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Encyclopedia > Apple
Apple
Apple tree (Malus domestica)
Apple tree (Malus domestica)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Maloideae
Genus: Malus
Species: M. domestica
Binomial name
Malus domestica
Borkh.
Apple cut horizontally, showing seeds
Apple cut horizontally, showing seeds

The apple is the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree, species Malus domestica in the rose family Rosaceae. It is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits. The tree is small and deciduous, reaching 5-12 m tall, with a broad, often densely twiggy crown. Apple Inc. ... Look up apple in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Koeh-108. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Orders See text. ... Families Barbeyaceae Cannabaceae (hemp family) Dirachmaceae Elaeagnaceae Moraceae (mulberry family) Rosaceae (rose family) Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family) Ulmaceae (elm family) Urticaceae (nettle family) For the Philippine municipality, see Rosales, Pangasinan. ... Global distribution of Rosaceae Subfamilies Rosoideae Spiraeoideae Maloideae Amygdaloideae or Prunoideae The Rosaceae or rose family is a large family of plants, with about 3,000-4,000 species in 100-120 genera. ... Genera Amelanchier - serviceberry, juneberry Aronia - chokeberry Chaenomeles - Japanese quince Cotoneaster - cotoneaster Crataegus - hawthorn Cydonia - quince Eriobotrya - loquat Eriolobus (Malus pro parte) Heteromeles - Toyon Malus - apple, crabapple Mespilus - medlar Osteomeles Photinia Pyracantha - firethorn Pyrus - pear Rhaphiolepis - Indian hawthorn Sorbus - rowan, whitebeam, service tree Stranvaesia - (Photinia pro parte) The Maloideae, or the... Species Malus angustifolia - Southern Crab Malus baccata - Siberian Crabapple Malus bracteata Malus brevipes Malus coronaria - Sweet Crabapple Malus domestica - Apple Malus florentina Malus floribunda - Japanese Crabapple Malus formosana Malus fusca - Oregon Crab, Pacific Crab Malus glabrata Malus glaucescens Malus halliana Malus honanensis Malus hupehensis - Chinese Crabapple Malus ioensis - Prairie Crab... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Moritz Balthasar Borkhausen (December 3, 1760 - November 30, 1806) was a German naturalist. ... Image File history File links 95apple. ... Image File history File links 95apple. ... Alma, or malus sieversii, is a plant seemingly native to the area around Kazakhstan which is thought to be the primary modern ancestor of the apple tree. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (875x868, 98 KB) picture made by myself: Sterappel dwarsdoorsnede File links The following pages link to this file: Apple ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (875x868, 98 KB) picture made by myself: Sterappel dwarsdoorsnede File links The following pages link to this file: Apple ... An apple is an example of a pome fruit. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rose (disambiguation). ... Global distribution of Rosaceae Subfamilies Rosoideae Spiraeoideae Maloideae Amygdaloideae or Prunoideae The Rosaceae or rose family is a large family of plants, with about 3,000-4,000 species in 100-120 genera. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ...


The leaves are alternately arranged simple ovals 5-12 cm long and 3-6 cm broad on a 2-5 cm petiole with an acute tip, serrated margin and a slightly downy underside. Flowers are produced in springsimultaneous with the budding of the leaves. Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In botany, a leaf is an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. ... Leaf of Dog Rose (Rosa canina), showing the petiole and two leafy stipules In botany, the petiole is the small stalk attaching the leaf blade to the stem. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Spring. ...


The flowers are white with a pink tinge that gradually fades, five petaled, 2.5-3.5 cm in diameter. The fruit matures in autumn, and is typically 5-9 cm diameter. The centre of the fruit contains five carpels arranged in a five-point star, each carpel containing one to three seeds. It has been suggested that Corolla be merged into this article or section. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... This article is about the temperate season. ... Amaryllis style and stigmas A carpel is the outer, often visible part of the female reproductive organ of a flower; the basic unit of the gynoecium. ... The golden five-pointed star. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Botanical information

The wild ancestor of Malus domestica is Malus sieversii. It has no common name in English, but is known in Kazakhstan, where it is native, as 'alma'; in fact, the region where it is thought to originate is called Alma-Ata, or 'father of the apples'. This tree is still found wild in the mountains of Central Asia in southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Xinjiang, China. An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor (i. ... Alma, or malus sieversii, is a plant seemingly native to the area around Kazakhstan which is thought to be the primary modern ancestor of the apple tree. ... Map showing Almatys location in Kazakhstan Almaty Orthodox church Mosque Almaty (Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata, also Vernyj, Vyernyi (Верный) in Imperial Russia) is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,185,900 (2004) (8% of the population of Kazakhstan) citizens. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ...


For many years, there was a debate about whether M. domestica evolved from chance hybridisation among various wild species. Recent DNA analysis by Barrie Juniper, Emeritus Fellow in the Department of Plant Sciences at Oxford University and others, has indicated, however, that the hybridisation theory is probably false. Instead, it appears that a single species still growing in the Ili Valley on the northern slopes of the Tien Shan mountains at the border of northwest China and the former Soviet Republic of Kazakhstan is the progenitor of the apples we eat today. Leaves taken from trees in this area were analyzed for DNA composition, which showed them all to belong to the species M. sieversii, with some genetic sequences common to M. domestica.[citation needed] The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Alma, or malus sieversii, is a plant seemingly native to the area around Kazakhstan which is thought to be the primary modern ancestor of the apple tree. ...


Some individual M. sieversii, recently planted by the US government at a research facility, resist many diseases and pests that affect domestic apples, and are the subject of continuing research to develop new disease-resistant apples.


Other species that were previously thought to have made contributions to the genome of the domestic apples are Malus baccata and Malus sylvestris, but there is no hard evidence for this in older apple cultivars. These and other Malus species have been used in some recent breeding programmes to develop apples suitable for growing in climates unsuitable for M. domestica, mainly for increased cold tolerance.[citation needed] For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Binomial name (L.) Mill. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ...


The apple tree was perhaps the earliest tree to be cultivated, and apples have remained an important food in all cooler climates. To a greater degree than other tree fruit, except possibly citrus, apples store for months while still retaining much of their nutritive value. Winter apples, picked in late autumn and stored just above freezing, have been an important food in Asia and Europe for millennia, as well as in Argentina and in the United States since the arrival of Europeans.[citation needed] For other uses, see Citrus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... 2000 Census Population Ancestry Map Immigration to the United States of America is the movement of non-residents to the United States. ...


Apple cultivars

Different kinds of apple cultivars in a supermarket
Different kinds of apple cultivars in a supermarket
A cross section and whole Granny Smith
A cross section and whole Granny Smith
See List of apple cultivars for a listing.

There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples. Different cultivars are available for temperate and subtropical climates. Reputedly the world's biggest collection of apple cultivars is housed at the National Fruit Collection in England. Apples do not flower in tropical climates because they have a chilling requirement. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 225 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Different kinds of Apples in a supermarket File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 225 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Different kinds of Apples in a supermarket File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 230 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Granny Smith ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 230 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Granny Smith ... Granny Smith, or green apple, is an apple cultivar. ... Granny Smith, an apple cultivar Over 7,500 cultivars of the apple are known. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Commercially popular apple cultivars are soft but crisp. Other desired qualities in modern commercial apple breeding are a colourful skin, absence of russeting, ease of shipping, lengthy storage ability, high yields, disease resistance, typical "Red Delicious" apple shape, long stem (to allow pesticides to penetrate the top of the fruit), and popular flavour. The taste of the apple doesn't depend on the colour. If the apple is bright red it could still taste bad. Russeting on apples is a particular type of skin, slightly rough, usually with a greenish-brown to yellowish-brown colour. ... The Red Delicious is a cultivar of apple. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ...


Old cultivars are often oddly shaped, russeted, and have a variety of textures and colours. Many of them have excellent flavour (often better than most modern cultivars), but may have other problems which make them commercially unviable, such as low yield, liability to disease, or poor tolerance for storage or transport. A few old cultivars are still produced on a large scale, but many have been kept alive by home gardeners and farmers that sell directly to local markets. Many unusual and locally important cultivars with their own unique taste and appearance are out there to discover; apple conservation campaigns have sprung up around the world to preserve such local cultivars from extinction. In the United Kingdom old cultivars such as Cox's Orange Pippin and Egremont Russett are still commercially important even though by modern standards they are low yielding and disease prone.


Although most cultivars are bred for eating fresh (dessert apples), some are cultivated specifically for cooking (cooking apples) or producing cider. Cider apples are typically too tart and astringent to eat fresh, but they give the beverage a rich flavour that dessert apples cannot. A cooking apple is an apple that is used primarily for cooking rather than eating fresh. ... Cider in a pint glass Cider (or cyder) is an alcoholic beverage made primarily from the juices of specially grown varieties of apples. ... A cider apple is a cultivar of apple grown for its use in cider production. ...


Modern apples are, as a rule, sweeter than older cultivars. Most North Americans and Europeans favour sweet, subacid apples, but tart apples have a strong minority following. Extremely sweet apples with barely any acid flavour are popular in Asia and especially India. North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


Tastes in apples vary from one person to another and change continually over time. As an example, the U.S. state of Washington made its reputation for apple growing on Red Delicious. In recent years, many apple connoisseurs have come to regard the Red Delicious as inferior to cultivars such as Fuji and Gala due to its merely mild flavour and insufficiently firm texture. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Fuji Kiku on a tree The Fuji apple is an apple cultivar developed by growers at the Tohoku Research Station in Morioka, Japan in the late 1930s and brought to market in 1962. ... Gala apples Gala is a cultivar of apple, with a mild and sweet flavor. ...


Growing apples

Apple breeding

In this hybrid of an orchard apple with a red-fruited crabapple cultivar, the pulp is of the same colour as the peel.
In this hybrid of an orchard apple with a red-fruited crabapple cultivar, the pulp is of the same colour as the peel.
Seeds of the above apple, which are same colour as the rest of the fruit.
Seeds of the above apple, which are same colour as the rest of the fruit.
Apple tree in flower
Apple tree in flower

Like most perennial fruits, apples ordinarily propagate asexually by grafting. Seedling apples are different from their parents, sometimes radically. Most new apple cultivars originate as seedlings, which either arise by chance or are bred by deliberately crossing cultivars with promising characteristics. The words 'seedling', 'pippin', and 'kernel' in the name of an apple cultivar suggest that it originated as a seedling. Apples can also form bud sports (mutations on a single branch). Some bud sports turn out to be improved strains of the parent cultivar. Some differ sufficiently from the parent tree to be considered new cultivars. Download high resolution version (1431x1314, 93 KB)Cyborglog (glog) made while eating an Old Apple This apple has a peel thats a very deep burgundy colour, and the flesh of the fruit is roughly the same colour as the peel. ... Download high resolution version (1431x1314, 93 KB)Cyborglog (glog) made while eating an Old Apple This apple has a peel thats a very deep burgundy colour, and the flesh of the fruit is roughly the same colour as the peel. ... Download high resolution version (1923x1386, 89 KB)Seeds from Old Apple The seeds are a deep burgundy colour, much like the colour of the flesh of the apple. ... Download high resolution version (1923x1386, 89 KB)Seeds from Old Apple The seeds are a deep burgundy colour, much like the colour of the flesh of the apple. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3264 × 2448 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3264 × 2448 pixel, file size: 2. ... Grafted apple tree Malus sp. ... A bud sport is a part of a plant or tree — for example, a leaf, shoot or flower — which due to a genetic mutation clearly differs from the rest of the plant, and which can also be grafted to grow new plants which retain this genetic difference. ...


Some breeders have crossed ordinary apples with crabapples or unusually hardy apples in order to produce hardier cultivars. For example, the Excelsior Experiment Station of the University of Minnesota has, since the 1930s, introduced a steady progression of important hardy apples that are widely grown, both commercially and by backyard orchardists, throughout Minnesota and Wisconsin. Its most important introductions have included 'Haralson' (which is the most widely cultivated apple in Minnesota), 'Wealthy', 'Honeygold', and 'Honeycrisp'. [1] Species Malus angustifolia - Southern Crab Malus baccata - Siberian Crabapple Malus bracteata Malus brevipes Malus coronaria - Sweet Crabapple Malus domestica - Apple Malus florentina Malus floribunda - Japanese Crabapple Malus formosana Malus fusca - Oregon Crab, Pacific Crab Malus glabrata Malus glaucescens Malus halliana Malus honanensis Malus hupehensis - Chinese Crabapple Malus ioensis - Prairie Crab... This article is about the oldest and largest campus of the University of Minnesota. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Haralson cultivar of apple was introduced by the Minnesota Horticulture Research Center in 1922. ... Honeycrispâ„¢ (Malus domestica Honeycrisp) is a modern cultivar of apple developed in Minnesota by the University of Minnesota Twin Cities at its Horticultural Research Center. ...


Pollination

Apples are self-incompatible; they must cross-pollinate to develop fruit. During the flowering each season, apple growers usually provide pollinators to carry the pollen. Honeybee hives are most commonly used. Orchard mason bees are also used as supplemental pollinators in commercial orchards. Bumble bee queens are sometimes present in orchards, but not usually in enough quantity to be significant pollinators. Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... A pollinator is the agent that moves pollen from the male anthers of a flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish fertilization or syngamy of the female gamete in the ovule of the flower by the male gamete from the pollen grain. ... Species Apis andreniformis Apis cerana, or eastern honey bee Apis dorsata, or giant honey bee Apis florea Apis koschevnikovi Apis laboriosa Apis mellifera, or western honey bee Apis nigrocincta Apis nuluensis Honey bees are a subset of bees which represent a far smaller fraction of bee diversity than most people... Subfamilies Fideliinae Megachilinae Some of the genera Anthidium Coelioxys Heriades Hoplitis Megachile Osmia Stelis The Megachilidae are a cosmopolitan family of (mostly) solitary bees whose pollen-carrying structures (called scopae) are restricted to the ventral surface of the abdomen (rather than on the hind legs like in all other bee... Species see text A bumblebee in flight The bumblebee is a flying insect of the genus Bombus in the family Apidae. ... Queen bee with attendants on a honeycomb. ...


There are four to seven pollination groups in apples depending on climate:

  • Group A – Early flowering, May 1 to 3 in England (Gravenstein, Red Astrachan)
  • Group B – May 4 to 7 (Idared, McIntosh)
  • Group C – Mid-season flowering, May 8 to 11 (Granny Smith, Cox's Orange Pippin)
  • Group D – Mid/Late season flowering, May 12 to 15 (Golden Delicious, Calville Blanc d'Hiver).
  • Group E – Late flowering, May 16 to 18 (Braeburn, Reinette d'Orléans)
  • Group F – May 19 to 23 (Suntan)
  • Group H – May 24 to 28 (Court Pendu Plat)

One cultivar can be pollinized by a compatible cultivar from the same group or close (A with A or A with B but not A with C or D). Gravenstein is a variety of apple native to Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. ... Idared is a type of red apple from the United States. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Granny Smith, or green apple, is an apple cultivar. ... Coxs Orange Pippin is a cultivar of apple. ... The Golden Delicious is a cultivar of apple with a yellow color. ... The Braeburn is a cultivar of apple. ... A model of Scentual Sun demonstrates the differences between clear skin and a sun tan. ...

Apple tree ready for harvest

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Maturation and harvest

Cultivars vary in their yield and the ultimate size of the tree, even when grown on the same rootstock. Some cultivars, if left unpruned, will grow very large, which allows them to bear a great deal more fruit, but makes harvest very difficult. Mature trees typically bear 40-200 kg of apples each year, though productivity can be close to zero in poor years. Apples are harvested using three-point ladders that are designed to fit amongst the branches. Dwarf trees will bear about 10-80 kg of fruit per year.


Pests and diseases

Leaves with significant insect damage.
Leaves with significant insect damage.
An apple rotting on the stem
An apple rotting on the stem

The trees are susceptible to a number of fungal and bacterial diseases and insect pests. Nearly all commercial orchards pursue an aggressive program of chemical sprays to maintain high fruit quality, tree health, and high yields. A trend in orchard management is the use of organic methods. These use a less aggressive and direct methods of conventional farming. Instead of spraying potent chemicals, often shown to be potentially dangerous and maleficent to the tree in the long run, organic methods include encouraging or discouraging certain cycles and pests. To control a specific pest, organic growers might encourage the prosperity of its natural predator instead of outright killing it, and with it the natural biochemistry around the tree. Organic apples generally have the same or greater taste than conventionally grown apples, with reduced cosmetic appearances. This article is a list of diseases of apples (Malus × domestica). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 598 KB) Summary Description: Leaves of an apple tree show extensive insect damage. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 598 KB) Summary Description: Leaves of an apple tree show extensive insect damage. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 646 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 950 pixel, file size: 902 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 646 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 950 pixel, file size: 902 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera...


Among the most serious disease problems are fireblight, a bacterial disease; and Gymnosporangium rust, apple scab, and black spot, three fungal diseases. Binomial name Erwinia amylovora The causal pathogen is Erwinia amylovora, a Gram-negative bacterium in the family Enterobacteriaceae. ... Species (juniper-hawthorn rust) (juniper-rowan rust) (juniper-hawthorn rust) (juniper-apple rust) (juniper-pear rust) (juniper-quince rust) (Japanese juniper-apple rust) Gymnosporangium is a fungus which infects alternately members of the genus Juniperus (junipers) and members of the family Rosaceae in the subfamily Maloideae (apples, pears, quinces, hawthorns... Apple scab is a disease of apple trees (genus Malus) caused by the ascomycete fungus Venturia inaequalis. ... <= Black spot This article is about the disease of roses, for blackspot of strawberries see Colletotrichum acutatum, for the definition relating to pirates, see The Black Spot. ...


The plum curculio is the most serious insect pest. Others include Apple maggot and codling moth. Binomial name Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst The Plum curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar) is a beetle native to the regions east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada. ... Binomial name Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh, 1867 The apple faggot (Rhagoletis pomonella), also known as railroad worm, is a pest of several fruits, mainly apples. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Young apple trees are also prone to mammal pests like mice and deer, which feed on the soft bark of the trees, especially in winter.


Organic apples are commonly produced in the United States.[2] Organic production is difficult in Europe, though a few orchards have done so with commercial success, using disease-resistant cultivars and the very best cultural controls. The latest tool in the organic repertoire is a spray of a light coating of kaolin clay, which forms a physical barrier to some pests, and also helps prevent apple sun scald. Kaolin Kaolinite (Aluminium Silicate Hydroxide) Kaolinite is a mineral with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. ...

See also: List of Lepidoptera which feed on Malus

Apples (Malus spp) are used as food plants by the larvae of a large number of Lepidoptera species including: Autumnal Moth (Epirrita autumnata) Brimstone Moth (Opisthograptis luteolata) Brown-tail (Euproctis chrysorrhoea) Cabbage Moth (Mamestra brassicae) Common Emerald (Hemithea aestivaria) Common Quaker (Orthosia cerasi) Coxcomb Prominent (Ptilodon capucina) Dotted Border (Agriopis...

Commerce

A display of different apples
A display of different apples
Apple output in 2005

At least 55 million tonnes of apples were grown worldwide in 2005, with a value of about $10 billion. China produced about two-fifth of this total. United States is the second leading producer, with more than 7.5% of the world production. Turkey, France, Italy and Iran are among the leading apple exporters. Download high resolution version (640x960, 70 KB) Apples are an all-American success story-each of us eats more than 19 pounds of them annually. ... Download high resolution version (640x960, 70 KB) Apples are an all-American success story-each of us eats more than 19 pounds of them annually. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of apple output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 24,017,500 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of apple output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 24,017,500 tonnes). ...


In the United States, more than 60% of all the apples sold commercially are grown in Washington state. Imported apples from New Zealand and other more temperate areas are competing with US production and increasing each year. For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ...


Apples as food

Different cultivars of apples have a distinct different taste, and this can be separated into two separate factors of flavour and texture.


Apples can be canned, juiced, and optionally fermented to produce apple juice, cider, ciderkin, vinegar, and pectin. Distilled apple cider produces the spirits applejack and Calvados. Apple wine can also be made. They make a popular lunchbox fruit as well. A glass of clear apple juice, from which pectin and starch have been removed. ... Cider in a pint glass Cider (or cyder) is an alcoholic beverage made primarily from the juices of specially grown varieties of apples. ... Ciderkin, sometimes referred to as water-cider, is a kind of weak alcoholic cider traditionally drunk by children, and made by steeping the refuse pomace in water. ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... Pectin, a white to light brown powder, is a heterosaccharide derived from the cell wall of higher terrestrial plants. ... Alcoholic beverages An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of alcohol includes many other compounds. ... Applejack is a strong alcoholic beverage produced from apples, originating from the American colonial period. ... A bottle of calvados Pays DAuge Calvados is an apple brandy from the French région of Lower Normandy. ... Country wines are fermented alcoholic beverages made from a variety of ingredients other than grapes (the base of ordinary wine) and having a variety of flavors. ...


Apples are an important ingredient in many winter desserts, for example apple pie, apple crumble, apple crisp and apple cake. They are often eaten baked or stewed, and they can also be dried and eaten or re-constituted (soaked in water, alcohol or some other liquid) for later use. Puréed apples are generally known as apple sauce. Apples are also made into apple butter and apple jelly. They are also used cooked in meat dishes. Not to be confused with Desert. ... For the manga anthology series, see Petit Apple Pie. ... A blackberry and apple crumble A crumble is a dish of British origin containing stewed fruit topped with a crumbly mixture of fat (usually butter), flour, and sugar. ... Apple crisp in the United States or Apple crumble as it is known in the United Kingdom is a dessert consisting of baked apples topped with a crispy crust. ... Apple cake is a popular dessert produced with the main ingredient of apples. ... Baking is the technique of cooking food in an oven by dry heat applied evenly throughout the oven. ... In cooking, stewing means preparing vegetables or meat by simmering it in liquid. ... A bowl of applesauce Applesauce (or apple sauce) is made from stewed and mashed apples, sweetened to taste with sugar. ... Apple butter is a highly concentrated form of applesauce, produced by long, slow cooking of apples with cider or water to a point where the sugar in the apples caramelizes. ...

  • In the UK, a toffee apple is a traditional confection made by coating an apple in hot toffee and allowing it to cool. Similar treats in the US are candy apples (coated in a hard shell of crystallised sugar syrup), and caramel apples, coated with cooled caramel.
  • Apples are eaten with honey at the Jewish New Year of Rosh Hashanah to symbolize a sweet new year.
  • Farms with apple orchards may open them to the public, so consumers may themselves pick the apples they will buy.

Sliced apples turn brown with exposure to air due to the conversion of natural phenolic substances into melanin upon exposure to oxygen. Different cultivars differ in their propensity to brown after slicing. Sliced fruit can be treated with acidulated water to prevent this effect. Candy apples (UK/IRL/AUS: Toffee apples) are a common treat at Halloween because the holiday comes in the wake of the annual apple harvest. ... English Toffee (the chewy sort) in cellophane wrapping Toffee is a confection made by boiling molasses or sugar along with butter, milk and occasionally flour. ... Candy apples (United Kingdom/Ireland/Australia: Toffee apples) are a common treat at Halloween because the holiday comes in the wake of the annual apple harvest. ... Caramel apples are apples coated with caramel, generally skewered on a thin wooden stick. ... Caramel candy For other uses, see Caramel (disambiguation). ... Look up Rosh Hashanah in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Acidulated water is water where some sort of acid is added—often lemon juice, lime juice, or vinegar—to prevent fruits or vegetables from browning so as to maintain a visual purity. ...


Health benefits

Apples, with skin (edible parts)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 50 kcal   220 kJ
Carbohydrates     13.81 g
- Sugars  10.39 g
- Dietary fiber  2.4 g  
Fat 0.17 g
Protein 0.26 g
Thiamin (Vit. B1)  0.017 mg   1%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)  0.026 mg   2%
Niacin (Vit. B3)  0.091 mg   1%
Pantothenic acid (B5)  0.061 mg  1%
Vitamin B6  0.041 mg 3%
Folate (Vit. B9)  3 μg  1%
Vitamin C  4.6 mg 8%
Calcium  6 mg 1%
Iron  0.12 mg 1%
Magnesium  5 mg 1% 
Phosphorus  11 mg 2%
Potassium  107 mg   2%
Zinc  0.04 mg 0%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

An old proverb attests to the health benefits of the fruit: "An apple a day keeps the doctor away." Research suggests that apples may reduce the risk of colon cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer.[3] Like many fruits, apples contain Vitamin C as well as a host of other antioxidant compounds, which may reduce the risk of cancer by preventing DNA damage. The fiber content, while less than in most other fruits, helps regulate bowel movements and may thus reduce the risk of colon cancer. They may also help with heart disease, weight loss and controlling cholesterol, as they do not have any cholesterol, have fibre (which reduces cholesterol by preventing reabsorption), and are bulky for their caloric content like most fruits and vegetables. Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Thiamine mononitrate Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is a colorless compound with chemical formula C12H17ClN4OS. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin required to sustain life (essential nutrient). ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Introduction Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... Look up proverb in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Diagram of the stomach, colon, and rectum Colorectal cancer includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... HRPC redirects here. ... Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... Weight loss, in the context of medicine or health or physical fitness, is a reduction of the total body weight, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue and/or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon and other connective tissue. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ...


A group of chemicals in apples could protect the brain from the type of damage that triggers such neurodegenerative diseases as Alzheimer's and Parkinsonism. Chang Y. 'Cy' Lee of the Cornell University found that the apple phenolics, which are naturally occurring antioxidants found in fresh apples, can protect nerve cells from neurotoxicity induced by oxidative stress. The researchers used red delicious apples from New York State to provide the extracts to study the effects of phytochemicals. Lee said that all apples are high in the critical phytonutrients and that the amount of phenolic compounds in the apple flesh and in the skin vary from year to year, season to season and from growing region to growing region (November/December 2004 issue of the Journal of Food Science). The predominant phenolic phytochemicals in apples are quercetin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 (PMID 14558772). Neurodegenerative disease (Greek νέυρο-, néuro-, nerval and Latin dēgenerāre, to decline or to worsen) is a condition in which cells of the brain and spinal cord are lost. ... Alzheimers disease (AD) or senile dementia of Alzheimers type is a neurodegenerative disease which results in a loss of mental functions due to the deterioration of brain tissue. ... Parkinsonism (also known as Parkinsons syndrome, atypical Parkinsons, or secondary Parkinsons) is a neurological syndrome characterized by tremor, hypokinesia, rigidity, and postural instability. ... Cornell redirects here. ... Phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl functional group (-OH) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. ... An antioxidant is a chemical that prevents the oxidation of other chemicals. ... Neurons (also called nerve cells) are the primary cells of the nervous system. ... Oxidative stress is a medical term for damage to animal or plant cells (and thereby the organs and tissues composed of those cells) caused by reactive oxygen species, which include (but are not limited to) superoxide, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite or hydrogen peroxide. ... Phytochemicals are sometimes referred to as phytonutrients and these terms are often used interchangeably. ... Phytochemicals are sometimes referred to as phytonutrients and these terms are often used interchangeably. ... Quercetin is a flavonoid that forms the backbone for many other flavonoids, including the citrus flavonoids rutin, hesperidin, naringin and tangeritin. ... Epicatechin Epigallocatechin Catechins are bioflavonoids, polyphenols and powerful anti-oxidants. ... Proanthocyanidin (also known as oligomeric proanthocyanidin (OPC), pycnogenol, leukocyanidin and leucoanthocyanin) is a class of flavonoids. ...


The seeds are mildly poisonous, containing a small amount of amygdalin, a cyanogenic glycoside, but a large amount would need to be chewed to have any toxic effect.[4] A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Chemical structure of Amygdalin Amygdalin (from Greek: , almond), C20H27NO11, is a glycoside isolated from bitter almonds by H. E. Robiquet and A. F. Boutron-Charlard in 1830, and subsequently investigated by Liebig and Wöhler, and others. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... A glycoside is a molecule where a sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to a nonsugar group by either an oxygen or a nitrogen atom. ...


Apple consumption can help remove trapped food and clean between the teeth, but the malic acid contained within the fruit is also capable of eroding tooth enamel over time, and through excess consumption. Malate redirects here. ... Tooth enamel is the hardest and most highly mineralized substance of the body , and with dentin, cementum, and dental pulp is one of the four major parts of the tooth. ...


Cultural aspects

For the allegorical use of the apple in religion, mythology and folktales, as well as other cultural aspects, see : Apple symbolism.

Apples appear in many religious traditions, often as a mystical and forbidden fruit. One of the problems identifying apples in religion, mythology and folktales is that the word "apple" was used as a generic term for all fruit, other than berries but including nuts, as late as the 1600s. For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... Folklore is the ethnographic concept of the tales, legends, or superstitions current among a particular ethnic population, a part of the oral history of a particular culture. ... Apples appear in many religious traditions, often as a mystical fruit and in Christianity as a forbidden fruit. ... Major world religions have been distinguished from minor religions using a variety of methods, though any such division naturally reflects a particular bias, since many adherent of a religion are likely to consider their own faith major. Two methods are mentioned in this article, number of adherents and the definitions... In the Bible, the forbidden fruit is the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil eaten by Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. ... Many inventions and institutions are created, including Hans Lippershey with the telescope (1608, used by Galileo the next year), the newspaper Avisa Relation oder Zeitung in Augsburg, and Cornelius Drebbel with the thermostat (1609). ...


Storage

Commercially, apples can be stored for some months in controlled-atmosphere chambers to delay ethylene-induced onset of ripening. Ripening begins when the fruit is removed.[5] For home storage, most varieties of apple can be stored for approximately two weeks, when kept at the coolest part of the refrigerator. Some types of apple, including the Granny Smith and Fuji, have an even longer shelf life.[6] Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ... Granny Smith, or green apple, is an apple cultivar. ... Fuji Kiku on a tree The Fuji apple is an apple cultivar developed by growers at the Tohoku Research Station in Morioka, Japan in the late 1930s and brought to market in 1962. ...


See also

Applefest is a yearly festival held in Franklin, Pennsylvania starting on the first Friday of October that attracts over 30,000 people. ... Apple picking is a recreational activity which occurs during harvest time in areas with apple farms. ... A cooking apple is an apple that is used primarily for cooking rather than eating fresh. ... A cider apple is a cultivar of apple grown for its use in cider production. ... Fruit tree propagation is usually carried out through asexual reproduction by grafting or budding the desired variety onto a suitable rootstock. ... Apples are self incompatible and must be cross pollinated. ... Fruit Tree Forms The shapes of most fruit trees can be manipulated by pruning and training in order to increase yield, or to improve their suitability for different situations and conditions. ... An illustration for a pear variety from the Pomona The Herefordshire Pomona is a 19th century catalogue of the apples and pears that were grown in the county of Herefordshire in England. ... Granny Smith, an apple cultivar Over 7,500 cultivars of the apple are known. ... Pruning is a technique that is employed by gardeners in order to control growth, remove dead or diseased wood or stimulate the formation of flowers and fruit buds. ...

References

  1. ^ Stalking the Placid Apple’s Untamed Kin; By HAROLD McGEE; Published: November 21, 2007; NY Times
  2. ^ http://www.bestapples.com/facts/organic.html The Best Organic Apples On Earth
  3. ^ Information about cancer, from Stanford comprehensive cancer center.
  4. ^ Raw Food Toxins. Retrieved on 2006-09-16.
  5. ^ Controlled Atmosphere Storage
  6. ^ Food Science Australia (February, 2005). Food Science Australia Fact Sheet: Refrigerated storage of perishable foods (English). Retrieved on 2007-05-25.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Look up Apple in
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Download high resolution version (640x960, 70 KB) Apples are an all-American success story-each of us eats more than 19 pounds of them annually. ...


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