closer to Jobs’ ideas than Raskin’s.[2] After hearing about the pioneering GUI technology being developed at Xerox PARC, Steve Jobs negotiated a visit to see the Xerox Alto computer and Smalltalk development tools in exchange for Apple stock options. The Lisa and Macintosh user interfaces were clearly influenced by the one designed at Xerox. Jobs also commissioned industrial designer Hartmut Esslinger to work on the Macintosh line, resulting in the "Snow White" design language; although it came too late for the earliest Macs, it was implemented in most other mid- to late-1980s Apple computers.[3] However, Jobs’ leadership at the Macintosh project was short lived; after an internal power struggle with Apple’s new CEO John Sculley, Jobs resigned from Apple in 1985, went on to found NeXT, another computer company, and did not return until 1997. Sculley undermined what the Mac team had been trying to do with the price of the Macintosh, when he artificially inflated the Mac’s price from US$1,995 to US$2,495. Steven Paul Jobs (born February 24, 1955) is currently the CEO of Apple Computer and is a leading figure in both the computer and entertainment industries. ... A Xerox Alto Computer System The Xerox Alto, developed at Xerox PARC in 1973, was the first personal computer and the first computer to use the desktop metaphor and graphical user interface (GUI). ... Smalltalk is an object-oriented, dynamically typed, reflective programming language designed at Xerox PARC by Alan Kay, Dan Ingalls, Ted Kaehler, Adele Goldberg, and others during the 1970s, influenced by Sketchpad and Simula. ... Hartmut Esslinger (born 1944) is a German industrial designer. ... The Snow White design language was an industrial design language developed by Frog design. ... John Sculley (born April 6, 1939) was president of PepsiCo during the 1970s and early 1980s until he became CEO of Apple Computer on April 8, 1983. ... NeXT was a computer company that developed and manufactured two computer workstations during its existence, the NeXTcube and NeXTstation. ... This article is about general United States currency. ...


1984: Introduction

The announcer's dialogue in Apple's 1984 ad scrolls vertically across the screen as he says it.
The announcer's dialogue in Apple's 1984 ad scrolls vertically across the screen as he says it.

The Macintosh was officially announced on January 22, 1984, with the now-famous 1984 Super Bowl commercial directed by Ridley Scott. This commercial showed a woman, played by Anya Major, who defiantly throws a sledgehammer at a Big Brother-like video screen (which represented IBM). This was symbolic of Apple challenging the text-based computers that dominated the market at the time. The Mac itself went on sale for US$2,495 on the same day as the 1984 Super Bowl commercial. It came bundled with two useful programs designed to show off its interface: MacWrite and MacPaint. Although the Mac garnered an immediate, enthusiastic following, it was too radical for some. Because the machine was entirely designed around the GUI, existing text-mode and command-driven programs had to be redesigned and rewritten; this was a challenging undertaking that many software developers shied away from, and resulted in an initial lack of software for the new system. Many users, accustomed to the arcane world of command lines, labeled the Mac a mere “toy.” Image File history File links Ad_apple_1984_4. ... Image File history File links Ad_apple_1984_4. ... A screenshot from the commercial. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A screenshot from the commercial. ... Sir Ridley Scott (born November 30, 1937 in South Shields) is an influential British film director and producer. ... Anya Major in the 1984 commercial. ... Big Blue redirects here. ... MacWrite was a word processor application released along with the first Apple Macintosh systems in 1984. ... MacPaint is a bitmap-based image editing computer program that was produced by Apple Computer for bundling with their Macintosh personal computer. ... Screenshot of a sample Bash session, taken on Gentoo Linux. ... A software developer is a programmer who is concerned with one or more facets of the software development process, a somewhat broader scope of computer programming. ...


1985 to 1989: The desktop publishing era

In 1985, the combination of the Mac, Apple’s LaserWriter printer, and Mac-specific software like Boston Software’s MacPublisher and Aldus PageMaker (now Adobe PageMaker) enabled users to design, preview, and print page layouts complete with text and graphics, an activity known as desktop publishing. Desktop publishing was unique to the Macintosh, but eventually became available for PC users as well. Later, programs such as Macromedia FreeHand, QuarkXPress, and Adobe Illustrator strengthened the Mac’s position as a graphics computer and helped to expand the emerging desktop publishing market. Personal LaserWriter LS The Apple LaserWriter was one of the first laser printers available to the mass market. ... PageMaker was the first desktop publishing program, introduced in 1985 by Aldus Corporation, initially for the Apple Macintosh but soon after also for the PC. It relies on Adobe Systems PostScript page description language. ... Desktop publishing (also known as DTP) combines a personal computer, page layout software and a printer to create publications on a small economic scale. ... Macromedia FreeHand is a computer application for creating two-dimensional vector graphics, oriented to the professional desktop publishing market. ... QuarkXPress is a desktop publishing (page layout) application for Mac OS X and Windows, produced by Quark, Inc. ... Adobe Illustrator is a vector-based drawing program developed and marketed by Adobe Systems. ...


The limitations of the first Mac soon became clear: it had very little memory, even compared with other personal computers in 1984, and could not be expanded easily; and it lacked a hard drive and the means to attach one easily. Although by 1985 the Mac’s base memory had increased to 512 KB, and it was possible, although inconvenient and difficult, to expand the memory of a 128 KB Mac, Apple realized that the Mac needed improvement in these areas. The result was the Macintosh Plus, released in 1986. It offered one megabyte (MB) of RAM, expandable to four, and a then-revolutionary SCSI parallel interface, allowing up to seven peripherals—such as hard drives and scanners—to be attached to the machine. Its floppy drive was increased to an 800 KB capacity. The Plus was an immediate success and remained in production for four years. Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... The Macintosh Plus computer was the third model in the Macintosh line, introduced two years after the original Macintosh and a little more than a year after the Macintosh 512K. It originally had a beige case, but in 1987, the case color was changed to the long-lived platinum color. ... A megabyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to approximately one million bytes. ... SCSI stands for Small Computer System Interface, and is a standard interface and command set for transferring data between devices on both internal and external computer buses. ... A floppy disk is a data storage device that comprises a circular piece of thin, flexible (hence floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic wallet. ...

The Macintosh II, the first expandable Macintosh.
The Macintosh II, the first expandable Macintosh.

Other issues remained, particularly the low processor speed and limited graphics ability, which had hobbled the Mac’s ability to make inroads into the business computing market. Updated Motorola CPUs made a faster machine possible, and in 1987 Apple took advantage of the new Motorola technology and introduced the Macintosh II, which used a 16 MHz Motorola 68020 processor. This marked the start of a new direction for the Macintosh, as now, for the first time, it had open architecture with several expansion slots, support for color graphics and a modular break out design similar to that of the IBM PC and inspired by Apple’s other line, the expandable Apple II series. Alongside the Macintosh II, the Macintosh SE was released, the first compact Mac with an internal expansion slot. The SE shared the Macintosh II's “Snow White” design language, as well as the new Apple Desktop Bus mouse and keyboard that had first appeared on the Apple IIGS some months earlier. Image File history File links MacII.jpg Apple Macintosh II, from en-wiki (uploaded there by photographer on 200-04-18): Description: Apple Macintosh II Computer Source: picture taken by myself, 15. ... Image File history File links MacII.jpg Apple Macintosh II, from en-wiki (uploaded there by photographer on 200-04-18): Description: Apple Macintosh II Computer Source: picture taken by myself, 15. ... Macintosh II was the first personal computer model of the Macintosh II series in the Apple Macintosh line. ... CPU redirects here. ... Macintosh II was the first personal computer model of the Macintosh II series in the Apple Macintosh line. ... Motorola 68020 The Motorola 68020 is a microprocessor from Motorola. ... The Macintosh SE personal computer replaced the Macintosh Plus and was introduced by Apple at the same time as the Macintosh II. It had a similar case to the original Macintosh computer, but with slight differences in colour and styling. ... The Macintosh 128K introduced the Compact Macintosh fcase style Compact Macintosh or Classic Macintosh are terms that refer to the direct descendants of the original Macintosh personal computer case design by Apple Computer. ... Early ADB device Apple Desktop Bus (or ADB) is an obsolete bit-serial bus for connecting low-speed devices to computers. ... The Apple IIGS, the fifth model inception of the Apple II, was the most powerful member of the Apple II series of personal computers made by Apple Computer. ...


With the new Motorola 68030 processor came the Macintosh IIx in 1988, which had benefited from internal improvements, including an on-board MMU. It was followed in 1989 by a more compact version with fewer slots (the Macintosh IIcx) and a version of the Mac SE powered by the 16 MHz 68030 (the Macintosh SE/30). Later that year, the Macintosh IIci, running at 25 MHz, was the first Mac to be “32-bit clean,” allowing it to natively support more than 8 MB of RAM, unlike its predecessors, which had “32-bit dirty” ROMs (8 of the 32 bits available for addressing were used for OS level flags). System 7 was the first Macintosh operating system to support 32-bit addressing. Apple also introduced the Macintosh Portable, a 16 MHz 68000 machine with an active matrix flat panel display. The following year the 40 MHz Macintosh IIfx, costing US$13,000, was unveiled. Apart from its fast processor, it had significant internal architectural improvements, including faster memory and a pair of dedicated I/O coprocessors. Motorola 68030 Processor from a Macintosh IIsi The Motorola 68030 is a 32-bit microprocessor in Motorolas 68000 family. ... The Macintosh IIx was introduced by Apple in 1988 as an incremental update of the original Macintosh II model. ... MMU, short for Memory Management Unit, is a class of computer hardware components responsible for handling memory accesses requested by the CPU. Among the functions of such devices are the translation of virtual addresses to physical addresses (i. ... Half a year following the release of the Macintosh IIx passed before Apple introduced the Macintosh IIcx. ... The Macintosh SE/30 was the fastest and most expandable of the original black-and-white compact Macintosh series. ... The Apple Macintosh IIci was an improvement on the Macintosh IIcx. ... About This Computer Mac OS 9. ... In computer programming, flag refers to one or more bits that are used to store a binary value or code that has an assigned meaning. ... System 7 (codenamed Big Bang) was a version of Mac OS, the operating system of the Apple Macintosh computer. ... The Macintosh Portable was Apple Computers first attempt at making a portable Macintosh personal computer that held the power of a desktop Macintosh and included the capabilities of a professional business Macintosh such as the Macintosh IIci. ... An active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) is a type of flat panel display, currently the overwhelming choice of notebook computer manufacturers, due to light weight, very good image quality, wide color gamut, and response time. ... The Macintosh IIfx was a model of Apple Macintosh computer, introduced in 1990 as the fastest Mac, and discontinued in 1992. ... In computing, Input/output, or I/O, is the collection of interfaces that different functional units (sub-systems) of an information processing system use to communicate with each other, or the signals (information) sent through those interfaces. ...


1990 to 1998: Growth and decline

The Macintosh Classic, Apple's early 1990s budget model.
The Macintosh Classic, Apple's early 1990s budget model.

Microsoft Windows 3.0, widely seen as the first version of Windows to challenge the Mac in both performance and feature set, was released in May 1990 and was a usable, less expensive alternative to the Macintosh platform. Apple's response was to introduce a range of relatively inexpensive Macs in October 1990. The Macintosh Classic, essentially a less expensive version of the Macintosh SE, sold for US$999, making it the least expensive Mac until the re-release (and subsequent price cut) of the 400 MHz iMac in February 2001. The 68020-powered Macintosh LC, in its distinctive “pizza box” case, was available for US$1800; it offered color graphics and was accompanied by a new, low-cost 512×384-pixel monitor. The Macintosh IIsi, essentially a 20 MHz IIci with only one expansion slot, cost US$2500. All three machines sold well, although Apple’s profit margin was considerably lower than on earlier machines. Image File history File links Macintosh_classic. ... Image File history File links Macintosh_classic. ... Macintosh Classic Demand for another all-in-one Mac, such as the popular Macintosh Plus and the SE, spurred the introduction of the Macintosh Classic. ... Windows 3. ... Macintosh Classic Demand for another all-in-one Mac, such as the popular Macintosh Plus and the SE, spurred the introduction of the Macintosh Classic. ... Macintosh LC sans display, keyboard or mouse The Macintosh LC (meaning low-cost color) was Apple Computers product family of low-end consumer Macintosh personal computers in the early 1990s. ... Macintosh IIsi rear showing ports, including 10base2, 10baseT and AUI ethernet card. ...


1991 saw the much-anticipated release of System 7, a 32-bit rewrite of the Macintosh operating system that improved its handling of color graphics, memory addressing, networking, and co-operative multitasking, and introduced virtual memory. Later that year, Apple introduced the Macintosh Quadra 700 and 900, the first Macs to employ the faster Motorola 68040 processor. They were joined by improved versions of the previous year’s hits, the Macintosh Classic II and Macintosh LC II. The latter was upgraded to use a 16 MHz 68030 CPU. System 7 (codenamed Big Bang) was a version of Mac OS, the operating system of the Apple Macintosh computer. ... Mac OS, which stands for Macintosh Operating System, is a series of graphical user interface-based operating systems developed by Apple Computer for their Macintosh line of computer systems. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Computer_multitasking#Cooperative_multitasking. ... The memory pages of the virtual address space seen by the process, may reside non-contiguously in primary, or even secondary storage. ... Quadra 800 Quadra was the name used by Apple Computer for most of its Macintosh computers built around the Motorola 68040 CPU. The product manager for the Quadra family was Frank Casanova who was also the Product Manager for the Macintosh IIfx. ... The Motorola 68040 is a microprocessor from Motorola. ... The Macintosh Classic II (also known as the Performa 200) replaced the Macintosh SE/30 in the compact Macintosh line in 1991. ... The Macintosh LC is a model of Macintosh computer manufactured by Apple Computer. ...


At the same time, the first three models in Apple’s enduring PowerBook range were introduced—the PowerBook 100, a miniaturized Macintosh Portable built by Sony; the 16 MHz 68030 PowerBook 140; and the 25 MHz 68030 PowerBook 170. They were the first portable computers with the keyboard behind a palm rest, and with a built-in pointing device (a trackball) in front of the keyboard. The PowerBook is a laptop computer line manufactured by Apple Computer; a portable version of the Macintosh aimed at the professional market. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources. ... Logitech Marble Mouse Trackball A trackball is a pointing device consisting of a ball housed in a socket containing sensors to detect rotation of the ball about two axes—like an upside-down mouse, but with the ball sticking out more. ...


In 1992, Apple started to sell a low-end Mac, the Performa, through nontraditional dealers. At Apple dealers, a mid-range version of the Quadra series called the Macintosh Centris was offered, only to be quickly renamed Quadra when buyers became confused by the range of Classics, LCs, IIs, Quadras, Performas, and Centrises. Apple also unveiled the miniaturized PowerBook Duo range. It was intended to be docked to a base station for desktop-like functionality in the workplace. The PowerBook Duo was dropped from the Apple product line in early 1997. A Macintosh Performa 5200, an all-in-one desktop similar to the iMac. ... The Macintosh Centris 660AV, the last computer to use the Centris name Macintosh Centris was a set of three 1993 Macintosh models that were built around the Motorola 68LC040 and 68040 CPUs. ... Powerbook Duo 280c The PowerBook Duo was a small yet powerful laptop from Apple Computer. ...


The next evolutionary step in Macintosh CPUs was a switch to the RISC PowerPC architecture developed by the AIM alliance of Apple Computer, IBM, and Motorola. Since its introduction, the Power Macintosh line proved to be highly successful, with over a million units sold by late 1994, three months ahead of Apple’s one-year goal. In the same year, Apple released the second-generation PowerBook models, the PowerBook 500 series, which introduced the novel trackpad. The reduced instruction set computer, or RISC, is a microprocessor CPU design philosophy that favors a simpler set of instructions that all take about the same amount of time to execute. ... AIM was an alliance formed in 1991 between Apple Computer, IBM and Motorola to create a new computing standard based on the PowerPC architecture. ... Power Macintosh, or Power Mac, is the name of a line of Apple Macintosh personal computers based on various models of PowerPC microprocessors. ... The PowerBook 500 (codenamed Blackbird) series was a range of Apple Macintosh PowerBook portable computers first introduced by Apple Computer with the 520 model on 16th May, 1994. ... Laptop with a touchpad and a pointing stick A touchpad is an input device commonly used in laptop computers. ...


By 1995, Microsoft and Intel were rapidly eroding Apple’s market share with their respective Windows 95 operating system and Pentium processors, both of which significantly enhanced the multimedia capability and performance of the PC. In response, Apple started the Macintosh clone program to regain its foothold in the desktop computer market. This program lasted until August 1997, when Steve Jobs returned to Apple and pulled the plug on the whole operation, reasoning that Apple was losing a lot of money in the clone market. He thought Apple should instead focus on the future. A boxed copy of Windows 95 Upgrade. ... Pentium logo, with MMX enhancement The Pentium is a fifth-generation x86 architecture microprocessor by Intel. ... The StarMax 3000/160MT, a Macintosh clone manufactured by Motorola. ...


1999 to the present: New beginnings

Steve Jobs introducing the original iMac computer in 1998.
Steve Jobs introducing the original iMac computer in 1998.

In 1998, a year after Steve Jobs had returned to the company, Apple introduced an all-in-one Macintosh that was similar to the original Macintosh 128K: the iMac, a new design that did away with most Apple standard connections, such as SCSI and ADB, in favor of two USB ports. It featured an innovative new design; its translucent plastic case, originally Bondi blue, and later many other colors, is considered an industrial design hallmark of the late 1990s. The iMac proved to be phenomenally successful, with 800,000 units sold in 1998, making the company an annual profit of US$309 million — Apple's first profitable year since Michael Spindler took over as CEO in 1995. At MacWorld 2000, San Francisco, Steve Jobs bragged that they had sold over 1.35 million iMacs the previous quarter; one every six seconds. The Power Macintosh was redesigned along similar lines. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3745x2533, 921 KB) Summary Courtesy of Apple Computer, Inc. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3745x2533, 921 KB) Summary Courtesy of Apple Computer, Inc. ... The title of this article should be iMac. ... The USB trident Icon The USB (Type A and B) Connectors A Male USB plug (Type A) Universal Serial Bus (USB) is a serial bus standard to interface devices. ... The original iMac model Bondi blue is a name of a color coined by Apple Computer, Inc. ... Michael Spindler (born 1942), nicknamed the Diesel for his reputed around the clock work habits, was president and CEO of Apple Computer from 1993 to 1996. ...


In 1999, Apple introduced a new operating system, Mac OS X Server 1.0 (codenamed Rhapsody), with a new GUI and powerful Unix underpinnings. Its NeXT-like GUI left many Mac users disappointed, and wondering what the next generation of the Mac OS GUI would look like. Mac OS X was based on OPENSTEP, the operating system developed by Steve Jobs’ post-Apple company, NeXT. Mac OS X was not released to the public until September 2000, as the Mac OS X Public Beta, with an Aqua interface, much different from Mac OS X Server 1.x. It cost US$29.99 and allowed adventurous Mac users to sample Apple’s new operating system and provide feedback to the company on what they wanted to see in the actual release. Mac OS X Server 1. ... The OPENSTEP desktop. ... Mac OS X Public Beta cover The Mac OS X Public Beta was an early, beta version of Apple Computers Mac OS X operating system released to the public on September 13, 2000 for the price of $29. ...

The MacBook Pro is the first portable Macintosh to use an Intel processor.
The MacBook Pro is the first portable Macintosh to use an Intel processor.

In mid-1999, Apple introduced the iBook, a new consumer-level, portable Macintosh that was designed to be similar in appearance to the iMac that had been introduced a year earlier. Six weeks after the iBook’s unveiling, more than 140,000 orders had been placed, and by October the computer was as much a sales hit as the iMac. Apple continued to add new products to their lineup, such as the eMac and Power Mac G4, as well make two major upgrades of the iMac. On January 11, 2005, Apple announced the release of the Mac mini priced at US$499, the least expensive Mac to date. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1595x1249, 271 KB) An Apple MacBook Pro. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1595x1249, 271 KB) An Apple MacBook Pro. ... The MacBook Pro is a line of Macintosh laptop computers developed by Apple Computer for the professional market. ... The original Blueberry iBook The iBook was a line of laptop computers introduced by Apple Computer in 1999. ... The eMac, short for education Mac, is a Macintosh desktop computer made by Apple Computer. ... The Power Mac G4 was a series of personal computers made by Apple. ... January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In recent years, Apple has seen a significant boost in sales of Macs. Many claim that this is due, in part, to the success of the iPod. The term halo effect has been coined to indicate the effect of satisfied iPod owners, who purchase more Apple merchandise, on the overall sales made by Apple. The iPod digital audio players have recaptured a brand awareness of the Macintosh line that had not been seen since its original release in 1984. From 2001 to 2005, Macintosh sales increased continuously on an annual basis. On October 11, 2005, Apple released its fourth quarter results, reporting shipment of 1,236,000 Macintoshes— a 48% increase from the same quarter the previous year.[4] Starting with the introduction of the iMac Core Duo and the MacBook Pro on January 10, 2006, Apple has gradually switched from PowerPC microprocessors to microprocessors manufactured by Intel.[5] The remaining PowerPC-based products are expected to be replaced by the end of the year.[6] A white 5th Generation iPod (iPod with video) with a case and earbuds. ... Halo effect refers to the cognitive bias in which the assessment of an individual quality serves to influence and bias the judgement of other qualities. ... A white Fifth Generation iPod (iPod Video) with a case and earbuds. ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The MacBook Pro is a line of Macintosh laptop computers developed by Apple Computer for the professional market. ... January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Apple Intel transition is an announced change in the architecture of the Macintosh platform. ...


Timeline of Macintosh models

This timeline of Macintosh models lists all major types of Macintosh computers produced by Apple Computer. ...


Hardware

The current Macintosh product family uses either PowerPC processors, which are currently produced by IBM and Freescale, or Intel x86 processors. All Macintosh models ship with at least 512 MB RAM as standard. Current Macintosh computers use an ATI Radeon, nVidia GeForce or Intel GMA graphics processor and include either a Combo Drive, a DVD player and CD burner all-in-one; or the SuperDrive, a dual-function DVD and CD burner. Macintoshes include two standard data transfer ports: USB, standardized in 1998 with the iMac; and FireWire, a less popular standard developed by Apple to support higher-performance devices. Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... Radeon is a brand of graphics processing units (GPU) that has been manufactured by ATI Technologies since 2000 and the successor to their Rage line. ... The logo for the GeForce 6800, one of Nvidias flagship video cards. ... The Intel Graphics Media Accelerator (GMA) is Intels current line of Integrated graphic cards. ... The Combo Drive is the more basic (and less expensive) of the two CD-ROM drives currently offered by Apple Computer in their product, the Macintosh. ... SuperDrive is a term that has been used by Apple Computer to refer to two different storage drives: in the late 1980s to a high-density floppy disk drive; and later to a combined CD/DVD reader/writer. ... FireWire (also known as i. ...


In-keeping with the philosophy of making computing as easy as possible, the majority of Macintosh computers shipped with single-button mouses. This changed in August 2005[7], when Apple released the four-button Mighty Mouse and subsequently began to ship it with new desktop Macs. Starting with a new iMac G5 released in October 2005[8], Apple started to include built-in iSight cameras to appropriate models, and an interface called Front Row that can be operated by remote control for accessing media stored on the computer. Operating a mechanical mouse. ... Mighty Mouse The Mighty Mouse (code-named Houdini) is the first multi-button USB mouse ever manufactured and sold by Apple Computer. ... The iSight is a webcam made by Apple Computer. ... Front Row Main menu screenshot Front Row Music menu screenshot This article is about the Macintosh computer application. ... Apple Remote The Apple Remote is a remote control made for use with Apple products with infrared capabilities released after October 2005. ...


Processor architecture

The original Macintosh used a Motorola 68000, a 16/32-bit (32-bit internal) CISC processor that ran at 8 MHz. The Macintosh Portable and PowerBook 100 both used a 16 MHz version. The Macintosh II featured a full 32-bit Motorola 68020 processor, but the Macs at the time supported only 24-bit memory addressing, therefore using only a fraction of the chip's memory addressing capabilities. Macs with this limitation were referred to as not being “32-bit clean.” The successor Macintosh IIx introduced the Motorola 68030 processor, which added a memory management unit. The 68030 did not have a built-in floating point unit (FPU); thus, '030-based Macintoshes incorporated a separate unit—either the 68881 or 68882. Lower-cost models did without, although they incorporated an FPU socket, should the user decide to add one as an option. The first “32-bit clean” Macintosh that could use 32-bit memory addressing was the IIci. In 1991, Apple released the first computers containing the Motorola 68040 processor, which contained the floating point unit in the main processor. Again, lower-cost models did not have FPUs, being based on the cut-down Motorola 68LC040 instead. The Motorola 68000 is a 32 bit CISC microprocessor, the first member of a successful family of microprocessors from Motorola, which were all mostly software compatible. ... A complex instruction set computer (CISC) is a microprocessor instruction set architecture (ISA) in which each instruction can execute several low-level operations, such as a load from memory, an arithmetic operation, and a memory store, all in a single instruction. ... Motorola 68020 The Motorola 68020 is a microprocessor from Motorola. ... Motorola 68030 Processor from a Macintosh IIsi The Motorola 68030 is a 32-bit microprocessor in Motorolas 68000 family. ... MMU, short for Memory Management Unit, is a class of computer hardware components responsible for handling memory accesses requested by the CPU. Among the functions of such devices are the translation of virtual addresses to physical addresses (i. ... A floating point unit (FPU) is a part of a CPU specially designed to carry out operations on floating point numbers. ... The Motorola 68881 was a floating-point coprocessor chip that was utilized in some computer systems that used the 68020 or 68030 CPU. The addition of the 68881 chip added substantial cost to the computer, but added a floating point unit that could rapidly perform floating point math calculations. ... The Motorola 68881 was a floating-point coprocessor chip that was utilized in some computer systems that used the 68020 or 68030 CPU. The addition of the 68881 chip added substantial cost to the computer, but added a floating point unit that could rapidly perform floating point math calculations. ... The Motorola 68040 is a microprocessor from Motorola. ... The 68LC040 is a low cost version of the Freescale 68040 microprocessor with no FPU. This makes it less expensive and draw less power. ...


Since 1994 Apple has been using the PowerPC line of processors, starting with the PowerPC 601, which were later upgraded to the 603 and 603e and 604, 604e, and 604ev. In 1997, Apple introduced its first computer based on the significantly upgraded PowerPC G3 processor; this was followed in 1999 with the PowerPC G4. The latest generation of processor in use is the 64-bit PowerPC G5, introduced in 2003. During the transition to the PowerPC, Apple’s “Cognac” team wrote a 68030-to-PowerPC emulator that booted very early in OS loading. Initially the emulation speed wasn't stellar, but later versions used a dynamic recompilation emulator which boosted performance by caching frequently used sections of translated code. The first version of the OS to ship with the earliest PowerPC systems was estimated to run 95% emulated. Later versions of the operating system increased the percentage of PowerPC native code until OS X brought it to 100% native. The PowerPC 601 was the first generation of microprocessors to supports a sub-set of the PowerPC Architecture. ... Is a microprocessor using a sub-set of the PowerPC Architecture design, used for embeded applications. ... Was the first microprocessor to implement the entire PowerPC Architecture. ... 300 MHz Motorola PowerPC 750 processor with off-die L2 cache on the CPU module of a PowerMac G3. ... PowerPC G4 is a designation used by Apple Computer to describe a fourth generation of PowerPC microprocessors. ... PowerPC 970 In computing, the PowerPC 970, PowerPC 970FX, and PowerPC 970MP, also known as PowerPC G5, are 64-bit processors in the PowerPC family from IBM, which was introduced in 2002. ... The Mac 68K emulator was a software emulator built into all versions of the Mac OS for PowerPC. This emulator permitted the running of applications and system code that were originally written for the 680x0 based Macintosh models. ... It has been suggested that Dynarec be merged into this article or section. ...


The PowerPC 604 processor introduced symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) to the Macintosh platform, with dual PowerPC 604e-equipped Power Macintosh 9500 and 9600 models. The G3 processor was not SMP-capable, but the G4 and G5 were, and Apple introduced many dual-CPU G4 and G5 Power Macs. The latest Power Macintosh G5 uses up to two dual core processors, for a total of four cores. Symmetric Multiprocessing, or SMP, is a multiprocessor computer architecture where two or more identical processors are connected to a single shared main memory. ... The Power Macintosh 9500 (the 132 MHz model is also known as Power Macintosh 9515 in Europe and Japan) is a high-end Macintosh personal computer which was designed, manufactured and sold by Apple Computer from May 1995 until early 1997. ... The Power Macintosh 9600 (Codename: Kansas; also sold with additional server software as the Apple Workgroup Server 9650) is a personal computer that is a part of Apple Computers Power Macintosh series of Macintosh computers. ... A multi-core microprocessor is one which combines two or more independent processors into a single package, often a single integrated circuit (IC). ...


On June 6, 2005, Steve Jobs announced that the company would begin transitioning the Macintosh line from PowerPC to Intel microprocessors, expected to be completed by the end of 2006, and demonstrated a version of Mac OS X running on a computer powered by an Intel Pentium 4 CPU. Intel-powered Macs will be able to run Macintosh software compiled for PowerPC processors using a dynamic translation system known as “Rosetta.” The reason for this switch concerns problems with the power consumption of the IBM G5 processors, coupled with IBM’s inability to deliver on the promised roadmap. The first Macintoshes with Intel processors were the iMac Core Duo and the MacBook Pro, both announced at the Macworld Conference and Expo in January 2006 and using the Core Duo processor. June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... New Intel Pentium 4 with Hyper Threading logo The Pentium 4 is a seventh-generation x86 architecture microprocessor produced by Intel and is their first all-new CPU design, called the NetBurst architecture, since the Pentium Pro of 1995. ... In computing, binary translation is the emulation of one instruction set by another through translation of code. ... Rosetta is a lightweight dynamic translation emulator for Mac OS X distributed by Apple. ... Produced by Boston-based IDG World Expo, Macworld Conference & Expo is a trade show dedicated to the Apple Macintosh platform with conference tracks occurring twice a year in the United States, usually during the second week of January. ...


Currently, the only Macintosh lines still sold with PowerPC processors are the Power Mac G5 and Xserve.


Expandability and connectivity

A typical Universal Serial Bus ("USB") Type A cable; the USB has become standard on modern Macintosh computers.
A typical Universal Serial Bus ("USB") Type A cable; the USB has become standard on modern Macintosh computers.

The earliest form of internal Macintosh expandability was the Processor Direct Slot (PDS), present from the SE onwards. It was basically a shortcut to the CPU socket, not a bus—which also meant that parts for the PDS slot were tied to a specific Macintosh model, with the notable exception of the LC PDS slot, which was standardized across the entire LC line. The PDS slot could be used for processor upgrades, the Apple IIe Card, or video cards. The last line of Macintoshes to have PDS slots was the first generation of the PowerMacs. The first Macintosh to feature a bus for expansion was the Macintosh II, in the form of six NuBus (parallel 32-bit bus) slots. The NuBus was abandoned in favor of PCI in the second-generation Power Macs, and the G4 added an AGP slot for video cards. The latest G5s use PCI Express for graphics and expansion. For memory, Apple has mostly used standard SIMMs (30 and 72-pin) and later DIMMs. Currently, the top-of-the-line G5 PowerMacs use 240-pin DDR2 SDRAM DIMMs. Download high resolution version (1024x723, 87 KB) Date: 29th September 2004 23:52 Camera: FUJIFILM FinePix S7000 Exposure: 1/160 sec. ... Download high resolution version (1024x723, 87 KB) Date: 29th September 2004 23:52 Camera: FUJIFILM FinePix S7000 Exposure: 1/160 sec. ... The USB trident Icon The USB (Type A and B) Connectors A Male USB plug (Type A) Universal Serial Bus (USB) is a serial bus standard to interface devices. ... LC PDS Ethernet card. ... Socket 370 processor socket The term CPU socket (or CPU slot) is widely used to describe the connector linking the motherboard to the CPU(s) in certain types of desktop and server computers, particularly those compatible with the Intel x86 architecture. ... The Apple IIe Card (Apple Computer part #820_0444_A) was the smallest Apple II computer ever designed. ... NuBus is a 32-bit parallel computer bus, originally developed at MIT as a part of the NuMachine workstation project, and eventually used by Apple Computer and NeXT Computer. ... 32-bit PCI expansion slots on a motherboard 64-bit PCI expansion slots inside a Power Macintosh G4 The Peripheral Component Interconnect standard (in practice almost always shortened to PCI) specifies a computer bus for attaching peripheral devices to a computer motherboard. ... An AGP slot (maroon, although the color is usually brown) and two PCI slots. ... PCI Express (formerly known as 3GIO for 3rd Generation I/O, not to be mistaken with PCI-X) is an implementation of the PCI computer bus that uses existing PCI programming concepts and communications standards, but bases it on a much faster serial communications system. ... 30- (top) and 72-pin (bottom) SIMMs. ... Two types of DIMMs: a 168-pin SDRAM module (top) and a 184-pin DDR SDRAM module (bottom). ... DDR2 SDRAM or double-data-rate two synchronous dynamic random access memory is a computer memory technology. ...


The earliest Macintoshes used a special proprietary serial port for external floppy or hard drives, until SCSI was introduced with the Macintosh Plus. SCSI remained the Macintosh drive medium of choice until the mid 1990s, when less expensive ATA drives were introduced, first on budget models, then across the whole range. Current PowerMacs use SATA for internal hard drives, ATA for internal optical drives, and FireWire or USB for external drives. For peripherals, the Apple Desktop Bus was introduced with the Macintosh II. It was the standard input connector until the Universal Serial Bus was introduced with the iMac. The last Macintosh to have ADB was the blue and white PowerMac G3. Other legacy Macintosh peripheral connectors include the serial GeoPort and the AAUI port for networking. For external video signals, Apple used a DB-15 connector on all models prior to the blue-and-white G3, which used a VGA connector. The original AGP-based G4 used VGA, complemented by DVI; almost all later G4s, however, used the Apple Display Connector. On the most recent Macintoshes, Apple has used standard or dual-link DVI connectors, with the PowerMac having two connectors allowing dual displays. ATA cables: 40 wire ribbon cable top, 80 wire ribbon cable bottom Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA) is a standard interface for connecting storage devices such as hard disks and CD-ROM drives inside personal computers. ... First generation (1. ... GeoPort was a serial data system used on some models of the Apple Macintosh. ... Apple Attachment Unit Interface (AAUI) is a 14-position, 0. ... A male DE-9 connector. ... VGA Connector There are at least four versions of VGA connector, the three-row 15 pin DE-15 (also called mini sub D15) in originaland DDC2pinouts, and a less featureful and far less common 9-pin VGA, plus a Mini-VGA used for laptops. ... The DVI Connector A Male DVI-I Plug The Digital Visual Interface (DVI) is a video interface standard designed to maximize the visual quality of digital display devices such as flat panel LCD computer displays and digital projectors. ... The Apple Display Connector (ADC) is a proprietary connector Apple used for their flat panel LCDs and their last CRT display. ... The DVI Connector A Male DVI-I Plug The Digital Visual Interface (DVI) is a video interface standard designed to maximize the visual quality of digital display devices such as flat panel LCD computer displays and digital projectors. ...


Software

Operating system

Main article: Mac OS history
The original 1984 Mac OS desktop with the radically new graphical user interface.
The original 1984 Mac OS desktop with the radically new graphical user interface.
System 7 was the first major upgrade of the Macintosh operating system. Note that the display is in 8-bit color.
System 7 was the first major upgrade of the Macintosh operating system. Note that the display is in 8-bit color.
The Mac OS X v10.4 “Tiger” desktop. Although the interface has undergone many changes, some aspects remain, such as the menu bar at the top of the screen.
The Mac OS X v10.4 “Tiger” desktop. Although the interface has undergone many changes, some aspects remain, such as the menu bar at the top of the screen.

The Macintosh operating system was originally known as the System Software or more simply System. With the release of System 7.6, the official name became Mac OS. From 2001, the “classic” Mac OS was phased out in favor of the new BSD Unix-based Mac OS X. Apple had offered another UNIX system, A/UX, for its Macintosh servers earlier, but without much success. The Mac OS operating system is widely considered one of the main selling points of the Macintosh platform, and Apple heavily touts its releases with large release-day special events. Apple has generally chosen to stick with some loose user-interface elements in all of its releases, and many similarities can be seen between the legacy Mac OS 9 and the modern Mac OS X. Logo: Mac OS System 7, 8 and 9 On January 24th, 1984 Apple Computer introduced the Apple Macintosh personal computer, with the Macintosh 128K model, which came bundled with the Mac OS operating system. ... Supersedes Image:Apple_Macintosh_Desktop. ... Supersedes Image:Apple_Macintosh_Desktop. ... Mac OS, which stands for Macintosh Operating System, is a series of graphical user interface-based operating systems developed by Apple Computer for their Macintosh line of computer systems. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Macintosh System 7. ... Macintosh System 7. ... System 7 (codenamed Big Bang) was a version of Mac OS, the operating system of the Apple Macintosh computer. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1152x720, 498 KB) // Summary Screenshot of a Mac OS X 10. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1152x720, 498 KB) // Summary Screenshot of a Mac OS X 10. ... Mac OS X version 10. ... Screenshot of Windows XP showing two menu bars Screenshot of Mac OS X showing the single menu bar at the top of the screen The menu bar in Mac OS X a horizontal bar anchored to the top of the screen, containing all application menus (e. ... A/UX (from Apple Unix) is Apple Computers implementation of the Unix operating system for some of their Macintosh computers. ...


Mac OS was the first widely used operating system with a graphical interface. No versions of the “classic” Mac OS featured a command line interface. It was originally a single-tasking OS, but optional co-operative multitasking was introduced in System Software 5. The next major upgrade was System 7 in 1991, which featured a new full-color design, built-in multitasking, AppleScript, and more user configuration options. Mac OS continued to evolve up to version 9.2.2, but its dated architecture—such as using cooperative multitasking instead of the more modern preemptive multitasking—made a replacement necessary. Screenshot of a sample Bash session, taken on Gentoo Linux. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Computer_multitasking#Cooperative_multitasking. ... AppleScript is a scripting language devised by Apple Computer, and built into Mac OS. More generally, AppleScript is the word used to designate the Mac OS scripting interface, which is meant to operate in parallel with the graphical user interface. ... In computing, multitasking is a method by which multiple tasks, also known as processes, share common processing resources such as a CPU. In the case of a computer with a single CPU, only one task is said to be running at any point in time, meaning that the CPU is...


In March 2001, Apple introduced Mac OS X, a modern and more secure Unix-based successor, using Darwin, XNU, and Mach as foundations. Mac OS X is directly derived from NeXTSTEP, the operating system developed by Steve Jobs’ company NeXT before Apple bought it. Older Mac OS programs can still run under Mac OS X in a special virtual machine called Classic, but this is only possible on Macintoshes using PowerPC processors, not on Macintoshes using Intel processors. A program similar to Classic called “Rosetta” will allow PowerPC programs to run on Intel machines. Even though Mac OS X was never certified as a UNIX implementation by The Open Group, it is now the most common Unix-based desktop operating system. Mac OS X is currently at version 10.4 (released on April 29, 2005), code-named Tiger. The next version, Mac OS X v10.5, code-named Leopard, is scheduled to be released at the end of 2006, or early 2007. Hexley, the mascot of Darwin Darwin is a free, open source, Unix-like operating system first released by Apple Computer in 2000. ... XNU is the name of the kernel that Apple acquired and developed for use in the Mac OS X operating system and released as open source as part of the Darwin operating system. ... Mach is an operating system kernel developed at Carnegie Mellon University to support operating system research, primarily distributed and parallel computation. ... In general terms, a virtual machine in computer science is software that creates a virtualized environment between the computer platform and the end user in which the end user can operate software. ... The Open Group is a vendor- and technology- neutral industry consortium with a vision of Boundaryless Information Flow that will enable access to integrated information within and between enterprises based on open standards and global interoperability. ... April 29 is the 119th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (120th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mac OS X v10. ...


Non-Apple operating systems for today’s Macintoshes include Linux, NetBSD, and OpenBSD. With the release of Intel-based Macintosh computers, the potential to natively run Windows-based operating systems on Apple hardware without the need for software such as Virtual PC was introduced. In March of 2006, a group of hackers announced that they were able to run Windows XP on an Intel based Mac. The group has released their software as open source and has posted it for download on their website.[9] On April 5, 2006 Apple announced the public beta availability of their own Boot Camp software which will allow owners of Intel-based Macs to install Windows XP on their machines. Boot Camp is proposed to be a standard feature in Leopard.[10] Linux (also known as GNU/Linux) is a Unix-like computer operating system. ... NetBSD is a freely redistributable, open source version of the Unix-like BSD computer operating system. ... OpenBSD is a freely available Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Unix derivative created at the University of California, Berkeley. ... Virtual PC is an emulation suite for Apple Mac OS X, and a virtualization suite for Microsoft Windows operating systems. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Boot Camp, tentatively named, is a software wizard made available by Apple Computer that assists users in installing Microsoft Windows XP (Service Pack 2 only, both Home or Professional Edition) on Intel-based Macintosh computers. ...


Software history

Since its introduction, the Mac has been criticized for the lack of software available for its operating system. In 1984 it was apparent that a wider range of software was available for the IBM PC, because it used the most popular operating system of the time, MS-DOS. Apple struggled to encourage software developers to port software titles to the Macintosh; however, Bill Gates at Microsoft realized that the GUI would become an industry standard, and that his software would sell in large quantity if it were available for the Macintosh. In 1984 Microsoft Word and Microsoft MultiPlan were available, and were a large selling point for the Mac. However, it lacked other business software and games. In 1985, Lotus Software introduced Lotus Jazz after the success of Lotus 1-2-3 for the IBM PC, although it was largely a flop. [11] IBM PC (IBM 5150) with keyboard and green screen monochrome monitor (IBM 5151), running MS-DOS 5. ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... William Henry Bill Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is the co-founder, chairman, former chief software architect, and former CEO of Microsoft Corporation. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Microsoft Word is a word processing application from Microsoft. ... Categories: Computer stubs | Spreadsheets | Domain-specific programming languages | Numerical programming languages ... Lotus Software (called Lotus Development Corporation before its acquisition by IBM) is an American software company with its headquarters in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Lotus Jazz was a an office productivity suite for the Apple Macintosh, but failed to take off. ... Lotus 1-2-3 is a spreadsheet program from Lotus Software (now part of IBM). ...


In 1987, Apple spun off its software business as Claris. It was given the code and rights to several programs that had been written within Apple, notably MacWrite, MacPaint, and MacProject. In the late 1980s, Claris released a number of revamped software titles; the result was the “Pro” series, including MacPaint Pro, MacDraw Pro, MacWrite Pro, and FileMaker Pro. To provide a complete office suite, Claris purchased the rights to the Informix Wingz spreadsheet on the Mac, renaming it Claris Resolve, and added the new presentation program Claris Impact. By the early 1990s, Claris programs were shipping with the majority of consumer-level Macintoshes and were extremely popular. In 1991, Claris released ClarisWorks, which soon became their second best-selling program. When Claris was later folded back into Apple, ClarisWorks was renamed AppleWorks beginning with version 5.0. Claris was a computer software company formed as a spin-off from Apple Computer in 1987. ... MacProject was released by Apple Computers in 1984. ... Wingz was a spreadsheet program from Informix in the late 1980s and early 1990s. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Claris Resolve Claris Resolve was a spreadsheet software program for the Apple Macintosh developed by Claris. ... Claris Impact is a presentation and chart software program made for the Apple Macintosh computer developed by Claris. ... AppleWorks is an office suite of software applications sold by Apple Computer. ...


All new Macs now come with a suite of consumer-level applications. In 1999, a digital video editing application, iMovie, was released for use on the iMac DV. Next came iTunes, a digital jukebox designed to work with Apple’s iPod digital music player, and on January 7, 2002, Apple released iPhoto, an easy-to-use digital photo organizer. In 2004, Apple began to market these applications, along with iDVD and GarageBand, as a US$49 suite called “iLife.” It is intended to make the Mac versatile out of the box by providing several high-value consumer media applications. The most popular tool in the suite, iTunes, now has a Windows version, and has spawned the most popular online music store, the iTunes Music Store. iLife '05 was notable for the addition of support for High Definition video and the RAW image format, and for its price increase to US$79 [12]. In January 2006, iLife '06 was released; iWeb, a new website creation application, was added to the suite. iMovie is video editing software, created by Apple Computer as part of their iLife suite of applications for the Macintosh, that allows users to edit their own home movies. ... The title of this article should be iMac. ... The French iTunes law is the nickname given by some Anglo-American news sources to the DADVSI act. ... January 7 is the seventh day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... iPhoto is a software application made by Apple Computer exclusively for their Mac OS X operating system. ... iDVD is a DVD creation software application made by Apple Computer for Mac OS X. iDVD allows the user to add QuickTime Movies, MP3 music, and digital photos to a DVD that can then be played on a commercial DVD player. ... This article is about the software application. ... The United Kingdom iTunes Music Store. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into High-definition television. ... A raw image file contains minimally processed data from the image sensor of a digital camera or image scanner. ... iWeb is a software product made by Apple Computer. ...


To complement the Macintosh, Apple has built up a portfolio of digital media applications, as well as three applications that are geared towards productivity (the iWork suite and FileMaker Pro). iWork is a suite of applications created by Apple Computer, containing a word processing and layout application (Pages), and a presentation package (Keynote). ... FileMaker Pro is a cross platform database application from FileMaker Inc. ...


Advertising

Page 1 of the 1984 “Macintosh Introduction” brochure published in Newsweek magazine.
Page 1 of the 1984 “Macintosh Introduction” brochure published in Newsweek magazine.

Ever since the introduction of the Macintosh in 1984 with the 1984 Super Bowl commercial, Apple has been recognized for its efforts towards effective advertising and marketing for the Macintosh. A “Macintosh Introduction” 18-page brochure was included with various magazines in December 1983, often remembered because Bill Gates was featured on page 11.[13] For a special post-election edition of Newsweek in November 1984, Apple spent more than US $2.5 million to buy all of the advertising pages in the issue (a total of 39).[14] Apple also ran a “Test Drive a Macintosh” promotion that year, in which potential buyers with a credit card could trial a Macintosh for 24 hours and return it to a dealer afterwards. It began to look like a success with 200,000 participants, and Advertising Age magazine named this one of the 10 best promotions of 1984. However, dealers disliked the promotion and supply of computers was insufficient for demand, and many computers were returned in such a bad shape that they could no longer be sold. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1075, 76 KB)Page 1 of original Macintosh Introduction brochure/advertisement from 1984 editions of Newsweek magazine from November-December. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1075, 76 KB)Page 1 of original Macintosh Introduction brochure/advertisement from 1984 editions of Newsweek magazine from November-December. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ...


In 1985 the “Lemmings” commercial aired at the Super Bowl; Apple went as far as to create a newspaper advertisement stating “If you go to the bathroom during the fourth quarter, you'll be sorry.” It was a large failure and did not capture nearly as much attention as the 1984 commercial did. Many more brochures for new models like the Macintosh Plus and the Performa followed. In the 1990s Apple started the “What's on your PowerBook?” campaign, with print ads and television commercials featuring celebrities describing how the PowerBook helps them in their businesses and everyday lives. In 1995, Apple responded to the introduction of Windows 95 with both several print ads and a television commercial demonstrating its disadvantages and lack of innovation. In 1997 the Think Different campaign introduced Apple’s new slogan, and in 2002 the Switch campaign followed. The most recent advertising strategy by Apple is the Get a Mac campaign. The winning Super Bowl team receives the Vince Lombardi Trophy. ... Several different Think Different posters. ... Switch was an advertising campaign launched by Apple Computer on June 10, 2002. ... The two characters from the ads who personify a PC and a Mac. ...


Today, Apple focuses much of its advertising efforts around “special events,” and keynotes at conferences like the Apple Expo and the MacWorld Expo. The events typically draw a large gathering of media representatives and spectators. In the past, special events have been used to unveil the Power Mac G5, the redesigned iMac, and many other Macintosh products. Stevenote is a slang term for a keynote speech given by Apple Computer CEO Steve Jobs, generally performed at Apple sales expositions such as the Macworld Expo, and the Apple Expo. ... Apple Expo Paris 2005 The Apple Expo is a European annual sales conference and technology exposition held by Apple. ... Produced by Boston-based IDG World Expo, Macworld Conference & Expo is a trade show dedicated to the Apple Macintosh platform with conference tracks occurring twice a year in the United States, usually during the second week of January. ... Power Mac G5 The Power Mac G5 is Apple Computers name for models of the Power Mac which contain the PowerPC G5 CPU. The professional-grade computer is the most powerful in Apples lineup and is touted by Apple as one of the fastest personal computers ever built...


Effects on the technology industry

Apple has introduced a number of innovations in direct relation to the Macintosh 128K that were later adopted by the rest of industry as a standard for the design of computers. Possibly Apple's number-one effect on the industry was the first large-scale use of a graphical user interface in operating system software. Today, almost every mainstream operating system relies on a graphical user interface, and many operating systems still echo the design of the original Macintosh graphical user interface, such as the use of the “double click,” “drag and drop,” and the mouse used for them. The Macintosh 128K also introduced software which allowed WYSIWYG (“what you see is what you get,” pronounced “whizzy-wig”) text and graphics editing alongside significant technical improvements such as: long file names permitting whitespace, not requiring a file extension, 3.5" floppy disk drives, 8-bit mono audio, built-in speakers, and an output jack as standard features. ÁWYSIWYG (pronounced //), is an acronym for What You See Is What You Get, used in computing to describe a system in which content during editing appears very similar to the final product. ... For information on the programming language, see Whitespace programming language. ... A filename extension or filename suffix is an extra set of (usually) alphanumeric characters that is appended to the end of a filename to allow computer users (as well as various pieces of software on the computer system) to quickly determine the type of data stored in the file. ... A 3,5 inch diskette, removed from its casing A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible (floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell. ... A schematic representation of hearing. ...


The Macintosh platform has introduced many innovations and ideas that had significant effects on the computer industry, especially in the area of communications standards. One of the first was the Macintosh Plus, which successfully introduced the SCSI interface in 1986. The Macintosh IIsi and the Macintosh LC introduced standard audio in and out ports in 1990—today these ports are standard on the large majority of computers. Beginning with the iMac in 1998, Apple made the Universal Serial Bus standard and introduced FireWire, a high-speed data transfer bus now popular in media-editing computers and almost all digital video cameras. Apple also innovated in the area of networking, with heavy marketing and early implementation of the existing wireless networking standard IEEE 802.11b (AirPort) in the Macintosh portable lines in 1999. Additionally, the Macintosh platform introduced many of the storage devices that are now standard: In 1992, the Macintosh IIvx was the first computer to feature the CD-ROM drive as a standard feature. The iMac, debuting in 1998, was one of the first computers to have no floppy disk drive; today, almost no new computers come with one. Finally, the Power Macintosh G4 with its SuperDrive introduced the first relatively affordable DVD-R drive in 2001. IEEE 802. ... The Macintosh IIvx was one of the models of the Macintosh II series of Macintosh computers from Apple. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... The Power Macintosh G4 (Power Mac G4) was series of personal computers made by Apple. ... A DVD+R disc The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...


Apple has also contributed heavily to the field of mobile computing, and many features of their mobile computers have become the norm. The PowerBook 100, 140, and 170 set the ergonomic standard for the placement of the keyboard in 1991 by moving the keyboard behind a palm rest, rather than right at the bottom of the laptop. In 1991, the PowerBook 100 series featured the first built-in pointing device on a laptop: a trackball. The PowerBook Duo also introduced the idea of a dock/port replicator in 1992. One of the most important features ever added to the Macintosh PowerBook lineup was the first true touchpad as a pointing device on the PowerBook 500 in 1994; today, most laptops rely on it as their pointing device. More recently, the PowerBook G4 became the first full-size laptop computer to feature a widescreen display, in 2003 it became the first laptop computer with a 17-inch display, and in 2004 it became the first laptop computer to provide dual-link DVI. Powerbook Duo 280c The PowerBook Duo was a small yet powerful laptop from Apple Computer. ... Touchpad and a pointing stick on a Laptop Close up of a modern, brushed steel touchpad A touchpad is an input device commonly used in laptop computers. ... The PowerBook G4 was a series of notebook computers manufactured by Apple Computer. ...


There is much speculation as to why so many Macintosh features have been adopted by competitors. And although they have a history of including some of the best technology available to the consumer market, Macs and their components are often much more expensive than Windows PCs; as such, one could argue that Macintoshes brought what was to become standard earlier at a higher cost, and it is certainly true that it costs far more to develop something than to copy it — both in terms of actual resources, and “man-hours.” Another view is that competitors were forced to copy the Macintosh for reasons of competition and business, and whether such innovations were superior is irrelevant.


Market share and demographics

Ever since the introduction of the Macintosh, Apple has struggled to gain a significant share of the personal computer market. At first, the Macintosh 128K suffered from a dearth of available software compared to IBM's PC, resulting in disappointing sales in 1985. Only 500,000 Macs had been sold by the end of the year. Jobs had originally predicted that five million units would be sold within two years; sales eventually crossed the two million mark in 1988, and three years later, the installed base finally reached five million. Mac computers are most widely used in the creative professional market, including in journalism and desktop publishing, video editing and audio editing, but have also made in-roads into the educative and scientific research sectors [1]. Installed base is a measure of the number of units of a particular type of system (usually a computing platform) actually in use, as opposed to market share, which only reflects sales over a particular period. ... Journalism is a discipline of collecting, analyzing, verifying, and presenting information regarding current events, trends, issues and people. ... Desktop publishing (also known as DTP) combines a personal computer, page layout software and a printer to create publications on a small economic scale. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with film editing. ... In Music, Audio editing is the process of taking recorded sound and changing it directly on the recording medium. ...


By 1997, there were more than 20 million Mac users, compared to an installed base of around 340 million Windows PCs.[15][16] Statistics from late 2003 indicate that Apple had 2.06% of the desktop share in the United States, which had increased to 2.88% by Q4 2004.[17] The actual installed base of Macintosh computers is extremely hard to determine, with numbers ranging from a conservative 3%[18] to an optimistic 16%.[19] Microsoft Windows is a family of operating systems by Microsoft for use on personal computers, although versions of Windows designed for servers, embedded devices, and other platforms also exist. ... Installed base is a measure of the number of units of a particular type of system (usually a computing platform) actually in use, as opposed to market share, which only reflects sales over a particular period. ...


Whether the size of the Mac’s market share and installed base is actually relevant, and to whom, is a hotly debated issue. Industry pundits have often called attention to the Mac’s relatively small market share to predict Apple's impending doom, particularly in the late 1990s when the company’s future seemed bleakest. Others argue that market share is the wrong way to judge the Mac’s success, citing the following reasons: See also 1990s, the band The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive, sometimes informally including popular culture from 2000 and 2001. ...

  • Apple has positioned the Mac as a higher-end personal computer, and so it is misleading to compare a Mac with a low-budget (and perhaps low-quality) PC.[20]
  • Only within the computer industry does market share seem to be such a major concern. Rarely is the topic raised in the automobile or television industries, for example.[21]
  • Too much emphasis is placed on the Mac’s worldwide market share at the expense of its United States market share, which as of 2006 stands at almost twice the corresponding worldwide figure.[22]
  • Because the overall market for personal computers has grown so much and so rapidly, the Mac’s increasing sales numbers are effectively swallowed by the industry’s numbers as a whole. Apple’s small market share, then, gives the false impression that fewer people are using Macs than did (for example) ten years ago.[23]
  • Market share numbers ignore the total installed base of a particular platform, a statistic which is difficult to accurately determine. Since Macs are replaced less often than PCs [source needed], it is claimed, the number of Macs in use at any given moment is higher than indicated by sales alone.[24]
  • Regardless of the Mac’s market share, Apple Computer has remained profitable ever since Steve Jobs’ return and the company’s subsequent reorganization.[25]

Market research indicates that Apple draws its customer base from an artistic, creative, and well-educated population, which may explain the platform’s visibility within certain youthful, avant-garde subcultures.[26] Furthermore, conventional wisdom holds that the platform appeals especially to the politically liberal-minded; even Steve Jobs speculates that “maybe a little less” than half of Apple’s customers are Republicans, “maybe more Dell than ours.”[27] Accurate or not, this perception can only be reinforced by the company's pattern of political donations,[28] by Al Gore’s membership on its board,[29] and surely not least by Jobs’ own personal history.[30] Installed base is a measure of the number of units of a particular type of system (usually a computing platform) actually in use, as opposed to market share, which only reflects sales over a particular period. ... Conventional wisdom is a term coined by the economist John Kenneth Galbraith, used to describe certain ideas or explanations that are generally accepted as true by the public. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... This article is about the modern United States Republican Party. ... Albert Arnold Gore, Jr. ...


Advantages, disadvantages and criticisms

The Macintosh differs in several ways from other x86 personal computers, especially those that run the Windows operating system. For Macs, both the hardware and bundled software, including the operating system, are manufactured by Apple Computer, whereas Microsoft supplies their software to original equipment manufacturers, including Dell, HP/Compaq, and Lenovo, who make the hardware using a wider range of components. The Unix-based operating system performs multi-user networking as standard. This less-common operating system means that a much smaller range of third-party software is available, although suitable applications, such as Microsoft Office, are available in most areas. The design of the Macintosh operating system and the vigilance of Macintosh users[31] has contributed to the near-absence of the types of malware and spyware that plague Microsoft Windows users. However, recent security issues have made headlines, including a severe hole in the Safari Browser[32] and a "slew of malicious code" including the “Leap” & “Ingtana” worms to infiltrate the system. This has lead some industry analysts and anti-virus companies to issue warnings that Apple's OS X is not immune to viruses. x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Dells, see Dell (disambiguation) Dell Inc. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... Compaq was a personal computer company founded in 1982 by Rod Canion, Jim Harris and Bill Murto. ... Lenovo Group Limited, formerly known as Legend Group Limited, is the largest personal computer manufacturer in the Peoples Republic of China, and as of 2004 is the eighth largest in the world. ... Microsoft Office is a suite of productivity programs created or purchased by Microsoft and developed for Microsoft Windows, and Apple Computers Mac OS and Mac OS X operating systems. ... Malware is software designed to infiltrate or damage a computer system, without the owners consent. ... Antispyware redirects here. ...


Apple has a history of innovation and making bold changes that is met by a strong uptake of software upgrades. The Classic application allowed users to run “old” (Mac OS 9) applications on OS X computers, often as well as they ran natively on Mac OS 9, though without the advantages of a native OS X application. The Apple Intel transition starting in 2006 will not support Classic on new Intel Macs, and purchasers of these computers who are still using Classic applications will have to replace or upgrade this software. The transition will involve the recompilation of most OS X software to maximize performance; in the interim, unmodified OS X applications can run on the Intel chip under the emulation software “Rosetta.” Applications do not run as fast under Rosetta as a normal application. Many analysts have stated that certain high-profile programs, such as those from Adobe Systems, should not be used under Rosetta until native versions are released.[33] This has not stopped other analysts from fully recommending Apple computers, as can be said about reviews for the recent Macbook.[34] [35] [36] [37] Adobe Systems (NASDAQ: ADBE) (LSE: ABS) is an American computer software company headquartered in San Jose, California that was founded in December 1982 by John Warnock and Charles Geschke. ...


For much of its history, up until the PCI-based Power Macs, Macintosh hardware was notoriously closed. Connectors were often proprietary, requiring specialized peripherals or adapter cables, and the hardware architecture was so closely tied to the Mac OS that it was impossible to boot an alternative operating system; the most common workaround, used even by Apple for its A/UX Unix implementation, was to boot into Mac OS and then to hand over control to a program that took over the system and acted as a boot loader. This technique is not necessary on Open Firmware-based PCI Macs, though it was formerly used for convenience on many Old World ROM systems due to bugs in the firmware implementation. Modern Mac hardware boots directly from Open Firmware or EFI, and is not limited to the Mac OS. An Internet payphone loading Windows XP In computing, booting is a bootstrapping process that starts operating systems when the user turns on a computer system. ... Open Firmware (also, OpenBoot) is a hardware-independent firmware (computer software which loads the operating system), developed by Sun Microsystems, and used in post-NuBus PowerPC-based Apple Macintosh computers, Sun Microsystems SPARC based workstations and servers, IBM POWER systems, and PegasosPPC systems, among others. ... Old World ROM Macintosh computers are the Macintosh models that use a Macintosh Toolbox ROM chip, usually in a socket (but soldered to the motherboard in some models). ... Simple depiction of the workings of Extensible Firmware Interface Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) is the name for a system developed by Intel that is designed to replace the aging BIOS system used by personal computers. ...


Litigation

The user interface of the GEM 1.1 desktop was an almost direct copy of the Macintosh's; Apple sued on charges of “look and feel,” and eventually won.
The user interface of the GEM 1.1 desktop was an almost direct copy of the Macintosh's; Apple sued on charges of “look and feel,” and eventually won.

There have been many lawsuits centered around the Macintosh. These generally involve copyright infringement of the computer’s look and feel. Image File history File links Gem 1. ... Image File history File links Gem 1. ... GEM (Graphical Environment Manager) was a windowing system created by Digital Research, Inc. ... From the 1980s to the present Apple Computer has been plaintiff or defendant in notable civil actions in the United States and other countries. ... Copyright infringement (also known as piracy) is the unauthorized use of copyrighted material in a manner that violates one of the copyright owners exclusive rights, such as the right to reproduce or perform the copyrighted work, or to make derivative works that build upon it. ... Look and feel refers to design aspects of a graphical user interface - in terms of both colours, shapes, layout, typefaces, etc (the look); and, the behaviour of dynamic elements such as buttons, boxes, and menus (the feel). It is used in reference to both software and websites. ...


The most notable case involving the Macintosh is Apple Computer, Inc. v. Microsoft Corp.. In 1988, Apple sued Microsoft and Hewlett-Packard on the grounds that they infringed Apple’s copyrighted GUI. Cited, among other things, was the use of rectangular, overlapping, and resizable windows. After four years, Apple lost, and the concept of a GUI was no longer Apple’s. Some say that Apple was at fault because they were hoarding a superior input system that would put all competitors out of business. Others say Microsoft was stealing Apple’s idea, and it would be possible to create a GUI that would not infringe copyright. Apple Computer, Inc. ...


Apple’s actions were criticized by many people in the software community not directly involved in the lawsuits, including the Free Software Foundation (FSF), makers of the open source GNU tools. The FSF characterized the lawsuits as an attempt by Apple Computer to prevent anyone from making a user interface that worked even vaguely like a Macintosh, and called for a boycott of GNU software for the Macintosh platform.[38] The FSF ended its boycott in 1995.[39] Current versions of the Macintosh ship with some GNU tools installed, and the GNU compiler gcc is an integral part of Apple's XCode development platform. The Free Software Foundation logo The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit organization founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ... GNU (pronounced ) is a free software operating system consisting of a kernel, libraries, system tools, compilers and many end-user applications. ... The GNU Compiler Collection (usually shortened to GCC) is a set of programming language compilers produced by the GNU Project. ... Xcode is Apple Computers IDE for developing applications and other software for Mac OS X. It is shipped free with Mac OS X. First introduced on October 24, 2003 along with the release of Mac OS X v10. ...


In 1999, Apple successfully sued eMachines, whose eOne too closely resembled the then-new iMac. Apple also forced Digital Research to alter basic components in its Graphical Environment Manager, the user interface of which was almost a direct copy of the Macintosh’s. eMachines was a maker of low-cost home PCs based in Irvine, California. ... The eOne desktop computer, very similar in appearance to the original Apple iMac. ... Digital Research, Inc. ... GEM (Graphical Environment Manager) was a windowing system created by Digital Research, Inc. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... The history of computing hardware (continued from history of computing hardware) picks up with the development of the integrated circuit. ... Apple Macintosh models grouped by CPU type. ... This list of Apple Macintosh models by case type contains all case designs used by Apple Computer for their Macintosh computers. ... // This list of Macintosh software reveals prominent Mac OS computer programs. ... One of the most popular uses for personal computers worldwide has been the playing of video games, and the Apple Macintosh platform is no different. ... This article is about the community of Macintosh rumors. ...

Further reading

Apple Computer, Inc. ... Jef Raskin outdoors, photographed by his son Aza Raskin. ... Pearson can mean Pearson PLC the media conglomerate. ... The Second Coming of Steve Jobs is a book chronicling the life of Steve Jobs, a co-founder of Apple Computer by Vanity Fair Magazine writer Alan Deutschman. ... Andy Hertzfeld (born April 6, 1953), was a key member of the original Apple Macintosh development team, and some would consider him a pioneer among software engineers. ... OReilly Coat of Arms OReilly is the patronymic form of Reilly. ... Leander Kahney is an editor at Wired News. ... Apple Logo Tattoo The Cult of Mac is a popular term used to refer to the group of Apple Macintosh owners, those who aspire to become one, and those who admire the Macintosh lifestyle. It is also the title of a very popular blog authored by Leander Kahney and hosted... No Starch Press is a publishing company specializing in computer books for the technically savvy, or geek entertainment as they term it. ... Guy Kawasaki (born 1954) was one of the original Apple Computer employees responsible for marketing of the Macintosh in 1984. ... Scott Kelby (born 1960 in Lakeland, Florida) is an American author and publisher of periodicals dealing in Macintosh and Personal Computer software, specifically for design professionals, photographers, and artists. ... Steven Levy is an American journalist who has written several books on computers, technology, cryptography, the Internet, cyber security and privacy. ... Penguin Books is a British publisher founded in 1935 by Allen Lane. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Hertzfeld, Andy. Five different Macintoshes. Retrieved on April 24, 2006.
  2. ^ Hertzfeld, Andy. The father of the Macintosh. Retrieved on April 24, 2006.
  3. ^ Tracy, Ed. History of computer design: Snow White. Retrieved on April 24, 2006.
  4. ^ Apple Computer (October 11, 2005). Apple Reports Fourth Quarter Results. Press release. Retrieved on 2006-04-24.
  5. ^ Apple Computer (June 6, 2005). Apple to Use Intel Microprocessors Beginning in 2006. Press release. Retrieved on 2006-04-24.
  6. ^ Ecker, Clint (January 10, 2006). Transcript of Steve Jobs' keynote at the Macworld Conference and Expo 2006. Ars Technica. Retrieved on April 24, 2006.
  7. ^ Apple Computer (August 2, 2005). Apple Introduces Mighty Mouse. Press release. Retrieved on 2006-07-12.
  8. ^ Apple Computer (October 12, 2005). Apple Introduces the New iMac G5. Press release. Retrieved on 2006-07-12.
  9. ^ Associated Press (March 17, 2006). Hackers get Windows XP to run on a Mac. MSNBC. Retrieved on April 24, 2006.
  10. ^ Apple Computer (April 5, 2006). Apple Introduces Boot Camp. Press release. Retrieved on 2006-04-24.
  11. ^ http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,1759,1636333,00.asp
  12. ^ Apple Computer (January 11, 2005). Apple Announces iLife ’05. Press release. Retrieved on 2006-07-08.
  13. ^ Apple Computer. Apple Macintosh 18 Page Brochure. DigiBarn Computer Museum. Retrieved on April 24, 2006.
  14. ^ Apple Computer. 1984 Newsweek Macintosh ads. GUIdebook, Newsweek. Retrieved on April 24, 2006.
  15. ^ Apple Computer (December 19, 1997). Apple Developer News, No. 87. Retrieved on April 24, 2006.
  16. ^ Computer Industry Almanac Inc. (November 3, 1998). Nearly 600 Million Computers-in-Use in Year 2000. Retrieved on June 1, 2006.
  17. ^ Dalrymple, Jim (March 20, 2005). Apple desktop market share on the rise; will the Mac mini, iPod help?. Macworld. Retrieved on April 24, 2006.
  18. ^ Reimer, Jeremy. Analysis of Google's Zeitgeist reports. pegasus3d.com. Retrieved on April 24, 2006.
  19. ^ MacDailyNews (June 15, 2005). 16-percent of computer users are unaffected by viruses, malware because they use Apple Macs. Retrieved on April 24, 2006.
  20. ^ Gruber, John (July 23, 2003). Market Share. Daring Fireball. Retrieved on April 24, 2006.
  21. ^ Toporek, Chuck (August 22, 2001). Apple, Market Share, and Who Cares?. O'Reilly macdevcenter.com. Retrieved on April 24, 2006.
  22. ^ Zeedar, Marc (June 15, 2001). Market Share Mysteries. macopinion.com. Retrieved on April 24, 2006.
  23. ^ Brockmeier, Joe (May 13, 2003). What Will It Take To Put Apple Back on Top?. NewsFactor Magazine online. Retrieved on April 24, 2006.
  24. ^ McNeill, Kelly (April 11, 2004). The New FUD: Apple Market Share. osviews.com. Retrieved on April 24, 2006.
  25. ^ Spero, Ricky (July 14, 2004). Apple Posts Profit of $61 million; Revenue Jumps 30 Percent. The Mac Observer. Retrieved on April 24, 2006.
  26. ^ Fried, Ian (July 12, 2002). Are Mac users smarter?. news.com. Retrieved on April 24, 2006.
  27. ^ Mossberg, Walt (August 24, 2004). Politics Beyond Platform and Browser for Apple CEO?. AlwaysOn Network, LLC. Retrieved on June 1, 2006.
  28. ^ Apple Computer, Inc. BuyBlue.org. Retrieved on June 1, 2006.
  29. ^ Apple Computer (March 19, 2003). Former Vice President Al Gore Joins Apple's Board of Directors. Press release. Retrieved on 2006-06-01.
  30. ^ Berkshire's Buffett, Apple's Jobs Join Kerry Advisers. Bloomberg L.P.. Retrieved on June 1, 2006.
  31. ^ Gruber, John (June 4, 2004). Broken Windows. Daring Fireball. Retrieved on April 24, 2006.
  32. ^ http://www.eweek.com/article2/0,1895,1929342,00.asp
  33. ^ http://www.creativepro.com/story/feature/23838.html
  34. ^ http://www.mysanantonio.com/business/columnists/pvaughn/stories/MYSA061706.macguy.EN.91d7ced5.html
  35. ^ http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/jun2006/tc20060614_650605.htm?sub=techmaven
  36. ^ http://www.pcworld.com/reviews/article/0,aid,126029,00.asp
  37. ^ http://www.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,1201878,00.html
  38. ^ Free Software Foundation (June 11, 1988). "Special Report: Apple's New Look and Feel". GNU's Bulletin 1 (5). Retrieved on 2006-04-25.
  39. ^ Free Software Foundation (January 1995). "End of Apple Boycott". GNU's Bulletin 1 (18). Retrieved on 2006-04-25.

Andy Hertzfeld (born April 6, 1953), was a key member of the original Apple Macintosh development team, and some would consider him a pioneer among software engineers. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Andy Hertzfeld (born April 6, 1953), was a key member of the original Apple Macintosh development team, and some would consider him a pioneer among software engineers. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Apple Computer, Inc. ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A news release, press release or press statement is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... Apple Computer, Inc. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A news release, press release or press statement is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ars Technicas main page Ars Technica is a for-profit technology-related website catering mostly to computer hardware enthusiasts. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Apple Computer, Inc. ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A news release, press release or press statement is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 172 days remaining. ... Apple Computer, Inc. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A news release, press release or press statement is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 172 days remaining. ... Associated Press logo The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in Leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... MSNBC (a portmanteau of MSN and NBC) is the name of two largely separate operations with a shared history: a 24-hour cable news channel in the United States, and one of the most popular news Web sites. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Apple Computer, Inc. ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A news release, press release or press statement is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... Apple Computer, Inc. ... January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A news release, press release or press statement is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 176 days remaining. ... Apple Computer, Inc. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Apple Computer, Inc. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Apple Computer, Inc. ... December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 58 days remaining. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in Leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... MacWorld magazine (April 2004) Macworld is a monthly computer magazine dedicated to Macintosh products. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Gruber is the creator of Markdown as well as many other tools for bloggers [1]. He also has a popular blog called Daring Fireball. ... July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 161 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Daring Fireball is the web site of John Gruber, a Mac enthusiast, technology pundit, writer and programmer. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 22 is the 234th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (235th in leap years), with 131 days remaining. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (134th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ian Fried is a staff writer for CNET Networks News. ... July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 172 days remaining. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... CNET Networks Inc. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Walt Mossberg is a technology columnist for the Wall Street Journal. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Apple Computer, Inc. ... March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A news release, press release or press statement is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... Bloomberg L.P. is a financial news service founded by Michael Bloomberg in 1981. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Gruber is the creator of Markdown as well as many other tools for bloggers [1]. He also has a popular blog called Daring Fireball. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Daring Fireball is the web site of John Gruber, a Mac enthusiast, technology pundit, writer and programmer. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Free Software Foundation logo The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit organization founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (116th in leap years). ... The Free Software Foundation logo The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit organization founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (116th in leap years). ...

References

April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Andy Hertzfeld (born April 6, 1953), was a key member of the original Apple Macintosh development team, and some would consider him a pioneer among software engineers. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Apple Confidential is a softback book documenting the history of Apple Computer, written by Owen Linzmayer. ... No Starch Press is a publishing company specializing in computer books for the technically savvy, or geek entertainment as they term it. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Apple Macintosh - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7253 words)
Apple struggled to encourage software developers to port software titles to the Macintosh; however, Bill Gates at Microsoft realized that the GUI would become an industry standard, and that his software would sell in large quantity if it were available for the Macintosh.
Apple has introduced a number of innovations in direct relation to the Macintosh 128K that were later adopted by the rest of industry as a standard for the design of computers.
Apple’s actions were criticized by many people in the software community not directly involved in the lawuits, including the Free Software Foundation (FSF), makers of the open source GNU tools.
Apple Computer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6610 words)
Apple's success with the Macintosh became a major influence in the development of graphical interfaces elsewhere, with major computer operating systems such as Microsoft Windows, the Commodore Amiga, Atari ST, all appearing on the market within two years of the introduction of the Macintosh.
Apple progressively abandoned flashy colors in favor of white polycarbonate for consumer lines such as the iMac and iBook, as well as the educational eMac, and metal enclosures for the professional lines.
Apple was one of several highly successful companies founded in the 1970s that bucked the traditional notions of what a corporate culture should look like in terms of organizational hiearchy (flat versus tall), casual versus formal attire, et cetera.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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