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Encyclopedia > Apple IIGS
Apple IIGS

The Apple IIGS
Type: Desktop
Developer: Apple Computer
Released: September, 1986
Processor(s): 2.8 MHz Western Design Center 65C816 processor
Website: [2]

The Apple IIGS, the fifth model inception of the Apple II, was the most powerful member of the Apple II series of personal computers made by Apple Computer. At the time of its release it had stunning color graphics and state-of-the-art sound capabilities that surpassed those of most other computers, including the black and white Macintosh (apart from a lower vertical resolution). Following in this theme the "GS" in its name officially stood for "Graphics" and "Sound", a reference to its vast enhancement in this area over previous models of the line. Along with its true 16-bit architecture, increased processing speed, direct access to megabytes of RAM and a Graphical User Interface and mouse now standard, the machine was a radical departure from any previous Apple II. While still maintaining full backwards compatibility with earlier Apple II models, along side its new features, it represented a hybrid machine of sorts that blended the Apple II and aspects of Macintosh technology into one. The Apple IIGS set forth a promising future and evolutionary advancement of the Apple II line, but Apple paid it relatively little attention as the company increasingly focused on the Macintosh platform. Image File history File links Apple_IIgs. ... A desktop is the horizontal surface of a desk. ... A software developer is a programmer who is concerned with one or more facets of the software development process, a somewhat broader scope of computer programming. ... Apple Computer, Inc. ... Look up September in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor in a ceramic PGA package A central processing unit (CPU), or sometimes simply processor, is the component in a digital computer that interprets instructions and processes data contained in software. ... The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the SI unit of frequency. ... If you were looking for the Western Digital Corporation, see Western Digital. ... The 65816 Microprocessor (also: 65C816), a 16_bit CPU developed by the Western Design Center (WDC), is an expanded and compatible successor to the venerable MOS Technology 6502. ... Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor in a ceramic PGA package A central processing unit (CPU), or sometimes simply processor, is the component in a digital computer that interprets instructions and processes data contained in software. ... The Apple II was one of the most popular personal computers of the 1980s. ... Apple Computer, Inc. ... The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to 512KB. The Macintosh, or Mac, line of personal computers is designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ... A graphical user interface (or GUI, sometimes pronounced gooey) is a method of interacting with a computer through a metaphor of direct manipulation of graphical images and widgets in addition to text. ... Operating a mechanical 1: Pulling the mouse turns the ball. ...

Contents


Background

The 16-bit Apple IIGS. Offering the first color Graphical User Interface from Apple, as well as advanced graphics and unrivaled sound capabilities.
The 16-bit Apple IIGS. Offering the first color Graphical User Interface from Apple, as well as advanced graphics and unrivaled sound capabilities.

The IIGS was released in September 1986. It was intended to compete with personal computers such as the Commodore Amiga and Atari ST at the time of its release and was somewhat popular with schools, but Apple failed to promote and update the IIGS, preferring to focus on the Macintosh instead. The IIGS lacked compelling features over its competitors and increasingly fell behind other personal computers over its lifetime, and Apple ceased production of it in December 1992. Picture of an Apple IIGS from http://oldcomputers. ... Picture of an Apple IIGS from http://oldcomputers. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Amiga is the name of a range of home/personal computers using the Motorola 68000 processor family, whose development started in 1982. ... The Atari 520ST Atari 1040STF with SC1224 color monitor The Atari ST is a home/personal computer that was commercially popular from 1985 to the early 1990s. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...


Hardware features

The Apple IIGS was an innovative computer with many improvements over the older Apple IIe and Apple IIc. It used the new Western Design Center 65816 16-bit microprocessor running at 2.8 MHz, which was faster than the 8-bit 6502 and 65C02 processors used in earlier Apple IIs and also allowed the IIGS to use more RAM. It also included enhanced graphics and sound, which led to its name. The graphics of the IIGS were the best of the Apple II series, with new Super High Resolution (SHR) video modes. These included a 640×200-pixel mode with 2-bit palletized color and a 320×200-pixel mode with 4-bit palletized color, both of which could dip in to a 4,096 color palette. By changing the palette on each scanline, it was possible to display up to 256 colors or more per screen, which was quite commonly seen within game and graphic design software. Audio was generated by a built-in sound and music synthesizer in the form of the Ensoniq Digital Oscillator Chip (DOC), which had its own dedicated RAM and 32 separate channels of sound, which were paired to produce 15 voices, in stereo audio. The Apple IIe was the third model in the Apple II line of personal computers, produced by Apple Computer. ... The Apple II was one of the most popular personal computers of the 1980s. ... If you were looking for the Western Digital Corporation, see Western Digital. ... The 65816 Microprocessor (also: 65C816), a 16_bit CPU developed by the Western Design Center (WDC), is an expanded and compatible successor to the venerable MOS Technology 6502. ... In computer science, 16-bit is an adjective used to describe integers that are at most two bytes wide, or to describe CPU architectures based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. ... Microprocessors, including an Intel 80486DX2 and an Intel 80386 A microprocessor (sometimes abbreviated µP) is a digital electronic component with miniaturized transistors on a single semiconductor integrated circuit (IC). ... MegaHertz (MHz) is the name given to one million (106) Hertz, a measure of frequency. ... 8-bit refers to the number of bits used in the data bus of a computer. ... The MOS Technology 6502 is an 8-bit microprocessor designed by MOS Technology in 1975. ... The 65C02 Microprocessor is a slightly upgraded version of the popular and venerable MOS_Technology 6502 microprocessor. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In computer science, 4-bit is an adjective used to describe integers, memory addresses or other data units that are at most 4 bits wide, or to describe CPU and ALU architectures based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. ... Ensoniq Corp. ... Sharma Ram (disambiguation) Ram Sharma is an amazing, talented teenager that lives in Canada His talents include rapping, comedy, and cooking He is bound to success! ... Symbol for stereo Stereophonic sound, commonly called stereo, is the reproduction of sound, using two independent audio channels, through a pair of widely separated speaker systems, in such a way as to create a pleasant and natural impression of sound heard from various directions as in natural hearing. ...


The IIGS could support both 5¼-inch and 3½-inch floppy disks and, like the IIe before it, had several expansion slots. These included seven general-purpose expansion slots compatible with those on the Apple II, II+, and IIe, plus a memory expansion slot that could be used to add up to 8 MB of RAM. The IIGS, like the IIc, also had dedicated ports for external devices. These included a port to attach floppy disk drives, two serial ports for devices such as printers and modems (which could also be used to connect to a LocalTalk network), an Apple Desktop Bus port to connect the keyboard and mouse, and composite and RGB video ports. A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a ring of thin, flexible (i. ... MB may mean: MegaByte or Megabit Bachelor of Medicine, an academic degree (Latin Medicinae Baccleureus) Honda MB, a Honda 50 cc motorcycle from the early 1980s Manitoba, Canada: postal code Manned Base, in military parlance Marching Band, a group of people that play instruments while marching in unison to form... A male DE-9 serial port on the rear panel of a PC. In computing, a serial port is an interface on a computer system with which information is transferred in or out one bit at a time (contrast parallel port). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A modem (a portmanteau word constructed from modulator and demodulator) is a device that modulates a carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. ... LocalTalk is a particular implementation of the physical layer of the AppleTalk networking system from Apple Computer. ... Apple Desktop Bus (or ADB) is a bit-serial computer bus for connecting low-speed devices to computers. ... A computer keyboard is a peripheral modeled after the typewriter keyboard. ... Operating a mechanical 1: Pulling the mouse turns the ball. ... Composite video is the format of an analog television (picture only) signal before it is combined with a sound signal and modulated onto an RF carrier. ... The RGB color model utilizes the additive model in which red, green, and blue light are combined in various ways to create other colors. ...


Hardware revisions

Although Apple never introduced a substantially enhanced version of the IIGS after its initial release, it did create several slightly revised hardware versions.

  • The initial version, often known as the "ROM 0," was the one introduced in September 1986.
  • In September 1987, a slightly revised version known as the "ROM 01" was introduced. This included updated ROM routines, and ROM 0 machines could be updated to ROM 01 by replacing the computer's ROM chip with an updated one. (Some ROM 0 machines also included faulty Video Graphics Controller chips which were replaced when performing the ROM 01 upgrade.) Authorized Apple dealers could perform the upgrade from ROM 0 to ROM 01. ROM 01 is the minimum version needed to run later versions of the Apple IIGS System Software based on GS/OS rather than ProDOS 16.
  • The final released hardware revision was known as the "ROM 3," which came out in August 1989. The ROM 3 IIGS included a revised motherboard, so it was not possible to upgrade earlier machines to it by replacing chips. It included more updates to the software included in the ROM, as well as an improved motherboard design featuring 1 MB of built-in RAM rather than 256 KB (although all revisions could be upgraded to a total of 8 MB). The motherboard design was also designed to increase audio quality and allow more power to be delivered to cards in the expansion slots.
  • Some work was done on a "ROM 4" design featuring more features integrated onto the motherboard and into the case, but it was never released (although a few individuals outside of Apple did obtain prototypes). This model, called variously the Apple IIGS+, the ROM 4, or "Mark Twain" (after his famous misquote regarding the exaggeration of his death), had an internal floppy and SCSI hard drive, and included two 30-pin SIMM sockets for memory expansion. It ran at the same 2.8 MHz as preceding IIGS hardware versions.

Hardware versions from ROM 01 onward display the ROM version at the bottom of the screen when starting up. Read-only memory (ROM) is a class of storage media used in computers and other electronic devices. ... In computing, GS/OS is the second operating system developed by Apple Computer for its Apple IIGS computer system. ... For Australian-based Objectivist Prodos Marinakis and the prodos institute, see here. ... Mark Twain Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was a famous American humorist, novelist, writer and lecturer. ...


Graphics modes

In addition to supporting all graphics modes of previous Apple II models, the Apple IIGS introduced several new ones through a custom Video Graphics Chip (VGC), all of which used a 12-bit palette for a total of 4096 possible colors, though not all 4096 colors could appear onscreen at the same time.

  • 320×200 pixels with a single palette of 16 colors.
  • 320×200 pixels with up to 16 palettes of 16 colors. In this mode, the VGC holds 16 separate palettes of 16 colors in its own memory. Each of the 200 scan lines can be assigned any one of these palettes allowing for up to 256 colors on the screen at once. This mode is handled entirely by the VGC with no CPU assistance, making it perfect for games and high-speed animation.
  • 320×200 pixels with up to 200 palettes of 16 colors. In this mode, the CPU assists the VGC in swapping palettes in and out of the video memory so that each scan line can have its own palette of 16 colors allowing for up to 3200 colors on the screen at once. This mode is computationally-intensive however, and is only suitable for viewing graphics or in paint programs.
  • 320×200 pixels with 15 colors per palette, plus a "fill mode" color. In this mode, color 0 in the palette is replaced by the last non-zero color pixel displayed on the scan line (to the left), allowing fast solid-fill graphics (drawn with only the outlines).
  • 640×200 pixels with four pure colors. This mode is generally only used for ensuring that the Apple logo and menu bar retain their colors in Desktop applications.
  • 640×200 pixels with 16 dithered colors. In this mode, two palettes of four pure colors each are used in alternating columns. The hardware then dithers the colors of adjacent pixels to create 16 total colors on the screen. This mode is generally used for programs requiring finer detail such as word processors and the Finder.

Each scan line on the screen could independently select either 320- or 640-mode, fill mode (320-mode only), and any of the 16 palettes, allowing graphics modes to be mixed on the screen. This is most often seen in graphics programs where the menu bar is constantly in 640-pixel resolution and the working area's mode can be changed depending on the user's needs.


Like other Apple and Mac computers, the IIGS lacked sprites. In computer graphics, a sprite is a two-dimensional image or animation that is integrated into a larger scene. ...


Later on, video cards such as Sequential Systems' Second Sight added SVGA modes allowing 24-bit color to the Apple IIGS. Super Video Graphics Array, almost always abbreviated to Super VGA or just SVGA is a broad term that covers a wide range of computer display standards. ...


Audio features

The Apple IIGS' sound was provided by an included Ensoniq 5503 DOC wavetable sound chip, the same chip used in Ensoniq's Mirage and ESQ-1 professional-grade synthesizers. The chip allowed for 32 separate channels of sound, though most software paired them into 16 stereo voices, as did most of the standard tools of the operating system (the MIDISynth Tool Set grouped 4 channels per voice, for a limit of 7-voice audio). The IIGS is often referred to as a fifteen-voice system, though, since one stereo voice is reserved by the OS at all times for timing and system sounds. Software that doesn't use the OS, or uses custom-programmed tools (most games and demos do this), can access the chip directly and take advantage of all 32 voices.


A standard 1/8" headphone jack was provided on the back of the case, and standard stereo computer speakers could be attached there. However, it provided only mono sound through this jack, and a third party adapter card was required to produce true two-channel stereo, despite the fact the Ensoniq and virtually all native software produced stereo audio (stereo audio was essentially built-in to the machine, but had to be demultiplexed by third party cards).


Expansion capabilities

The IIGS was highly expandable. The expansion slots could be used for a variety of purposes, greatly increasing the computer's capabilities. SCSI host adaptors could be used to connect external SCSI devices such as hard drives and CD-ROM drives. Other mass storage devices such as adaptors supporting internal 2.5-inch IDE hard drives could also be used. Another common class of expansion cards was accelerator cards replacing the computer's original processor with a faster one. A variety of other cards were also produced, including ones allowing new technologies such as 10BASE-T Ethernet and CompactFlash cards to be used on the IIGS. SCSI stands for Small Computer System Interface, and is a standard interface and command set for transferring data between devices on both internal and external computer buses. ... 10BASE-T cable 10BASE-T cable and jackll 10BASE-T is an implementation of Ethernet which hunnolululu allows stations to be attached via twisted pair cable. ... It has been suggested that IEEE 802. ... A 64 MB CompactFlash Type I card CompactFlash (CF) was originally a type of data storage device, used in portable electronic devices. ...


Development and codenames

Apple's first internal project to develop a next-generation Apple II based on the 65816 was known as the "IIx." The IIx project, though, became bogged down when it attempted to include various coprocessors allowing it to emulate other computer systems. Early samples on the 65816 were also problematic. These problems led to the cancellation of the IIx project, but somewhat later a new project was formed to produce an updated Apple II. This project, which led to the released IIGS, was known by various codenames while the new system was being developed, including "Phoenix," "Rambo," "Gumby," and "Cortland."


Influence on later computers

The Apple Desktop Bus, which for a long time was the standard for most input peripherals for the Macintosh, first appeared on the Apple IIGS.


Though including a professional-grade sound chip in the Apple IIGS was hailed by developers and users both, and hopes were high that it would be added to the Macintosh, it drew a lawsuit by Apple Records. As part of an earlier trademark dispute with the record company, Apple Computer had agreed not to release music-related products. Apple Records considered the inclusion of the Ensoniq chip in the IIGS as a violation of that agreement. Though the IIGS was allowed to keep the Ensoniq, Apple has not included dedicated hardware sound synthesizers in any of its Macintosh models (though of course, third-party products exist). Apple Records logo, featuring a Granny Smith apple. ... Apple Computer, Inc. ...


Software features

Broadly speaking, software that runs on the Apple IIGS can be divided into two major categories: 8-bit software compatible with earlier Apple II systems such as the IIe and IIc, and 16-bit IIGS-specific software, most of which runs under the Apple IIGS System Software and takes advantage of its advanced features, including a Macintosh-like graphical user interface. A graphical user interface (or GUI, sometimes pronounced gooey) is a method of interacting with a computer through a metaphor of direct manipulation of graphical images and widgets in addition to text. ...


8-bit Apple II compatibility

The Apple IIGS was almost completely backward compatible with older Apple II computers, so users wouldn't be left with large libraries of useless software. The IIGS could run all of Apple's earlier Apple II operating systems: Apple DOS, ProDOS 8, and Apple Pascal. It was also compatible with nearly all 8-bit software running under those systems. Like the Apple II+, IIe, and IIc, the IIGS also included Applesoft BASIC and a monitor (which could be used for very simple assembly language programming) in ROM, so they could be used even with no operating system loaded from disk. Early computers lacked operating systems. ... Beneath Apple DOS was a popular guide to Apple DOS. Apple DOS refers to operating systems for the Apple II series of microcomputers from 1978 through early 1983. ... For Australian-based Objectivist Prodos Marinakis and the prodos institute, see here. ... Apple Pascal refers to an operating system for the Apple II family of computers released in August of 1979 between the Apple DOS 3. ...


Apple IIGS System Software

The Apple IIGS System Software utilized a graphical user interface (GUI) very similar to that of the Apple Macintosh and somewhat like GEM for PCs and the operating systems of contemporary Atari and Amiga computers. Initial versions of the System Software were based on the ProDOS 16 operating system, which was based on the original ProDOS operating system for 8-bit Apple II computers. Although it was modified so that 16-bit Apple IIGS software could run on it, ProDOS 16 was written largely in 8-bit code and did not take full advantage of the IIGS's capabilities. Later System Software versions (starting with version 4.0) replaced ProDOS 16 with a new 16-bit operating system known as GS/OS. It better utilized the unique capabilities of the IIGS and included many valuable new features. The Apple IIGS System Software was substantially enhanced and expanded over the years during which it was developed, culminating in its final version, System 6.0.1, which was released in 1993. GEM 1. ... For Australian-based Objectivist Prodos Marinakis and the prodos institute, see here. ... In computing, GS/OS is the second operating system developed by Apple Computer for its Apple IIGS computer system. ...


Graphical user interface

The IIGS system software provided a mouse-driven graphical user interface using concepts such as windows, menus, and icons. This was implemented by a '"toolbox" of code, some of which resided in the computer's ROM and some of which was loaded from disk. The IIGS GUI was very similar to that of early Macintoshes. One major application could run at a time, although other smaller programs known as Desk Accessories could be used simultaneously. The IIGS had a Finder application very similar to the Macintosh's, which allowed the user to manipulate files and launch applications. By default, the Finder was displayed when the computer started up and whenever the user quit an application that had been started from it, although the startup application could be changed by the user. Operating a mechanical 1: Pulling the mouse turns the ball. ... An example of a graphical user interface in Windows XP, with the My Music window displayed A window is a visual area, usually rectangular in shape, containing some kind of user interface, displaying the output of and allowing input for one of a number of simultaneously running computer processes. ...

The IIGS Finder allows easy exploration of disks' contents. New Desk Accessories such as the Calculator can be run at the same time as applications such as the Finder.
The IIGS Finder allows easy exploration of disks' contents. New Desk Accessories such as the Calculator can be run at the same time as applications such as the Finder.

Screenshot of Apple IIgs Finder desktop (large) This is a screenshot of copyrighted computer software. ... Screenshot of Apple IIgs Finder desktop (large) This is a screenshot of copyrighted computer software. ...

Extensibility

The IIGS System Software could be extended through various mechanisms. New Desk Accessories were small programs ranging from a calculator to simple word processors that could be used while running any standard desktop application. Classic Desk Accessories also served as small programs available while running other applications, but they used the text screen and could be accessed even from non-desktop applications. Control Panels and initialization files were other mechanisms that allowed various functions to be added to the system. Finder Extras permitted new capabilities to be added to the Finder, drivers could be used to support new hardware devices, and users could also add "tools" that provided various functions that other programs could utilize easily. These features could be used to provide features never planned for by the system's designers, such as a TCP/IP stack known as "Marinetti." A word processor (also more formally known as a document preparation system) is a computer application used for the production (including composition, editing, formatting, and possibly printing) of any sort of viewable or printed material. ... The Internet Protocol Suite is the set of communications protocols that implement the protocol stack on which the Internet and most commercial networks run. ...


Multitasking Capability

An interesting feature of the IIGS was that multitasking was possible. A UNIX-like multitasking kernel was produced, called GNO/ME, which ran under the GUI and provided preemptive multitasking. In addition, a system called The Manager could be used to make the Finder more like the one on the Macintosh, allowing major software (other than just the "accessory" programs) to run simultaneously through cooperative multitasking.


Trivia

  • The first 50,000 Apple IIGS's manufactured had a commemorative case lid marked "Limited Edition" with a reproduced copy of Steve Wozniak's signature ("Woz") above it.
  • Owners of the Limited Edition, after mailing in their Apple registration card, were mailed back a Certificate of Authenticity and a (copied) letter from Steve Wozinak.
  • Internal code names for the machine included: "Gumby", "Rambo", "Phoenix", "Cortland" and "Apple IIx".
  • John Carmack, founder of id Software, started his career by writing commercial software for the Apple IIGS. The same is true of John Romero and Tom Hall.
  • Wolfenstein 3D, based on the Apple II originated game Castle Wolfenstein, came full circle back to the Apple II series when it was released for the Apple IIGS in 1998.
  • Two mainstream video games, Zany Golf and The Immortal, originated as Apple IIGS-specific games that were later ported to several platforms due to their immense popularity.
  • Naughty Dog, the well known Playstation game developer, started as an Apple IIGS game software company.
  • Pangea Software, one of the most well known and popular Macintosh game developers, started as an Apple IIGS game software company.
  • The first computer produced by Apple Computer to use a color Graphical User Interface.
  • The first computer at Apple to introduce the "Platinum" (light grey) color scheme.
  • The first computer to use the Apple Desktop Bus interface for keyboards, mice and other input devices.
  • The machine outsold all other Apple products, including the Macintosh, during its first year in production.
  • A hidden easter egg (activated by Command-Option-Control-N) lists the development team on screen, and even a digitized "Apple II!" shout from them on the ROM 3.
  • Rumors of several vastly enhanced prototypes built over the years at Apple but never released. Only one, "The Mark Twain", has been revealed so far.
  • VTech, makers of the Laser series, demonstrated a prototype of a more powerful Apple IIGS compatible in 1989. It was never released due to licensing issues with Apple.
  • A project called "Avatar" in the early 90's promised a 32-bit state of the art machine that was backwards compatible with the Apple IIGS. It was never finished or released.
  • Cirtech started work on, but never completed, a black and white Macintosh hardware emulation plug-in card for the Apple IIGS dubbed "Duet".
  • Between the late 80's to early 90's, the Apple IIGS developed its own Demoscene very similar in vein to that of the Amiga and Atari ST, albeit much smaller and lesser known.
  • During its introduction, Apple sold a specialized set of Bose Roommate speakers that were platinum colored with the Apple logo next to the Bose on each front speaker grille.
  • Sharing the same 65C816 processor as the Super Nintendo, many early programmers used the Apple IIGS as a Super Nintendo game development platform to write code on.
  • Bob Yannes, creator of the SID synthesizer chip used in the Commodore 64, went on to design the Ensoniq 5503 DOC synthesizer used in the Apple IIGS.

John Carmack circa 2004 John D. Carmack II (born August 20, 1970) is a widely recognized figure in the video game industry. ... id Software is a computer game developer based in Mesquite, Texas, a suburb of Dallas. ... Romero with short hair Alfonso John Romero (born October 28, 1967) is a famous figure in the computer gaming industry. ... Tom Hall Tom Hall is a game designer born in Wisconsin. ... Wolfenstein 3D (commonly abbreviated to Wolf 3D) is the computer game that started the first person shooter genre on the PC. It was created by id Software and published by Apogee Software on May 5, 1992. ... Zany Golf, also known as Will Harveys Zany Golf, is an off-the-wall, whimsical fantasy take on a miniature golf computer game, developed by Sandcastle Productions and published by Electronic Arts. ... The Immortal is a story by Jorge Luis Borges about a character who mistakenly achieves immortality and then, weary of a long life, struggles to lose it and writes an account of his experiences. ... Naughty Dog is a video game company founded by Andy Gavin and Jason Rubin. ... The PlayStation is a video game console of the 32/64-bit era, first produced by Sony Computer Entertainment in the mid 1990s. ... Pangea Software is a Mac game company that was formed in late 1987. ... Macintosh can refer to: Apple Macintosh (computer) Charles Macintosh (Scottish inventor) Mackintosh (raincoat) The Scottish clan Mackintosh or MacIntosh McIntosh (apple cultivar) The town of McIntosh, Alabama The hi-fi manufacturer McIntosh Laboratory This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same... A graphical user interface (or GUI, sometimes pronounced gooey) is a method of interacting with a computer through a metaphor of direct manipulation of graphical images and widgets in addition to text. ... Apple Desktop Bus (or ADB) is a bit-serial computer bus for connecting low-speed devices to computers. ... Macintosh can refer to: Apple Macintosh (computer) Charles Macintosh (Scottish inventor) Mackintosh (raincoat) The Scottish clan Mackintosh or MacIntosh McIntosh (apple cultivar) The town of McIntosh, Alabama The hi-fi manufacturer McIntosh Laboratory This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same... Prototypes or prototypical instances combine the most representative attributes of a category. ... Video Technology Ltd. ... 32-bit is a term applied to processors, and computer architectures which manipulate the address and data in 32-bit chunks. ... Macintosh can refer to: Apple Macintosh (computer) Charles Macintosh (Scottish inventor) Mackintosh (raincoat) The Scottish clan Mackintosh or MacIntosh McIntosh (apple cultivar) The town of McIntosh, Alabama The hi-fi manufacturer McIntosh Laboratory This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same... This article is about emulation in computer science. ... The demoscene is a computer subculture that came to prominence during the rise of the 16/32-bit micros (the Atari ST and the Amiga), but demos first appeared during the 8-bit era on computers such as the Commodore 64 and ZX Spectrum. ... The original Amiga (1985) The Amiga is a family of home/personal computers originally developed by Amiga Corporation as an advanced game console. ... The Atari 520ST Atari 1040STF with SC1224 color monitor The Atari ST is a home/personal computer that was commercially popular from 1985 to the early 1990s. ... Bose or Bosé may refer to: People: (Bose is a Bengali, German, or Italian surname) Amar Bose, MIT professor; founder of the Bose Corporation Jagdish Chandra Bose, Indian physicist Rahul Bose, Indian actor Satyendra Nath Bose, 20th century physicist Subhash Chandra Bose (aka Netaji), a leader of the Indian independence... The W65816 (also: 65C816), a 16-bit microprocessor developed by the Western Design Center (WDC), is an expanded and compatible successor to the venerable MOS Technology 6502. ... The European SNES design is identical to the Super Famicom. ... MOS Technology SIDs: The right image shows a 6581 from MOS Technology, at the time they were known as the Commodore Semiconductor Group (CSG) and the left image shows an 8580 from MOS Technology. ... For the hip hop group, see Commodore 64 (band). ... Ensoniq Corp. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Apple IIgs demos - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (453 words)
The Apple IIgs demoscene goes back to the days of the original Apple II series in the 1980s, when software crackers would put "signature screens" at the beginnings of games of which they had broken the copy protection.
However, a scene in the true sense of the word didn't emerge until the introduction of the Apple IIgs and its high-quality (for the time) graphics and sound capabilities.
Most IIgs demos were self-booting 800K 3.5" disks, often created with unique booting software that allowed for loading and playing of the demo within seconds of turning the computer's power on.
Apple IIGS - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2973 words)
The Apple II, the fifth model inception of the Apple II, was the most powerful member of the Apple II series of personal computers made by Apple Computer.
Apple's first internal project to develop a next-generation Apple II based on the 65816 was known as the "IIx." The IIx project, though, became bogged down when it attempted to include various coprocessors allowing it to emulate other computer systems.
Apple Records considered the inclusion of the Ensoniq chip in the II as a violation of that agreement.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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