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Encyclopedia > Appendicitis
Appendicitis
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 K35. - K37.
ICD-9 540-543
DiseasesDB 885
MedlinePlus 000256
eMedicine med/3430  emerg/41 ped/127 ped/2925
MeSH C06.405.205.099

Appendicitis (or epityphlitis) is a condition characterized by inflammation of the appendix. All cases require removal of the inflamed appendix, either by laparotomy or laparoscopy. Untreated, mortality is high, mainly due to peritonitis and shock.[1] Reginald Fitz first described acute appendicitis in 1886,[2] and it has been recognized as one of the most common causes of acute abdomen pain worldwide. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // K00-K93 - Diseases of the digestive system (K00-K14) Diseases of oral cavity, salivary glands and jaws (K00) Disorders of tooth development and eruption (K01) Embedded and impacted teeth (K02) Dental caries (K03) Other diseases of hard tissues of teeth (K04) Diseases of pulp and periapical tissues (K040) Pulpitis (K05... // K00-K93 - Diseases of the digestive system (K00-K14) Diseases of oral cavity, salivary glands and jaws (K00) Disorders of tooth development and eruption (K01) Embedded and impacted teeth (K02) Dental caries (K03) Other diseases of hard tissues of teeth (K04) Diseases of pulp and periapical tissues (K040) Pulpitis (K05... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... In human anatomy, the vermiform appendix (or appendix, pl. ... A laparotomy is a surgical maneuver involving an incision through the abdominal wall to gain access into the abdominal cavity. ... Laparoscopic surgery, also called keyhole surgery (when natural body openings are not used), bandaid surgery, or minimally invasive surgery (MIS), is a surgical technique. ... This article is about the medical condition. ...

An acutely inflamed and enlarged appendix, sliced lengthwise
An acutely inflamed and enlarged appendix, sliced lengthwise

Contents

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 328 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 420 pixel, file size: 188 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Inflammation ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 328 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 420 pixel, file size: 188 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Inflammation ...

Causes

Location of the appendix in the digestive system
Location of the appendix in the digestive system

On the basis of experimental evidence, acute appendicitis seems to be the end result of a primary obstruction of the appendix lumen[3][4]. Once this obstruction occurs the appendix subsequently becomes filled with mucus and swells, increasing pressures within the lumen and the walls of the appendix, resulting in thrombosis and occlusion of the small vessels, and stasis of lymphatic flow. Rarely, spontaneous recovery can occur at this point. As the former progresses, the appendix becomes ischemic and then necrotic. As bacteria begin to leak out through the dying walls, pus forms within and around the appendix (suppuration). The end result of this cascade is appendiceal rupture causing peritonitis, which may lead to septicemia and eventually death. Among the causative agents, such as foreign bodies, trauma, intestinal worms, and lymphadenitis, the occurrence of an obstructing fecalith has attracted attention. The prevalence of fecaliths in patients with appendicitis is significantly higher in developed than in developing countries[5], and an appendiceal fecalith is commonly associated with complicated appendicitis[6]. Also, fecal stasis and arrest may play a role, as demonstrated by a significantly lower number of bowel movements per week in patients with acute appendicitis compared with healthy controls[7]. The occurrence of a fecalith in the appendix seems to be attributed to a right sided fecal retention reservoir in the colon and a prolonged transit time[8]. From epidemiological data it has been stated that diverticular disease and adenomatous polyps were unknown and colon cancer exceedingly rare in communities exempt for appendicitis[9][10]. Also, acute appendicitis has been shown to occur antecedent to cancer in the colon and rectum[11]. Several studies offer evidence that a low fiber intake is involved in the pathogenesis of appendicitis[12][13][14]. This is in accordance with the occurrence of a right sided fecal reservoir and that dietary fiber reduces transit time[15]. Image File history File links Stomach_colon_rectum_diagram. ... Image File history File links Stomach_colon_rectum_diagram. ... what was here was sick and improperly spelled. ... artery anatomy, showing lumen The lumen (pl. ... Mucus cells. ... Thrombosis is the formation of a clot or thrombus inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. ... A term indicating that the state of something, which is normally open, is now totally closed. ... The lymphatic system is a complex network of lymphoid organs, lymph nodes, lymph ducts, lymphatic tissues, lymph capillaries and lymph vessels that produce and transport lymph fluid from tissues to the circulatory system. ... In medicine, ischemia (Greek ισχαιμία, isch- is restriction, hema or haema is blood) is a restriction in blood supply, generally due to factors in the blood vessels, with resultant damage or dysfunction of tissue. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to accidental death of cells and living tissue. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... For other uses, see Pus (disambiguation). ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις, putrefaction) is a serious medical condition, resulting from the immune response to a severe infection. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ... Intestinal parasites are parasites that populate the gastro-intestinal tract. ... Lymphadenopathy is a term meaning disease of the lymph nodes. ... A fecaloma (meaning a tumor made of feces, also called fecalith and coprolith, i. ...


Symptoms

Symptoms of acute appendicitis can be classified into two types, typical and atypical.[1] The typical history includes pain starting centrally (periumbilical) before localizing to the right iliac fossa (the lower right side of the abdomen); this is due to the poor localizing (spatial) property of visceral nerves from the mid-gut, followed by the involvement of somatic nerves (parietal peritoneum) as the inflammation progresses. The pain is usually associated with loss of appetite and fever, although the latter isn't a necessary symptom. Nausea or vomiting may occur also the feeling of drowsiness and the feeling of general bad health. With the typical type, diagnosis is easier to make, surgery occurs earlier and findings are often less severe.[1] Abdominal pain can be one of the symptoms associated with transient disorders or serious disease. ... Right iliac fossa (RIF) is an anatomical term that refers to the right-inferior part of the surface of the human abdomen. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Heaving redirects here. ...


Atypical symptoms may include pain beginning and staying in the right iliac fossa, diarrhea and a more prolonged, smoldering course. If an inflamed appendix lies in contact with the bladder, there is frequency of micturition. With post-ileal appendix, marked retching may occur. In medicine, diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), refers to frequent loose or liquid bowel movements. ... Urination, also called micturition, is the process of disposing urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body. ...


Signs

These include localized findings in the right iliac fossa. The abdominal wall becomes very sensitive to gentle pressure (palpation). Also, there is rebound tenderness. In case of a retrocecal appendix, however, even deep pressure in the right lower quadrant may fail to elicit tenderness (silent appendix), the reason being that the cecum, distended with gas, prevents the pressure exerted by the palpating hand from reaching the inflamed appendix. Similarly, if the appendix lies entirely within the pelvis, there is usually complete absence of the abdominal rigidity. In such cases, a digital rectal examination elicits tenderness in the rectovesical pouch. Coughing causes point tenderness in this area (McBurney's point) and this is the least painful way to localize the inflamed appendix. If the abdomen on palpation is also involuntarily guarded (rigid), there should be a strong suspicion of peritonitis requiring urgent surgical intervention. Other signs are: Look up palpation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Rebound tenderness is a clinical sign resulting from physical examination of the abdomen. ... The cecum or caecum (from the Latin caecus meaning blind) is a pouch connected to the ascending colon of the large intestine and the ileum. ... McBurneys point is the name given to the point over the right side of the human abdomen that is one-third the distance from the ASIS (anterior superior iliac spine) to the umbilicus. ...


Rovsing's sign

Deep palpation of the left iliac fossa may cause pain in the right iliac fossa. Also known as: Rovsing's symptom named after Niels Thorkild Rovsing. This sign is used in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Pressure over the descending colon causes pain in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen. [16]


Psoas sign

Occasionally, an inflamed appendix lies on the psoas muscle and the patient will lie with the right hip flexed for pain relief. Psoas can refer to: Psoas major muscle Psoas minor muscle Category: ...


Obturator sign

If an inflamed appendix is in contact with the obturator internus, spasm of the muscle can be demonstrated by flexing and internally rotating the hip. This manouvre will cause pain in the hypogastrium. The obturator internus muscle originates on the medial surface of the obturator membrane, the ischium near the membrane, and the rim of the pubis. ... The hypogastrium (or hypogastric region, or pubic region) is an area of the human abdomen residing below the umbilicus. ...


Investigations

Diagnosis is based on patient history (symptoms) and physical examination backed by an elevation of neutrophilic white blood cells. Atypical histories often require imaging with ultrasound and/or CT scanning.[1] A pregnancy test is vital in all women of child bearing age, as ectopic pregnancies mimic appendicitis. The consequences of missing an ecoptic pregnancy are serious, and potentially life threatening. Furthermore the general principles of approaching abdominal pain in women (in so much that it is different from the approach in men), should be appreciated. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...


Ultrasonography and Doppler sonography provide useful means to detect appendicitis, especially in children. In some cases (15% approximately), however, ultrasonography of the iliac fossa does not reveal any abnormalities despite the presence of appendicitis. This is especially true of early appendicitis before the appendix has become significantly distended and in adults where larger amounts of fat and bowel gas make actually seeing the appendix technically difficult. Despite these limitations, in experienced hands sonographic imaging can often distinguish between appendicitis and other diseases with very similar symptoms such as inflammation of lymph nodes near the appendix or pain originating from other pelvic organs such as the ovaries or fallopian tubes. Medical ultrasonography is an ultrasound-based imaging diagnostic technique used to visualize internal organs, their size, structure and their pathological lesions. ... ... The internal surface of the ala is bounded above by the crest, below, by the arcuate line; in front and behind, by the anterior and posterior borders. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ...


In places where it is readily available, CT scan has become the diagnostic test of choice, especially in adults whose diagnosis is not obvious on history and physical. (The use of CT in pregnant women and children is significantly limited, however, by concerns regarding radiation exposure.) A properly performed CT scan with modern equipment has a detection rate (sensitivity) of over 95% and a similar specificity. Signs of appendicitis on CT scan include lack of oral contrast (oral dye) in the appendix, direct visualization of appendiceal enlargement (greater than 6 mm in diameter on cross section), and appendiceal wall enhancement (IV dye). The inflammation caused by appendicitis in the surrounding peritoneal fat (so called "fat stranding") can also be observed on CT, providing a mechanism to detect early appendicitis and a clue that appendicitis may be present even when the appendix is not well seen. Thus, diagnosis of appendicitis by CT is made more difficult in very thin patients and in children, both of whom tend to lack significant fat within the abdomen. The utility of CT scanning is made clear, however, by the impact it has had on negative appendectomy rates. For example, use of CT for diagnosis of appendicitis in Boston, MA has decreased the chance of finding a normal appendix at surgery from 20% in the pre-CT era to only 3% according to data from the Massachusetts General Hospital. negron305 Cat scan redirects here. ... The specificity is a statistical measure of how well a binary classification test correctly identifies the negative cases, or those cases that do not meet the condition under study. ...


According to a systematic review from UC-San Francisco comparing ultrasound vs. CT scan, CT scan is more accurate than ultrasound for the diagnosis of appendicitis in adults and adolescents. CT scan has a sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 95%, a positive likelihood ratio of 13.3 (CI, 9.9 to 17.9), and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.09 (CI, 0.07 to 0.12). Ultrasonography had an overall sensitivity of 86%, a specificity of 81%, a positive likelihood ratio of 5.8 (CI, 3.5 to 9.5), and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.19 (CI, 0.13 to 0.27). PMID 15466771 The sensitivity of a binary classification test or algorithm, such as a blood test to determine if a person has a certain disease, or an automated system to detect faulty products in a factory, is a parameter that expresses something about the tests performance. ... The specificity is a statistical measure of how well a binary classification test correctly identifies the negative cases, or those cases that do not meet the condition under study. ... The sensitivity of a binary classification test or algorithm, such as a blood test to determine if a person has a certain disease, or an automated system to detect faulty products in a factory, is a parameter that expresses something about the tests performance. ... The specificity is a statistical measure of how well a binary classification test correctly identifies the negative cases, or those cases that do not meet the condition under study. ...



Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) levels can be used as biomarkers of increased risk of appendiceal rupture among patients with acute appendicitis according to a cohort study.[17] MMP-1 was higher in gangrenous (p<0.05) and perforated appendicitis (p<0.01) compared with controls. MMP-9 was most abundantly expressed in inflamed appendix and reached a tenfold higher expression in all groups with appendicitis compared with controls (p<0.001). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases; other family members are adamalysins, serralysins, and astacins. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Cohort (statistics). ...



A number of clinical and laboratory based scoring systems have been devised to assist diagnosis. The most widely used is Alvarado score.


Alvarado score

Symptoms
Migatory right iliac fossa pain 1 point
Anorexia 1 point
Nausea and vomiting 1 point
Signs
Right iliac fossa tenderness 2 points
Rebound tenderness 1 point
Fever 1 point
Laboratory
Leucocytosis 2 points
Shift to left (segmented neutrophils)
Total score 9 points

A score of 7 or more is strongly predictive of acute appendicitis.
In patients with an equivocal score of 5-6, CT scan further reduces the rate of negative appendicectomy. The internal surface of the ala is bounded above by the crest, below, by the arcuate line; in front and behind, by the anterior and posterior borders. ... Anorexia can refer to: Anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder in which people do not eat correctly due to the obsessive fear of weight gain Anorexia (symptom), the general symptom of decreased appetite Sexual anorexia, a term used to describe a lack of appetite for sex. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Heaving redirects here. ... Rebound tenderness is a clinical sign resulting from physical examination of the abdomen. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... Neutrophil granulocytes (commonly referred to as neutrophils) are a class of white blood cells and are part of the immune system. ...


Treatment

The treatment begins by keeping the patient from eating or drinking anything, even water, in preparation for surgery. An intravenous drip is used to hydrate the patient. Antibiotics given intravenously such as cefuroxime and metronidazole may be administered early to help kill bacteria and thus reduce the spread of infection in the abdomen and postoperative complications in the abdomen or wound. Equivocal cases may become more difficult to assess with antibiotic treatment and benefit from serial examinations. If the stomach is empty (no food in the past six hours) general anaesthesia is usually used. Otherwise, spinal anaesthesia may be used. Fasting is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ...


The surgical procedure for the removal of the appendix is called an appendicectomy (also known as an appendectomy). Often now the operation can be performed via a laparoscopic approach, or via three small incisions with a camera to visualize the area of interest in the abdomen. If the findings reveal suppurative appendicitis with complications such as rupture, abscess, adhesions, etc., conversion to open laparotomy may be necessary. An open laparotomy incision if required most often centers on the area of maximum tenderess, McBurney's point, in the right lower quadrant. A transverse or a gridiron diagonal incision is used most commonly. “Surgeon” redirects here. ... An appendicectomy in progress An appendicectomy (or appendectomy) is the surgical removal of the vermiform appendix. ... Laparoscopic surgery, also called keyhole surgery (when natural body openings are not used), bandaid surgery, or minimally invasive surgery (MIS), is a surgical technique. ... McBurneys point is the name given to the point over the right side of the human abdomen that is one-third the distance from the ASIS (anterior superior iliac spine) to the umbilicus. ...


In March 2008, an American woman had her appendix removed via her vagina, in a medical first [1]


According to a meta-analysis from the Cochrane Collaboration comparing laparoscopic and open procedures, laparoscopic procedures seem to have various advantages over the open procedure. Wound infections were less likely after laparoscopic appendicectomy than after open appendicectomy (odds ratio 0.45; CI 0.35 to 0.58), but the incidence of intraabdominal abscesses was increased (odds ratio 2.48; CI 1.45 to 4.21). The duration of surgery was 12 minutes (CI 7 to 16) longer for laparoscopic procedures. Pain on day 1 after surgery was reduced after laparoscopic procedures by 9 mm (CI 5 to 13 mm) on a 100 mm visual analogue scale. Hospital stay was shortened by 1.1 day (CI 0.6 to 1.5). Return to normal activity, work, and sport occurred earlier after laparoscopic procedures than after open procedures. While the operation costs of laparoscopic procedures were significantly higher, the costs outside hospital were reduced. Young female, obese, and employed patients seem to benefit from the laparoscopic procedure more than other groups. [18] A meta-analysis is a statistical practice of combining the results of a number of studies. ... The Cochrane Collaboration developed in response to Archie Cochranes call for systematic, up-to-date reviews (currently known as systematic reviews) of all relevant randomized clinical trials of health care. ... Laparoscopic surgery, also called keyhole surgery (when natural body openings are not used), bandaid surgery, or minimally invasive surgery (MIS), is a surgical technique. ... Laparoscopic surgery, also called keyhole surgery (when natural body openings are not used), bandaid surgery, or minimally invasive surgery (MIS), is a surgical technique. ... Laparoscopic surgery, also called keyhole surgery (when natural body openings are not used), bandaid surgery, or minimally invasive surgery (MIS), is a surgical technique. ... An appendicectomy in progress An appendicectomy (or appendectomy) is the surgical removal of the vermiform appendix. ... The odds-ratio is a statistical measure, particularly important in Bayesian statistics and logistic regression. ... The odds-ratio is a statistical measure, particularly important in Bayesian statistics and logistic regression. ...



There is debate whether Emergent Appendicectomy (within 6 hours of admission) reduces the risk of perforation or complication versus Urgent Appendicectomy (greater than 6 hours after admission). According to a retrospective case review study [19] no significant differences in perforation rate among the two groups were noted (P=.397). Various complications (abscess formation, re-admission) showed no significant differences (P=0.667, 0.999). According to this study, beginning antibiotic therapy and delaying appendicectomy from the middle of the night to the next day does not significantly increase the risk of perforation or other complications. An appendicectomy in progress An appendicectomy (or appendectomy) is the surgical removal of the vermiform appendix. ... An appendicectomy in progress An appendicectomy (or appendectomy) is the surgical removal of the vermiform appendix. ... An appendicectomy in progress An appendicectomy (or appendectomy) is the surgical removal of the vermiform appendix. ...



Surgery may last from 15 minutes in typical appendicitis in thin patients to several hours in complicated cases. Hospital lengths of stay usually range from overnight to a matter of days (rarely weeks in complicated cases.) The pain is not always constant, in some cases it can stop for a day and then come back.


Differential diagnosis

In children:

  • Gastroenteritis, mesenteric adenitis, Meckel's diverticulitis, intussuseption, Henoch-Schõnlein purpura, lobar pneumonia

In adults: See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ...

In elderly: A benign gastric ulcer (from the antrum) of a gastrectomy specimen. ... Pelvic inflammatory disease (or disorder) (PID) is a generic term for inflammation of the female uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries as it progresses to scar formation with adhesions to nearby tissues and organs. ... Benign ovarian cyst. ...

  • diverticulitis, intestinal obstruction, colonic carcinoma, mesenteric infarction, leaking aortic aneurysm.

Prognosis

Most appendicitis patients recover easily with surgical treatment, but complications can occur if treatment is delayed or if peritonitis occurs.


Recovery time depends on age, condition, complications, and other circumstances, including the amount of alcohol consumption, but usually is between 10 and 28 days. For young children (around 10 years old) the recovery takes three weeks.


The real possibility of life-threatening peritonitis is the reason why acute appendicitis warrants speedy evaluation and treatment. The patient may have to undergo a medical evacuation. Appendectomies have occasionally been performed in emergency conditions (i.e. outside of a proper hospital), when a timely medical evaluation was impossible. A Beech KingAir of the Australian Royal Flying Doctor Service. ...


Typical acute appendicitis responds quickly to appendectomy and occasionally will resolve spontaneously. If appendicitis resolves spontaneously, it remains controversial whether an elective interval appendectomy should be performed to prevent a recurrent episode of appendicitis. Atypical appendicitis (associated with suppurative appendicitis) is more difficult to diagnose and is more apt to be complicated even when operated early. In either condition prompt diagnosis and appendectomy yield the best results with full recovery in two to four weeks usually. Mortality and severe complications are unusual but do occur, especially if peritonitis persists and is untreated. Another entity known as appendicular lump is talked about quite often.It happens when appendix is not removed early during infection and omentum and intestine get adherent to it forming a palpable lump.During this period operation is risky unless there is pus formation evident by fever and toxicity or by USG. Medical management treats the condition.


An unusual complication of an appendectomy is "stump appendicitis": inflammation occurs in the remnant appendiceal stump left after a prior, incomplete appendectomy.[20]


References

  1. ^ a b c d Hobler, K. (Spring 1998). "Acute and Suppurative Appendicitis: Disease Duration and its Implications for Quality Improvement". Permanente Medical Journel 2 (2). 
  2. ^ Fitz, RH. Perforating inflammation of the vermiform appendix with special reference to its early diagnosis and treatment. Am J Med Sci 1886; 92:321
  3. ^ Wangensteen OH, Bowers WF. Significance of the obstructive factor in the genesis of acute appendicitis. Arch Surg 1937;34:496-526
  4. ^ Pieper R, Kager L, Tidefelt U.Obstruction of appendix vermiformis causing acute appendicitis: An experimental study in rabbit. Acta Chir Scand 1982;148:63-72
  5. ^ Jones BA, Demetriades D, Segal I, Burkitt DP. The prevalence of appendiceal fecaliths in patients with and without appendicitis: A comparative study from Canada and South Africa. Ann Surg 1985;202:80-2
  6. ^ Nitecki S, Karmeli R, Sarr MG. Appendiceal calculi and fecaliths as indications for appendectomy. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1990;171:185-8
  7. ^ Arnbjoernson E. Acute appendicitis related to fecal stasis. Ann Chir Gynecol 1985;74:90-3
  8. ^ Raahave D, Christensen E, Moeller H. Origin of acute appendicitis: Fecal retention in colonic reservoirs: A case control study. Surg Infect 2007;8:55-61
  9. ^ Burkitt DP. The aethiology of appendicitis. Br J Surg 1971;58:695-9
  10. ^ Segal I, Walker ARP. Diverticular disease in urban Africans in South Africa. Digestion 1982;24:42-6
  11. ^ Arnbjoernson E. Acute appendicitis as a sign of a colorectal carcinoma. J Surg Oncol 1982;20:17-20
  12. ^ Burkitt DP, Walker ARP, Painter NS. Effect of dietary fibre on stools and transit-times, and its role in the causation of disease. Lancet 1972;300:1408-12
  13. ^ Adamis D, Roma-Giannikou E, Karamolegou K. Fiber intake and childhood appendicitis. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2000;51:153-7
  14. ^ Hugh TB, Hugh TJ, "Appendicectomy — becoming a rare event?" MJA 2001; 175: 7-8
  15. ^ Gear JSS, Brodribb AJM, Ware A. Fiber and bowel transit times. Br J Nutr 1981;45:77-82
  16. ^ N. T. Rovsing: Indirektes Hervorrufen des typischen Schmerzes an McBurney's Punkt. Ein Beitrag zur diagnostik der Appendicitis und Typhlitis. Zentralblatt für Chirurgie, Leipzig, 1907, 34: 1257-1259.
  17. ^ Solberg A, Holmdahl L, Falk P, Palmgren I, Ivarsson ML (2008). "A local imbalance between MMP and TIMP may have an implication on the severity and course of appendicitis". Int J Colorectal Dis: 611. doi:10.1007/s00384-008-0452-x. PMID 18347803. 
  18. ^ Sauerland S, Lefering R, Neugebauer EA (2004). "Laparoscopic versus open surgery for suspected appendicitis". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD001546. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001546.pub2. PMID 15495014. 
  19. ^ Yardeni D, Hirschl RB, Drongowski RA, Teitelbaum DH, Geiger JD, Coran AG (2004). "Delayed versus immediate surgery in acute appendicitis: do we need to operate during the night?". J. Pediatr. Surg. 39 (3): 464-9; discussion 464-9. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2003.11.020. PMID 15017571. 
  20. ^ Liang MK, Lo HG, Marks JL (2006). "Stump appendicitis: a comprehensive review of literature". The American surgeon 72 (2): 162-6. PMID 16536249. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

Mayo Clinic is a medical practice based in Rochester, Minnesota, USA, integrated with hospital facilities and a medical school. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
eMedicine - Appendicitis : Article by Luigi Santacroce, MD (6079 words)
Appendicitis may occur for several reasons, such as an infection of the appendix, but the most important step is the obstruction of the appendiceal lumen.
Etiology: Appendicitis is caused by obstruction of the appendiceal lumen.
Lamps LW: Appendicitis and infections of the appendix.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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