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Encyclopedia > Apple Advanced Typography

Apple Computer has been attentive to the typefaces used in its marketing, operating systems and industrial design. It has developed font technology, and controls several patents important to the implementation of high-quality typeface rendering on computers. Apple Computer, Inc. ... In typography, a typeface is a co-ordinated set of character designs, which usually comprises an alphabet of letters, a set of numerals and a set of punctuation marks. ... Traditionally, Marketing has been a term applied to the craft of linking the producers (or potential producers) of a product or service with customers, both existing and potential. ... In computing, an operating system (OS) is the system software responsible for the direct control and management of hardware and basic system operations. ... Industrial Design is an applied art whereby the aesthetics and usability of products may be improved. ... A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a government to an inventor or applicant for a limited amount of time (normally maximum 20 years from the filing date, depending on extension). ...

Contents

Corporate fonts and brand identity

For at least 18 years, Apple's corporate font was a custom variant of the ITC Garamond typeface, called Apple Garamond. It was used alongside the Apple logo, for product names on computers, in countless ads, printed materials and on the company website. Since 2001, Apple has gradually shifted towards using Myriad in its marketing. Various examples of Garamond There are several typefaces called Garamond. ... A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface/font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Myriad is a typeface designed by Robert Slimbach and Carol Twombly. ...


Motter Tektura

Prior to the first Macintosh, Apple used a typeface called Motter Tektura, designed by Otmar Motter of Voralberger Graphic in 1975, to accompany the Apple logo with a bite taken out of it. At the time, the typeface was considered new and modern. It was distributed by Letraset. An early Apple Computer logo, white on red. ... 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... Screentone is a generic name for a drafting technique for applying various textures to surfaces from a specially preprinted sheet. ...


The type merged well with the Apple logo; The minuscle a of apple computer inc., appeared to come out of the bite. One modification to the typeface was that the dot over the i was removed.


According to the logo designer, Rob Janoff, the typeface was selected for its playful qualities and techno look, in line with Apple's mission statement of making high-technology accessible to anyone. Janoff designed the logo in 1976, while working at an advertising agency in Palo Alto called Regis McKenna. 1976 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... An advertising agency or ad agency is a service business dedicated to creating, planning and handling advertising (and sometimes other forms of promotion) for their clients. ... Downtown Palo Alto Palo Alto is a city in Santa Clara County, in the San Francisco Bay Area of California, USA. Palo Alto is located at the northern end of the Silicon Valley, and is home to Stanford University (which is technically located in an adjacent area — Stanford, California), and...


In the early 1980s, the logo was simplified by removing computer inc. from the logo. Motter Tektura was also used for the Apple II logo. This typeface has sometimes been mislabeled as Cupertino, a similar bitmap font, probably created to mimic Motter Tektura. Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 1960s and 1970s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ... The Apple II was one of the most popular personal computers of the 1980s. ...


Apple Garamond

At the time of the introduction of the Macintosh in 1984, Apple adopted a new corporate font called Apple Garamond. It was a narrow variation of the classic Garamond typeface. Specifically, ITC Garamond (created by Tony Stan in 1977) was condensed to 80% of its normal width. Presumably, Apple felt that the existing ITC Garamond Condensed, at 64%, was too narrow. Bitstream condensed the font and subtly adjusted the stroke widths and performed the hinting required to create a TrueType font which was then delivered to Apple as "apgaram." Macintosh, also known as Mac, is a family of personal computers manufactured by Apple Computer, Inc. ... 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Typeface Corporation is a company that develops and provides a library of typefaces. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... Bitstream Inc. ...

Apple Garamond was used in most of Apple's marketing.

In cases when the Apple logo was accompanied by text, it was always set in Apple Garamond. Aside from the company name, most of Apple's advertising and marketing slogans such as "Think different." used the font as well. The text Think Different. ... The text Think Different. ...


This typeface was virtually synonymous with Apple for almost two decades and a large part of Apple's excellent brand recognition. It was not only used in conjunction with the logo, but also in manuals, ads and to label products with model names. This article is about brands in marketing. ...


Apple has kept Apple Garamond to themselves, but briefly sold ITC Garamond NarrowApple Garamond without the custom hinting — as part of the "Apple Font Pack" in the 1990s. A version of the font was also included, hidden away under a different name, in some versions of Mac OS X prior to 10.3, since it was used by the Setup Assistant installation program. See List of fonts in Mac OS X for more information on how the font can be extracted. Events and trends Technology Explosive growth of the Internet; decrease in the cost of computers and other technology Reduction in size and cost of mobile phones leads to a massive surge in their popularity Year 2000 problem (commonly known as Y2K) Microsoft Windows operating system becomes virtually ubiquitous on IBM... This list of fonts contains every font shipped with Mac OS 10. ...


Many typographers consider ITC Garamond in general, and Apple Garamond in particular, to be poorly designed typefaces. ITC Garamond is frequently called a "pastiche," or a "Garamond in name only" that has little to do with the 16th century typefaces that supposedly inspired it. Another common view is that the algorithmic scaling distorted the typeface. Otl Aicher John Baskerville Morris Fuller Benton Giambattista Bodoni Max Caflisch Matthew Carter William Caslon Wim Crouwel Michael Everson Adrian Frutiger Claude Garamond Zygfryd Gardzielewski Eric Gill Johannes Gutenberg Tibor Kalman Donald Knuth Rudolf Koch Günter Gerhard Lange Aldus Manutius Stanley Morison Adam Półtawski Herbert Post Paul Renner Mark Shoulson... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...


Apple Myriad

Adobe's Myriad is the typeface which is used in Apple's modern marketing.

Apple changed the name of their licensed version of the typeface when they had the format of the fonts converted to TrueType for their internal use. In 2002, Apple gradually started using the Apple Myriad font family in its marketing and packaging. As new revisions of its products were released, the text changed from the serif Apple Garamond to the sans-serif Apple Myriad. The family's bolds are used for headlines, and other weights are also used accordingly. The Myriad font family was designed by Robert Slimbach and Carol Twombly for Adobe. Adobe's most recent version of Myriad is "Myriad Pro," which has some additional enhancements and character set extensions, but is not significantly changed in design. iPod. ... iPod. ... Adobe Systems ( NASDAQ: ADBE) is a computer software company headquartered in San Jose, California that was founded in December 1982 by John Warnock and Charles Geschke. ... Myriad (typeface) - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Adobe Systems ( NASDAQ: ADBE) is a computer software company headquartered in San Jose, California that was founded in December 1982 by John Warnock and Charles Geschke. ...


While Apple Myriad is used the most, for titles and eye-catching slogans, some text is set in Helvetica Neue. Helvetica is a typeface developed by Max Miedinger in 1957 for the Haas’sche Schriftgießerei type foundry of Switzerland. ...


Other fonts used in Apple's marketing

Apple's first logo, drawn by Ron Wayne.

Prior to adopting the bitten Apple as its logo, Apple used a complicated logo featuring Isaac Newton sitting below an apple tree. The words APPLE COMPUTER CO. were drawn on a ribbon banner ornamenting the picture frame. The logo was hand-drawn and thus did not use an established font. However, the type is similar to Caslon, with some idiosyncratic details, such as an R deviating from the general style. Apples absolute first logo, pre 1976. ... Apples absolute first logo, pre 1976. ... Sir Isaac Newton in Knellers 1689 portrait Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727 by the Julian calendar in use in England at the time; or 4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727 by the Gregorian calendar) was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, and alchemist who wrote... Species Malus domestica Malus sieversii The apple is the pomaceous fruit of trees of the genus Malus in the family Rosaceae, and is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits. ...


In the marketing of the Newton PDA, Apple chose to experiment with Gill Sans instead of the regular Apple Garamond. Gill Sans Regular was used in the logo, for the model name on the computer, the keyboard and in advertisement materials, though it was not used as a screen font (except for as part of the Newton logo). Gill Sans was originally designed by Eric Gill around 19271929 for the Monotype Corporation. Newton was one of the worlds first personal digital assistants (PDA). ... Palm IIIxe PDA Personal digital assistants (PDAs or palmtops) are handheld devices that were originally designed as personal organizers, but became much more versatile over the years. ... Gill Sans is a sans-serif typeface created by Eric Gill and published by the Monotype Corporation between 1928 and 1930. ... Events January 7 - First transatlantic telephone call - New York City to London January 9 - Military rebellion crushed in Lisbon January 14 - Paul Doumer elected president of France January 19 - Britain sends troops to China February 12 - First British troops lad on Shanghai February 14 - Earthquake in Yugoslavia - 700 dead February... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Currently Monotype Imaging, Inc, a typesetting and typeface design company responsible for many developments in printing technology — in particular the Monotype machine which was the first fully mechanical typesetter — and the design and production of typefaces in the 19th and 20th centuries. ...


Fonts of the original Macintosh

With one exception, the fonts included with the original Macintosh were designed by Susan Kare, who also was responsible for most of the other details of the user interface. An illustration of the fonts available for the original Apple Macintosh. ... The Macintosh 128K Personal Computer was the original Apple Macintosh. ... Susan Kare, PhD (from New York University (NYU) in Fine Arts), became the original designer of many of the interface elements for the original Apple Macintosh after she received a call from friend Andy Hertzfeld in 1983. ...


The Macintosh was unique for its ability to use characters of different widths, often referred to as proportional fonts. Previously, most computer systems were limited to using monospace, requiring for example 'i' and 'm' to be exactly the same width. True outline fonts had yet to make an entrance in the personal computer arena, at least for screen use, so all the original Mac's typefaces were bitmaps. The word proportionality may have one of a number of meanings: In mathematics, proportionality is a mathematical relation between two quantities. ... In typography, a typeface is a co-ordinated set of character designs, which usually comprises an alphabet of letters, a set of numerals and a set of punctuation marks. ... An assortment of bitmap fonts from the first version of the Macintosh operating system A bitmap font is one that stores each glyph as an array of pixels (that is, a bitmap). ...


Naming

After designing the first few fonts, the team decided they needed to adopt a naming-convention. First, they settled on using the names of stops along the Paoli, Pennsylvania commuter train line: Overbrook, Merion, Ardmore, and Rosemont. Steve Jobs had liked the idea of using cities as the names, but they had to be "world class" cities [1] (http://folklore.org/StoryView.py?project=Macintosh&story=World_Class_Cities.txt&sortOrder=Sort%20by%20Date&detail=medium&search=world%20class), and so the naming-convention of using the names of world cities was chosen. Paoli is a census-designated place located in Tredyffrin Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania, and is considered to be the largest town in that township. ... A Connex commuter train stands by the platform in Melbourne, Australia Regional rail systems, or commuter rail systems, usually provide a rail service through a central business district area into suburbs or other locations that draw large numbers of people on a daily basis. ... Steve Jobs Steven Paul Jobs (born February 24, 1955) is the CEO of Apple Computer and a leading figure in the computer industry. ...


Variants

A number of different variants of each font were algorithmically generated on-the-fly from the standard fonts. Bold, italic, outlined, underlined and shadowed variations were the most common. Image:Mac font variants. ... Flowcharts are often used to represent algorithms. ...


The Apple logo

Apple's fonts, and the MacRoman character set, include a solid Apple logo. One reason for including a trademark in a font is that the copyright status of fonts and typefaces is a complicated and uncertain matter. Trademark law, on the other hand, is much stronger. Third parties cannot include the Apple logo in fonts without permission from Apple. Apple states in the MacRoman to Unicode mapping file, that: The Mac OS Roman character set Mac-Roman encoding is a one byte character encoding system, traditionally used by Mac OS. In Mac OS X, it has been replaced with Unicode. ... A character encoding is a code that pairs a set of characters (such as an alphabet or syllabary) with a set of something else, such as numbers or electrical pulses. ...

NOTE: The graphic image associated with the Apple logo character is not authorized for use without permission of Apple, and unauthorized use might constitute trademark infringement.

On regular U.S. QWERTY keyboards, the logo character can be typed using the key combination option+shift+K (⌥+⇧+K). In MacRoman, the Apple logo has a hex value of 0xF0. The Apple logo has not been assigned a dedicated Unicode codepoint, but Apple uses 0xF8FF in the private plane. The QWERTY Layout QWERTY is the modern-day layout of letters on most English language computer and typewriter keyboards. ... In mathematics, hexadecimal or simply hex is a numeral system with a radix or base of 16 usually written using the symbols 0–9 and A–F or a–f. ...


List

  • Cairo was a bitmap dingbat font, most famous for the dogcow at the z character position.
  • Chicago (sans-serif) was the default Macintosh system font in System 1–7.6. Now seen on iPod LCD screens.
  • Geneva (sans-serif) is designed for small point sizes and prevalent in all versions of the Mac user interface.
  • London (blackletter) was an Old English-style font.
  • Los Angeles (script) was a thin font that emulated handwriting.
  • Monaco (sans-serif, monospaced) is a fixed-width font well-suited for 9–12 pt use.
  • New York (serif) was a Times Roman-inspired font.
  • San Francisco was a whimsical font where each character looked as if it was a cut-out from a newspaper.
  • Venice (script) was a calligraphic font designed by Bill Atkinson.

For the use of the term raster in radio regulation, see frequency raster. ... A dingbat is a ornament or spacer used in typesetting, sometimes more formally known as a printers ornament. The term supposedly originated as onomatopoeia in old style metal-type print shops, where extra space around text or illustrations would be filled by dinging an ornament into the space... The Dogcow The Dogcow is a bitmapped image first introduced by Apple Computer. ... Chicago is a sans-serif font designed by Susan Kare for Apple Computer. ... In typography, serifs are the small features at the end of strokes within letters. ... Macintosh, also known as Mac, is a family of personal computers manufactured by Apple Computer, Inc. ... Mac OS, which stands for Macintosh Operating System, is Apple Computer’s name for the operating systems for Macintosh computers. ... A fourth-generation iPod with earphones. ... A point is a unit of measure in typography. ... In typography, serifs are the small features at the end of strokes within letters. ... Times Roman is a body text, serifed typeface. ... Calligraphy in a Latin Bible of 1407 AD on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... Bill Atkinson worked at Apple Computer in the late 1970s and early 1980s. ...

Important fonts for the classic Mac OS

Several of the bitmap fonts from the original system were converted into outline TrueType fonts.


Fonts in Mac OS X

See also: List of fonts in Mac OS X This list of fonts contains every font shipped with Mac OS 10. ...


The primary system font in Mac OS X (all versions) is Lucida Grande. For labels and other small text, 10 pt Lucida Grande is typically used. Lucida Grande is almost identical in appearance to the prevalent Windows font Lucida Sans, but contains a much richer variety of glyphs. Mac OS X is the latest version of the Mac OS, the operating system software for Macintosh computers. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Typefaces | Stub ... A glyph is a carved figure or character, incised or in relief; a carved pictograph; hence, a pictograph representing a form originally adopted for sculpture, whether carved or painted. ...


Mac OS X ships with a number of high-quality typefaces, for a number of different scripts, licensed from several sources. According to Apple, Mac OS X "includes over $10,000 worth of high quality Roman, Japanese and Chinese fonts". It also supports sophisticated font techniques, such as ligatures and filtering. The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world, the standard script of the English language and most of the languages of western and central Europe, and of those areas settled by Europeans. ... In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more letterforms are written or printed as a unit. ...


Many of the classic Mac typefaces included with previous versions are not part of Mac OS X. The serif typefaces New York, Palatino, and Times were dropped, as were the sans-serif Charcoal and Chicago, while the sans-serif Monaco, Geneva and Helvetica remained. Courier, a monospaced font, also remained.


In the initial publicly released version of Mac OS X (March 2001), font support for scripts was limited to what was provided by Lucida Grande and a few fonts for the major Japanese scripts. With each major revision of the OS, fonts supporting additional scripts have been added. 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Demonstration of the full-word ligature for the name of the Zapfino typeface.

Zapfino is a calligraphic typeface designed by and named after renowned typeface designer Hermann Zapf for Linotype. Zapfino utilizes advanced typographic features of the AAT 'morx' table format, and is included in OS X partially as a technology demo. Ligatures and character variations are extensively used. The font is based on a calligraphic example by Zapf in 1944. The version included with Mac OS X contains only one of the 6 weights sold by Linotype. Image:Zapfino ligature demo. ... Image:Zapfino ligature demo. ... Zapfino - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Hermann Zapf (born in Nuremberg, Germany on November 8, 1918) is a prolific German typeface designer. ... Originally an American company, formed in 1886 to market the linecaster invented by Ottmar Mergenthaler, Mergenthaler Linotype (pronounced LINEotype []) became the worlds leading manufacturer of book and newspaper printing equipment. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Several of the GX fonts that Apple commissioned and originally shipped with System 7.5 were ported to use Apple Advanced Typography (AAT) instead (see below) and shipped with Mac OS X 10.2 and 10.3. Hoefler Text, Apple Chancery and Skia are examples of fonts of this line of heritage. Other typefaces were licensed from the general offerings of leading font vendors. Skia is a font designed by Matthew Carter for Apple Computer in 1993. ...

Sample glyphs from the LastResort font.

The LastResort font is a font that is invisible to the end user, but is used by the system to display reference glyphs in the event that real glyphs needed to display a given character are not found in any other available font. The symbols provided by the LastResort font place glyphs into categories based on their location in the Unicode system and provide a hint to the user about which font or script is required to view unavailable characters. Designed by Apple and extended by Michael Everson of Everson Typography for Unicode 4.1 coverage, the symbols adhere to a unified design. The glyphs are square with rounded corners with a bold outline. In the left and right sides of the outline, the Unicode range that the character belongs to is given using hexadecimal digits. Top and bottom are used for one or two descriptions of the Unicode block name. A symbol representative of the block is centered inside the square. The typeface used for the text cut-outs in the outline is Chicago, otherwise not included with Mac OS X. The LastResort font has been part of Mac OS since version 8.5, but the limited success of Apple Type Services for Unicode Imaging (ATSUI) on the classic Mac OS means that only users of Mac OS X are regularly exposed to it. Image:LastResort samples. ... Image:LastResort samples. ... Sample glyphs from the Apples LastResort font. ... A glyph is a carved figure or character, incised or in relief; a carved pictograph; hence, a pictograph representing a form originally adopted for sculpture, whether carved or painted. ... In computing, Unicode is the international standard whose goal is to provide the means to encode the text of every document people want to store in computers. ... Michael Everson (born January 9, 1963) is an expert in the writing systems of the world. ... In computing, Unicode is the international standard whose goal is to provide the means to encode the text of every document people want to store in computers. ... In mathematics, hexadecimal or simply hex is a numeral system with a radix or base of 16 usually written using the symbols 0–9 and A–F or a–f. ... Unicode reserves 1,114,112 (= 220 + 216) code points, and currently assigns characters to more than 96,000 of those code points. ... The Apple Type Services for Unicode Imaging (ATSUI) is the Mac OS set of services for rendering Unicode-encoded text. ...


Of the fonts that ship with Mac OS X, Lucida Grande has the broadest repertoire. This font provides a relatively complete set of Roman, Cyrillic, Hebrew, Thai and Greek letters and an assortment of common symbols. All-in-all, it contains a bit more than 2800 glyphs (including ligatures). The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world, the standard script of the English language and most of the languages of western and central Europe, and of those areas settled by Europeans. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages ( Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...


In Mac OS X 10.3 ("Panther"), a font called Apple Symbols was introduced. It complements the set of symbols from Lucida Grande, but also contains a number of glyphs only accessible by glyph ID (that is, they have not been assigned Unicode codepoints). A hidden font called .Keyboard contains 92 visible glyphs, most of which appear on Apple keyboards. The symbols are not slanted like they are on most Apple keyboards. Apple Symbols is a new font included in Mac OS X 10. ...


Keyboards

Univers was first used as the keyboard font of the Apple IIc.
Six keys from a 2003 PowerBook G4 keyboard.

Since the Apple IIc, in 1984, Apple's keyboards have been using Univers Italic on the keycaps. The front-panel buttons on the Apple IIc were tilted at an angle corresponding to the inclination of the keyboard letters. Apple's partner in industrial design, frog design, were responsible for the choice of this typeface. Image of an Apple IIc computer. ... Image of an Apple IIc computer. ... The Apple II was one of the most popular personal computers of the 1980s. ... Six keys detached from a PowerBook G4 keyboard. ... Six keys detached from a PowerBook G4 keyboard. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January January 1 - Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ... 15 Titanium PowerBook G4 The Apple PowerBook G4 is a notebook computer manufactured by Apple Computer, and initially powered by PowerPC G4 processors produced by Motorola, but now produced by IBM. The first generation of PowerBook G4s were announced at Steve Jobs keynote at MacWorld Expo in January 2001. ... The Apple II was one of the most popular personal computers of the 1980s. ... 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Univers is a neo-grotesque, sans serif typeface designed by Adrian Frutiger in 1956 and released by the type foundry Deberny & Peignot in 1957. ...


The keyboard font used on all iBook models and 2003 and later PowerBooks is VAG Rounded, a variation on Helvetica Rounded. VAG stands for Volkswagen Aktien Gesellschaft and the font was developed by German car manufacturer Volkswagen and is used in much of their marketing materials. While Apple's use of another company's typeface is unusual, Apple and Volkswagen have positive reputations among their young, affluent customers, launching a cross-promoted marketing campaign involving the Volkswagen Beetle and the iPod in late 2003. Volkswagen's modification of a classical typeface is similar to Apple's modification of Garamond to create a corporate typeface that is both universal and proprietary. The iBook is a line of laptop computers made by Apple Computer and targeted at the consumer and education market segments. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January January 1 - Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ... Powerbook 150 The PowerBook is a laptop computer manufactured by Apple Computer; a portable version of the Macintosh aimed at the professional market. ... Volkswagen (VW) is an automobile manufacturer based in Wolfsburg, Germany. ...


Fonts used in other products

Apple's earliest computers had extremely limited graphics capabilities and could originally only display upper-case ASCII using a set bitmap font. The IIc and Enhanced Apple IIe supported 80 columns of text and an extended character set called MouseText. It was used to simulate simple graphical user interfaces, similar to ANSI. The Apple IIGS system software and Finder used a monospaced 8 pt bitmap font called Shaston 8 as the system font (menus, window titles and so on). Shaston was described in Apple IIGS technote #41 as "a modified Helvetica", but the similarities are not striking. Shaston has serifs, while Helvetica is sans-serif. The fonts of the original Macintosh were also available for the GS. There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... The Apple II was one of the most popular personal computers of the 1980s. ... The Apple II was one of the most popular personal computers of the 1980s. ... The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private, non-profit standards organization that produces industrial standards in the United States. ... The Apple IIGS was the last model of the Apple II series of personal computers made by Apple Computer. ... Helvetica is a typeface developed by Max Miedinger in 1957 for the Haas’sche Schriftgießerei type foundry of Switzerland. ...

The Newton GUI, using Espy Sans for the small type and Casual for the large.

In 1993, Apple's Human Interface Group designed the typeface Espy Sans specifically for on-screen use. It was first used for the Newton OS GUI and later integrated into Apple's ill-fated eWorld online service. The Newton used the font Apple Casual to display text entered using the Rosetta handwriting recognition engine in the Newton. The same font found its way into the Rosetta-derived writing recognition in Mac OS X; Inkwell. The TrueType font can be made available to any application by copying the font file which is embedded in a system component to any font folder. See List of fonts in Mac OS X for more information. The Newton logo featured the Gill Sans typeface which was also used for the Newton keyboard. An Apple Newton PDA displaying a message entered using handwriting recognition. ... An Apple Newton PDA displaying a message entered using handwriting recognition. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003) Events Media:January January 1 - Czechoslovakia divides. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... An inkwell is a small jar or container, often made of glass, ceramic, or pewter, that is used for holding ink in a place convenient for the person who is writing. ... This list of fonts contains every font shipped with Mac OS 10. ... Gill Sans is a sans-serif typeface created by Eric Gill and published by the Monotype Corporation between 1928 and 1930. ...


Apple's eWorld also used a larger bold condensed bitmap font eWorld Tight for headlines. The metrics of eWorld Tight were based on Helvetica Ultra Compressed. The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... An assortment of bitmap fonts from the first version of the Macintosh operating system A bitmap font is one that stores each glyph as an array of pixels (that is, a bitmap). ... Helvetica is a typeface developed by Max Miedinger in 1957 for the Haas’sche Schriftgießerei type foundry of Switzerland. ...


When released in 2001, Apple's iPod music player reused the bitmap Chicago font from the original Macintosh GUI. Later versions of the iPod drew from the larger character repertoire of the TrueType Chicago, adding a number of characters not present in the bitmap Chicago, such as Greek and Cyrillic. Even though the screen supports grayscale, the characters were not anti-aliased. 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A fourth-generation iPod with earphones. ... In digital signal processing, anti-aliasing is the technique of minimizing aliasing when representing a high-resolution signal at a lower resolution. ...


The iPod mini, with a slightly smaller screen than the iPod, uses the typeface originally designed for the Newton, Espy Sans. In the iPod Photo, Apple Myriad has displaced Chicago as the user interface font, in part due to the higher resolution of the color screen sported. The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Chicago is a sans-serif font designed by Susan Kare for Apple Computer. ...


Font management and capabilities

System 6.0.8 and earlier

In early versions of the system, fonts were stored in the System file. A utility called Font/DA Mover was used to transport fonts out and in of the system file, or any other file, such as a Hypercard stack. While not supported by the standard System 6, a TrueType system extension provided support for outline fonts. Printer fonts should be installed directly in the System Folder. HyperCard HyperCard is an application program and a simple programming environment produced by Apple Computer which runs only in Mac OS versions 9 or earlier. ...


A reboot was required after installing new fonts, unless using a font management utility such as SuitCase, FontJuggler, MasterJuggler or similar.


System 7 – Mac OS 9

TrueType was supported starting with System 7. Fonts were still stored in the System suitcase, but could now be installed using drag-and-drop. To install new fonts, one had to quit all running applications. Image:Mac font icons. ... System 7 refers to the Mac OS that superseded the earlier versions of the Macintosh System Software before the term Mac OS came into official use. ... Drag-and-drop refers to the act of (or support for the act of) clicking on a virtual object and dragging it to, or onto, another virtual object. ...


In System 7.1, a separate Fonts folder appeared in the System Folder. Fonts were automatically installed when dropped on the System Folder, and became available to applications after they were restarted.


Rules for storing printer fonts varied greatly between different system, printer and application configurations. Typically, they had to be stored directly in the System Folder, or in the Extensions Folder.


Starting with Mac OS 8.5, the operating system supported data fork fonts, including Windows TrueType and OpenType. In addition, Apple created a new format, called data-fork suitcases. At the same time, support was added for TrueType collection files, conventionally with the filename extension '.ttc'. The resource fork is a construct of the Macintosh operating system (and implemented in all of the filesystems used on the Macintosh, MFS, HFS and HFS Plus), used to store structured data in a file, alongside and tightly bound to unstructured data within the data fork. ... Microsoft Windows is a range of commercial operating environments for personal computers. ... OpenType is a scalable computer font format initially developed by Microsoft, later joined by Adobe Systems. ... A filename extension or filename suffix is an extra set of (usually) alphanumeric characters that is appended to the end of a filename to allow computer users (as well as various pieces of software on the computer system) to quickly determine the type of data stored in the file. ...


System versions 7 to 9 supported a maximum of 128 font suitcases and each suitcase could store multiple fonts.


Starting with version 7.1, Apple unified the implementation of non-roman script systems in a programming interface called WorldScript. WorldScript I was used for all one-byte character sets and WorldScript II for two-byte sets. Support for new script systems was added by so-called Language Kits. Some kits were provided with the system software, and others were sold by Apple and third parties. Application support for WorldScript was not universal, since support was a significant task. Good international support gave a marketing edge to word-processing programs such as Nisus Writer and programs using the WASTE text engine, since Microsoft Word was not WorldScript aware. WorldScript - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Nisus Writer - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The WASTE Text Engine is an Apple Macintosh text editing software library. ... Microsoft Word 2003 features a number of improvements over earlier Word packages. ...


In 8.5, full Unicode support was added to Mac OS through an API called ATSUI. However, WorldScript remained the dominant technology for international text until Mac OS X, because of limited application support for ATSUI. API with 3 clients, using the Unified Modeling Language notation An application programming interface (API) is a set of definitions of the ways in which one piece of computer software communicates with another. ...


Mac OS X

Mac OS X supports a wide variety of font formats. It supports most of the font formats used on earlier systems, where the fonts were typically stored in the resource fork of the file. In addition to the data-fork version of TrueType and the Adobe/Microsoft OpenType fonts, OS X also supports Apple's own data-fork-based TrueType format, called data-fork suitcases with the filename extension '.dfont'. Data-fork suitcases are old-style Mac TrueType fonts with all the data from the resource fork transferred unchanged to the data fork. The system also supports the instances created using the Multiple Master PostScript variant. The resource fork is a construct of the Mac OS operating system (and implemented in all of the filesystems used on the Macintosh, MFS, HFS and HFS Plus), used to store structured data in a file, alongside and tightly bound to unstructured data within the data fork. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT) headquartered in Redmond, Washington, USA, was founded in 1975 by Bill Gates and Paul Allen. ... The resource fork is a construct of the Mac OS operating system (and implemented in all of the filesystems used on the Macintosh, MFS, HFS and HFS Plus), used to store structured data in a file, alongside and tightly bound to unstructured data within the data fork. ... The resource fork is a construct of the Macintosh operating system (and implemented in all of the filesystems used on the Macintosh, MFS, HFS and HFS Plus), used to store structured data in a file, alongside and tightly bound to unstructured data within the data fork. ... For information about the PostScript page description language, see PostScript. ...


Fonts in the /System/Library/Fonts folder and the /Library/Fonts folder are available to all users. Fonts stored in a user's ~/Library/Fonts folder are available to only that user. Mac OS 9 applications running in the Classic environment can only access fonts stored in the Fonts folder in the Mac OS 9 system folder. Those fonts are also made available to native Mac OS X applications. Mac OS 9 is the last version of what has become known as the classic Mac OS, introduced by Apple Computer on October 23, 1999. ... Classic is an application on Mac OS X that can load at boot, on command, or when a classic Mac OS applicaton is loaded. ...


Mac OS X includes a software rasterizer that supports PostScript, thus eliminating the need for the Adobe Type Manager Light program. The built-in text editing supports advanced typesetting features such as adjustable kerning and baseline, as well as most OpenType features. Suppose the smiley face in the top left corner is an RGB bitmap image. ... Adobe Type Manager (ATM) is the name of four different computer programs created and marketed by Adobe Systems. ...


Support for bitmap and QuickDraw GX fonts was dropped in Mac OS X, in favor of TrueType fonts using AAT features. QuickDraw GX was a replacement for the QuickDraw graphics engine and Printing Manager, initially released in about January 1995. ...


Third-party font managers

As desktop publishing took off and PostScript and other outline font formats joined the bitmap fonts, the need for unified font management grew. A number of third-parties have created tools for managing font sets. For example, they allowed enabling or disabling fonts on-the-fly, and storing fonts outside of their normal locations.


Font technology

TrueType and PostScript

Main articles: TrueType and PostScript TrueType is an outline font standard originally developed by Apple Computer in the late 1980s as a competitor to Adobes Type 1 fonts used in PostScript. ... For information about the PostScript page description language, see PostScript. ...


TrueType is an outline font standard developed by Apple in the late 1980s, and later licensed to Microsoft, as a competitor to Adobe's Type 1 fonts used in PostScript, which had come to dominate the field of desktop publishing. TrueType is an outline font standard originally developed by Apple Computer in the late 1980s as a competitor to Adobes Type 1 fonts used in PostScript. ... Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 1960s and 1970s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT) headquartered in Redmond, Washington, USA, was founded in 1975 by Bill Gates and Paul Allen. ... Adobe Systems ( NASDAQ: ADBE) is a computer software company headquartered in San Jose, California that was founded in December 1982 by John Warnock and Charles Geschke. ... PostScript (PS) is a page description language used primarily in the electronic and desktop publishing areas. ... For information about the PostScript page description language, see PostScript. ... Desktop publishing, or DTP, is the process of editing and layout of printed material intended for publication, such as books, magazines, brochures, and the like using a personal computer. ...


The outlines of the characters in TrueType fonts are made of straight line segments and quadratic Bézier curves, rather than the cubic Bézier curves in Type 1 fonts. While the underlying mathematics of TrueType is thus simpler, many type developers prefer to work with cubic curves because they are easier to draw and edit. In mathematics, a line segment is a part of a line that is bounded by two end points. ... In the mathematical subfield of numerical analysis a Bézier curve is a parametric curve important in computer graphics. ...


While earlier versions of the Mac OS required additional software to work with Type 1 fonts (as well as at least one bitmap copy of each Type 1 font to be used), Mac OS X now includes native support for a variety of font technologies, including both TrueType and PostScript Type 1.


Microsoft, together with Adobe, have created an extended TrueType format, called OpenType. Apple, however, is continuing to develop TrueType. A 'Zapf' table, for example, maps composite glyphs to characters and vice versa and adds other features. The table was named, with permission, after typeface creator Hermann Zapf. OpenType is a scalable computer font format initially developed by Microsoft, later joined by Adobe Systems. ... OSType - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Hermann Zapf (born in Nuremberg, Germany on November 8, 1918) is a prolific German typeface designer. ...


QuickDraw GX and Apple Advanced Typography

QuickDraw GX was a complete overhaul of the Macintosh graphics system, including the font system, which was rolled out for System 7.5 in 1995. QuickDraw GX fonts could be in either TrueType or PostScript Type 1 formats, and included additional information about the glyphs and their purpose. Advanced features, such as ligatures, glyph variations, kerning information and small caps, could be used by any GX enabled application. Previously, they had typically been reserved for advanced typesetting applications. QuickDraw GX was a replacement for the QuickDraw graphics engine and Printing Manager, initially released in about January 1995. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Microsoft was refused a license to GX technology and chose to develop OpenType instead. GX typography and GX technology as a whole never saw widespread adoption. Support for GX was dropped in later versions of the system.


Apple Advanced Typography (AAT) is a set of extensions to TrueType which cover much of the same ground as OpenType, developed independently but concurrently with the Adobe/Microsoft format (circa 1995), and is the successor to the little used QuickDraw GX font technology. It also incorporates concepts from the Multiple Master font format, which allows multiple axes of traits to be defined and an n-dimensional number of glyphs to be accessible within that space. Apple is currently in the process of incorporating all of OpenType within the AAT spec, making AAT a superset of OpenType. This will allow for a very rich feature set, though some of the original AAT specification will be made redundant. AAT features do not alter the underlying characters, but do affect their representation during glyph conversion. Features exclusive to AAT currently include: 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • Several degrees of ligature control
  • Kashida justification and joiners
  • Cross-stream kerning (required for Nasta'liq Urdu, for example)
  • Independently controllable substitution of:
    • Old style figures
    • Small caps and drop caps
    • Swash variants
    • Alternative glyphs

While OpenType offers all of the above to some extent, it's an all or nothing affair in most cases, or granularity of control is otherwise restricted by comparison. AAT font features are not supported on platforms other than Mac OS 8, 9 and X. In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more letterforms are written or printed as a unit. ... In typography, kerning is the process of adjusting letter spacing in a proportional font. ... Nastaliq - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Urdu(اردو) is an Indo-European language which originated in India, most likely in the vicinity of Delhi, from whence it spread to the rest of the subcontinent. ... In typography, small capitals, or small caps, are uppercase (capital) characters that are printed in a smaller size than normal uppercase characters of the same font. ...


Hinting technology

Hinting is the process by which TrueType fonts are adjusted to the limited resolution of a screen or a relatively low resolution printer. Undesired features in the rendered text, such as lack of symmetry or broken strokes can be reduced. Hinting is performed by a virtual machine that distorts the control points that define the glyph shapes so that they fit the grid defined by the screen better. Hinting is particularly important when rendering text at small pixel sizes. In general terms, a virtual machine in computer science is software that creates an environment between the computer platform and the end user in which the end user can operate software. ...


Hinting is part of the TrueType specification, but Apple holds three patents in the United States relating to the process:

  • US5155805: Method and apparatus for moving control points in displaying digital typeface on raster output devices (filed May 8, 1989)
  • US5159668: Method and apparatus for manipulating outlines in improving digital typeface on raster output devices (filed May 8, 1989)
  • US5325479: Method and apparatus for moving control points in displaying digital typeface on raster output devices (filed May 28, 1992)

Apple offers licensing of these patents. Microsoft has access to Apple's TrueType patents through cross-licensing. However, these patents have proven problematic to developers and vendors of open source software for TrueType rendering, such as FreeType. To avoid infringing on the patents, some software disregards the hinting information present in fonts, resulting in visual artifacts. FreeType has developed an automatic hinting engine, but it is difficult to beat the explicit hinting guidelines provided by the typeface designer. The problem of lacking hinting can also be compensated for by using anti-aliasing, although a combination of the two produces the best result. May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... 1992 is a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... TrueType is an outline font standard originally developed by Apple Computer in the late 1980s as a competitor to Adobes Type 1 fonts used in PostScript. ... TrueType is an outline font standard originally developed by Apple Computer in the late 1980s as a competitor to Adobes Type 1 fonts used in PostScript. ...


Subpixel rendering

A sample of text rendered by the Quartz engine in Mac OS X, using traditional and subpixel rendering. Expanded version, with explanations.
A sample of text rendered by the Quartz engine in Mac OS X, using traditional and subpixel rendering. Expanded version, with explanations.

Subpixel rendering is a process which, when used on for example an RGB monitor where the brightness of each of the component elements ("sub-pixels") can be controlled independently. An example of such a device is a TFT display. Using this property, it is possible to, in theory, increase the horizontal resolution by a factor of three, at least for black-on-white graphics. The effect is particularly good in conjunction with anti-aliasing. Subsection of Image:Subpixel rendering (Quartz). ... Demonstration of subpixels. ... This article or section should be merged with ClearType Subpixel rendering works by effectively tripling the horizontal resolution of an LCD screen. ... A thin film transistor (TFT) is special kind of field effect transistor made by depositing thin films for the metallic contacts, semiconductor active layer, and dielectric layer. ... The display resolution of a digital television or computer display is the number of pixels (or maximal image resolution) that can be displayed on the screen, usually given as a product of the number of columns (horizontal, X) is always stated first and the number or rows (vertical, Y) make... Computer graphics (CG) is the field of visual computing, where one utilizes computers both to generate visual images synthetically and to integrate or alter visual and spatial information sampled from the real world. ... In digital signal processing, anti-aliasing is the technique of minimizing aliasing when representing a high-resolution signal at a lower resolution. ...


The origins of subpixel rendering

While this type of rendering first became mainstream with the introduction of TFT displays, it was invented and first used by Apple II programmers in the late 1970s to increase the vertical resolution of the displays of that time. The Apple II display had a maximum resolution of 280×192 pixels. Each pixel consisted of two subpixels, green and purple. To get the color white, both pixels had to be turned on. By only turning on one of the two pixels, the Apple II programmers could effectively increase the resolution. The Apple II was one of the most popular personal computers of the 1980s. ... Events and trends Although in the United States and in many other Western societies the 1970s are often seen as a period of transition between the turbulent 1960s and the more conservative 1980s and 1990s, many of the trends that are associated widely with the Sixties, from the Sexual Revolution...


The Apple II display system was designed by Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak. Apple was granted patents for the technology, since expired. When Microsoft introduced its ClearType technology, it was presented as a new invention. It is unclear whether Microsoft accidentally and independently rediscovered subpixel rendering, or whether they were aware of its roots. Steve Wozniak—or The Woz—invented the Apple II, the computer that launched the home computer era and popularized the use of computers by the masses. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT) headquartered in Redmond, Washington, USA, was founded in 1975 by Bill Gates and Paul Allen. ... ClearType™ is Microsofts subpixel rendering display technology designed to leverage the phase carrier created by the misalignment of the red, green, and blue planes of some computer display devices to draw the lines and curves of text and graphics to sub-pixel accuracy. ...


In May 2001, Microsoft received patents for some of ClearType. However, some people, for example Steve Gibson, suggest that the patent would not be enforceable, due to the existence of prior art, from Apple and other companies that explored and optimized subpixel rendering. Despite this, Microsoft runs an IP licensing program for ClearType, which was started in December, 2003. It is unclear if Apple has licensed Microsoft's ClearType patents, but according to John Kheit, they may hold rights to them as part of the cross-licensing and investment agreement in 1997. 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other people named Steve Gibson see Steve Gibson (disambiguation) Steve Gibson (b. ... Prior art or state of the art is all information that has been disclosed to the public in any form before a given date. ... In law, particularly in common law jurisdictions, intellectual property is a form of legal entitlement which allows its holder to control the use of certain intangible ideas and expressions. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January January 1 - Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ... 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Reef. ...


Use in Apple's products

Aside from the use on the monochrome Apple II displays, Apple has also started using subpixel rendering in recent versions of Mac OS X. Version 10.2 introduced subpixel rendering of type and Quartz vector graphics. This feature is enabled using the System Preferences panel "General" (10.2) or "Appearance" (10.3), by setting the font smoothing style to "Medium — best for Flat Panel". The quality of the rendering, compared to Microsoft's ClearType is contested. Some consider Quartz to produce higher-quality output, while others prefer the ClearType style. Generally, ClearType is richer in contrast but cannot be fine-tuned by the user, since the anti-aliasing property is embedded in each font. Quartz is the graphics layer that sits on top of the Darwin core of Mac OS X, sometimes also referred to as CoreGraphics. ... Vector graphics or geometric modeling describes the use of geometrical primitives such as points, lines, curves, and polygons to represent images in computer graphics. ...


See also

This is a list of typefaces made by/for Apple Computer. ...

References

2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years). ... January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January January 1 - Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in Leap years). ... October 8 is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years). ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January January 1 - Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in Leap years). ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in Leap years). ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 3rd October Organization is also the name of a Marxist terrorist group . ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 70 days remaining. ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years). ... 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 70 days remaining. ... 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January January 1 - Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 63 days remaining. ... 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 96 days remaining. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January January 1 - Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 22 is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years). ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years). ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January January 1 - Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ... May 23 is the 143rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (144th in leap years). ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January January 1 - Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (72nd in Leap years). ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in Leap years). ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ... 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 65 days remaining. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
About Apple Advanced Typography Fonts (5331 words)
Apple's text imaging technology, Apple Advanced Typography (AAT), enables applications to provide users with fonts having special typographical effects, such as cursive connection, ornateness, and complex ligatures.
AAT uses the font tables to interpret the font style information, choose the closest matching font, and algorithmically style the text to fulfill the style request.
AAT style variations are a mechanism through which you can build high quality styles into the typeface itself.
Apple typography - WikiMac - a Wikia wiki (4575 words)
Apple changed the name of their licenced version of the typeface when they had the format of the fonts converted to TrueType for their internal use.
TrueType is an outline font standard developed by Apple in the late 1980s, and later licenced to Microsoft, as a competitor to Adobe's Type 1 fonts used in PostScript, which had come to dominate the field of desktop publishing.
Apple Advanced Typography (AAT) is a set of extensions to TrueType which cover much of the same ground as OpenType, developed independently but concurrently with the Adobe/Microsoft format (circa 1995), and is the successor to the little used QuickDraw GX font technology.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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