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Encyclopedia > Appetite

The appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. Appetite exists in all higher lifeforms, and serves to regulate adequate energy intake to maintain metabolic needs. It is regulated by a close interplay between the digestive tract, adipose tissue and the brain. Decreased desire to eat is termed anorexia, while polyphagia (or "hyperphagia") is increased eating. Disregulation of appetite contributes to anorexia nervosa and cachexia, or in the opposite case, overeating. Look up desire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In general terms, eating (formally, ingestion) is the process of consuming something edible, i. ... For the 1983 horror film, see The Hunger. ... Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medecina, first published 1614 Metabolism (from μεταβολισμος (metabolismos)) is the biochemical modification of chemical compounds in living organisms anggjgjhnd cell (b). ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... Adipose tissue is an anatomical term for loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes. ... Comparative brain sizes In animals, the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system. ... Anorexia (deriving from the Greek α(ν)- (a(n)-, a prefix that denotes absence) + όρεξη (orexe) = appetite) is the decreased sensation of appetite. ... Phagy or phagia is an ecological term that is used to identify particular nutritional systems. ... For other uses, see Anorexia nervosa (disambiguation). ... Overeating is a behavior that generally is not a medical problem in some cases is a symptom of binge eating disorder or bulimia. ...

Contents


Regulation

The regulation of appetite has been the subject of much research in the last decade. Breakthroughs included the discovery, in 1994, of leptin, a hormone that appeared to provide negative feedback. Later studies showed that appetite regulation is an immensely complex process involving the gastrointestinal tract, many hormones, and both the central and autonomic nervous systems. 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... Leptin is a 16 kDa protein hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure (appetite and metabolism). ... The gastrointestinal tract or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal, (nourishment canal) or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ... A hormone (from Greek horman - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Effector

The hypothalamus, a part of the brain, is the main regulatory organ for human appetite. The neurones that regulate appetite appear to be mainly serotonergic, although neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Agouti-related peptide (AGRP) also play a vital role. Hypothalamocortical and hypothalamolimbic projections contribute to the awareness of hunger, and the somatic processes controlled by the hypothalamus include vagal tone (the activity of the parasympathic autonomic nervous system), stimulation of the thyroid (thyroxine regulates the metabolic rate), the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and a large amount of other mechanisms. In the anatomy of mammals, the hypothalamus is a region of the brain located below the thalamus, forming the major portion of the ventral region of the diencephalon and functioning to regulate certain metabolic processes and other autonomic activities. ... Neurons (also called nerve cells) are the primary cells of the nervous system. ... Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract. ... Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36 amino acid peptide neurotransmitter found in the brain and autonomic nervous system. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion because: nonsense If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... The vagus nerve (or pneumogastric nerve) is the tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves, and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (within the medulla oblongata) and extends, through the jugular foramen, down below the head, to the abdomen. ... It has been suggested that Parasympatholytic be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) is a major part of the neuroendocrine system that controls reactions to stress and has important functions in regulating various body processes such as digestion, the immune system and energy usage. ...


Sensor

The hypothalamus senses external stimuli mainly through a number of hormones such as leptin, ghrelin, PYY 3-36, orexin and cholecystokinin; all modify the hypothalamic response. They are produced by the digestive tract and by adipose tissue (leptin). Systemic mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukins 1 and 6 and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) influence appetite negatively; this mechanism explains why ill people often eat less. Leptin is a 16 kDa protein hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure (appetite and metabolism). ... Ghrelin is a hormone that is produced by cells lining the stomach and stimulates the appetite. ... In biology, the hormone called PYY 3-36 plays a critical role in decreasing appetites, making us aware of fullness of our stomach. ... Orexins, also called hypocretins, are the common names given to a pair of highly excititory neuropeptide hormones that were simultaneously discovered by two groups of reseachers in rat brains. ... Cholecystokinin (from Greek chole, bile; cysto, sac; kinin, move; hence, move the bile-sac (gall bladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. ... Adipose tissue is an anatomical term for loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes. ... In medicine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, cachexin or cachectin) is an important cytokine involved in systemic inflammation and the acute phase response. ... Interleukins are a group of cytokines that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes, hence the -leukin) as a means of communication (inter-). The name is sort of a relic though; it has since been found that interleukins are produced by a wide variety of bodily... Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), also called corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin, is a polypeptide hormone involved in the stress response. ...


In addition, the biological clock (which is regulated by the hypothalamus) modifies hunger. Processes from other cerebral loci, such as from the limbic system and the cerebral cortex, project on the hypothalamus and modify appetite. This explains why in clinical depression and stress, energy intake can change quite drastically. A biological clock enables an organism to anticipate periodical changes in their environment. ... The limbic system within the brain. ... Location of the cerebral cortex Slice of the cerebral cortex, ca. ... Clinical depression is a state of sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ... now. ...


Role in disease

A limited or excessive appetite is not necessarily pathological. Abnormal appetite could be defined as eating habits causing malnutrition on the one side or obesity and its related problems on the other. Malnutrition is a general term for the medical condition caused by an improper or insufficient (undernourished) diet. ...


Both genetic and environmental factors may regulate appetite, and abnormalities in either may lead to abnormal appetite. Poor appetite (anorexia) may have numerous causes, but may be a result of physical (infectious, autoimmune or malignant disease) or psychological (stress, mental disorders) factors. Likewise, hyperphagia (excessive eating) may be a result of hormonal imbalances, mental disorders (e.g. depression) and others. Anorexia (deriving from the Greek α(ν)- (a(n)-, a prefix that denotes absence) + όρεξη (orexe) = appetite) is the decreased sensation of appetite. ... In biology, polyphagia is a type of phagy, referring to an animal that feeds on many kinds of food. ... Clinical depression is a state of sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ...


Dysregulation of appetite lies at the root of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. In addition, decreased response to satiety may promote development of obesity. For other uses, see Anorexia nervosa (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Binge eating disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which a subject: periodically does not exercise control over consumption of food eats an unusually large amount of food at one time eats much more quickly during binge episodes than during normal eating episodes eats until physically uncomfortable eats large amounts of... Satiety, or the feeling of fullness and disappearance of appetite after a meal, is a process mediated by the ventromedial nucleus in the hypothalamus. ...


Various hereditary forms of obesity have been traced to defects in hypothalamic signalling (such as the leptin receptor and the MC-4 receptor), or are still awaiting characterisation (Prader-Willi syndrome). Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is a peptide hormone produced by cells in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. ... Prader-Willi Syndrome is a genetic disorder in which seven genes (or some subset thereof) on chromosome 15 are missing or unexpressed (chromosome 15q partial deletion). ...


Pharmacology

Mechanisms controlling appetite are a potential target for weight loss drugs. Early anorectics were fenfluramine and phentermine. A more recent addition is sibutramine (Reductil®, Meridia®), which increases serotonin and noradrenaline levels in the central nervous system. In addition, recent reports on recombinant PYY 3-36 suggest that this agent may contribute to weight loss by suppressing appetite. The drug Xenical (orlistat) is an alternate treatment which blocks absorbtion of fats, causing them to be passed out as loose bowel movements. Patients can then associate the pain of adominal cramping and the discomfort of loss of bowel control with specific foods, reducing an appetite for them. Anorectics, anorexigenics or appetite suppressants are drugs that reduce the desire to eat (anorectic, from the Greek an- = not and oreg- = extend, reach). (Anorectic is also a term for an anorexic person, a person suffering from Anorexia nervosa. ... Fenfluramine is a drug that was part of the Fen-Phen anti-obesity (the other drug being phentermine). ... Phentermine is a phenethylamine primarily used as an appetite suppressant. ... Sibutramine (Meridia® in the USA, Reductil® in Europe), usually as sibutramide hydrochloride monohydrate, is an orally administered agent for the treatment of obesity. ... Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract. ... Norepinephrine, known as noradrenaline outside the USA, is a catecholamine and a phenethylamine with chemical formula C8H11NO3. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by different genetically modified organisms following insertion of the relevant DNA into their genome. ... In biology, the hormone called PYY 3-36 plays a critical role in decreasing appetites, making us aware of fullness of our stomach. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Orlistat (marketed as Xenical) is a drug designed to treat obesity. ...


Given the epidemic proportions of obesity in the Western world, developments in this area are expected to snowball in the near future, as dieting alone is ineffective in most obese adults.


Further reading

  • Neary NM, Goldstone AP, Bloom SR. Appetite regulation: from the gut to the hypothalamus. Clin Endocrinol (Oxford) 2004;60:153-60. PMID 14725674.
  • Wynne K, Stanley S, Bloom S. The gut and regulation of body weight. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:2576–82. PMID 15181026.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Appetite - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (668 words)
Disregulation of appetite contributes to anorexia nervosa and cachexia, or in the opposite case, overeating.
Abnormal appetite could be defined as eating habits causing malnutrition on the one side or obesity and its related problems on the other.
Dysregulation of appetite lies at the root of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder.
MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Appetite - increased (435 words)
For drugs that cause increased appetite and weight gain, ask your health care provider if you can decrease the dosage or discontinue the medication.
There is an unexplained, persistent increase in appetite.
You may want to add a diagnosis related to increased appetite to your personal medical record.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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