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Encyclopedia > Apple ISO9660 Extensions
Optical disc authoring
Optical media types

In computing, optical disc authoring, including CD authoring and DVD authoring, known often as burning, is the process of recording source material—video, audio or other data—onto an optical disc (compact disc or DVD). ... In computing, sound reproduction, and video, an optical disc is flat, circular, usually polycarbonate disc whereon data is stored. ... It has been suggested that ISO image be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with DVD burner. ... Optical disc authoring software is computer software for authoring optical discs including CD-ROMs and DVDs. ... CD and DVD recorders for authoring optical discs such as CD-ROMs and DVDs have a history of various technologies. ... In optical disc authoring, there are multiple modes for recording: Dics At Once and Track At Once. ... Packet writing is an optical disc recording technology used to allow writeable CD-ROM and DVD-ROM media to be used in a similar manner to a floppy disk. ... A compact disc (or CD) is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... A CD-R (Compact Disc-Recordable) is variation of the Compact Disc digital audio disc invented by Philips and Sony. ... Compact Disc ReWritable (CD-RW) is a rewritable optical disc format. ... The official DVD logo. ... A DVD+R disc The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... A DVD+R disc A DVD+R is a writable optical disc with 4. ... DVD+R DL (Double Layer), also known as DVD+R9, is a derivative of the DVD+R format created by the DVD+RW Alliance. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... A spindle with discs of the DVD+RW format A DVD+RW is a rewritable optical disc with equal storage capacity to a DVD+R, typically 4. ... You can recognize a DVD-RAM immediately because visually there are lots of little rectangles distributed on the surface of the data carrier. ... The Rainbow Books are a collection of standards defining the allowed formats of compact discs. ... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... Joliet is the name of an extension to the ISO 9660 file system. ... The Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol (RRIP, IEEE P1282) is an extension to the ISO 9660 volume format which adds POSIX file system semantics. ... The El Torito Bootable CD Specification is an extension to the ISO 9660 CD-ROM specification. ... For other meanings of UDF, see UDF. The Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a format specification of a file system for storing files on optical media. ... Mount Rainier is an expansion to the Universal Disk Format (UDF). ...


Apple Macintosh computers use the HFS (or HFS+) file system on hard disks, mainly. Hierarchical File System (HFS), is a file system developed by Apple Computer for use on computers running Mac OS. Originally designed for use on floppy and hard disks, it can also be found on read-only media such as CD-ROMs. ...

The HFS file system has more properties than FAT file systems (which are mainly used on the Windows operating system) do, for example:

  • date of last backup
  • file type
  • creator code
  • flags and data for display
  • reference to a resource fork

When Apple saw the need to store Macintosh files on CD-ROMs in a way that was still readable by non-Macintosh systems, they chose to use the ISO 9660 format and extended it.

The way the extended information gets stored on an ISO 9660 volume allows a non-aware operating system to still be able to read most of the Macintosh file data.

The result is that the above listed information is simply not visible to the non-aware system, but it would not be able to use that information anyways, most of the time.

External links

  • Apple's Technote FL36 specifying the Apple Extensions to the ISO 9660 format



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