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Encyclopedia > Appeal to consequences
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Appeal to consequences, also known as argumentum ad consequentiam (Latin: argument to the consequences), is an argument that concludes a premise (typically a belief) to be either true or false based on whether the premise leads to desirable or undesirable consequences. This is based on an appeal to emotion and is considered to be a form of logical fallacy, since the appeal of a consequence does not address the truth value of the premise. Moreover, in categorizing consequences as either desirable or undesirable, such arguments inherently contain subjective points of view. Jump to: navigation, search Latin is an Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The word premise came from Latin praemisus meaning placed in front. A premise (sometimes spelled premiss in philosophy) is a statement presumed true within the context of a discourse, especially of a logical argument. ... Appeal to emotion is a logical fallacy wherein the arguer (who is using this fallacy) takes advantage of emotion to prove his or her argument. ... A logical fallacy is an error in logical argument which is independent of the truth of the premises. ... In logic, a truth value, or truth-value, is a value indicating to what extent a statement is true. ... Perspective in theory of cognition is the choice of a context or a reference (or the result of this choice) from which to sense, categorize, measure or codify experience, cohesively forming a coherent belief, typically for comparing with another. ...


Appeal to consequences, however, does not refer to arguments that address whether a premise is a "good" or "bad" (as opposed to true or false) based on the appeal of its consequence, which are not logical arguments but are, instead, ethical arguments. Logic (from ancient Greek λόγος (logos), meaning reason) is the study of arguments. ... Jump to: navigation, search Ethics is the branch of axiology – one of the four major branches of philosophy, alongside metaphysics, epistemology, and logic – which attempts to understand the nature of morality; to define that which is right from that which is wrong. ...

Contents


General form

An argument based on appeal to consequences generally has the following argument form[1]: In logic, the argument form or test form of an argument results from replacing the different words, or sentences, that make up the argument with letters, along the lines of algebra; the letters represent logical variables. ...

If P, then Q will occur.
Q is desirable/undesirable.
Therefore, P is true/false.

A variation known as appeal to consequences of a belief has this form[2]:

The belief in P leads to Q.
Q is a desirable/undesirable.
Therefore, P is true/false.

In addition to being a fallacious form, an especially poor argument of these formats may also contain an invalid premise; that is, P may not even lead to Q. In other words, the alleged causality between P and Q may not exist or may not have been shown to exist. This article discusses validity in logic, for the term in the social sciences see validity (psychometric). ... The word premise came from Latin praemisus meaning placed in front. A premise (sometimes spelled premiss in philosophy) is a statement presumed true within the context of a discourse, especially of a logical argument. ... Jump to: navigation, search The philosophical concept of causality or causation refers to the set of all particular causal or cause-and-effect relations. ...


Positive form

If P, then Q will occur.
Q is desirable.
Therefore, P is true.

It is closely related to wishful thinking in its construction. Wishful thinking is the formation of beliefs and making decisions according to what might be pleasing to imagine instead of by appealing to evidence or rationality. ...


Examples

Jump to: navigation, search Lower-case pi The mathematical constant π is the ratio of a circles circumference (Greek περιφέρεια, periphery) to its diameter and is commonly used in mathematics, physics, and engineering. ... Jump to: navigation, search In mathematics, a rational number (or informally fraction) is a ratio or quotient of two integers, usually written as the vulgar fraction a/b, where b is not zero. ... Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ... In finance, a capital gain is profit that is realized from the sale of an asset that was previously purchased at a lower price. ... Jump to: navigation, search Binomial name Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies Homo sapiens idaltu (extinct) Homo sapiens sapiens For other uses, see Human (disambiguation). ... Faster-than-light (also superluminal or FTL) communications and travel are staples of the science fiction genre. ...

Negative form

If P, then Q will occur.
Q is undesirable.
Therefore, P is false.

Appeal to force is a special instance of this form. Argumentum ad baculum (Latin: argument to the cudgel or appeal to the stick), also known as appeal to horse, is said by some to be a logical fallacy. ...


This form somewhat resembles modus tollens but is both different and fallacious, since "Q is undesirable" is not equivalent to "Q is false". Modus tollens (Latin: mode that denies) is the formal name for indirect proof or proof by contrapositive, often abbreviated to MT. It can also be referred to as denying the consequent. ...


Examples

  • "Wikipedia is seldom wrong: it would not be a reliable source if it contained many errors."
  • "Atheism must be erroneous: it leads to lower church attendance."
  • "Enron can not be guilty: think of all the shares our family owns."

Jump to: navigation, search The Wikipedia logo. ... Jump to: navigation, search It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Wikipedia:Criticisms, but this is disputed. ... Jump to: navigation, search Atheism, in its broadest sense, is characterized by an absence of belief in the existence of god(s), thus contrasting with theism. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

References

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Appeal to consequences - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (350 words)
Appeal to consequences, also known as argumentum ad consequentiam (Latin: argument to the consequences), is an argument that concludes a premise (typically a belief) to be either true or false based on whether the premise leads to desirable or undesirable consequences.
This is based on an appeal to emotion and is considered to be a form of logical fallacy, since consequences do not address the truth value of the premise.
Appeal to consequences, however, does not refer to arguments that address whether a premise is a "good" or "bad" (as opposed to true or false) based on the appeal of its consequence, which are not logical arguments but are, instead, ethical arguments.
USCG Appeal Decision 2412 (Louviere) (1722 words)
The Pennsylvania, 86 U.S 125 (1873); Appeal Decisions 2386 (LOUVIERE), 2358 (BUISSET) and 866 (MAPP).
The consequence, such as a collision, though unnecessary to support a decision finding negligence, may be an aggravating factor, or the lack thereof may be a mitigating factor, and hence it may be proved whether or not it is alleged.
Consequences of a negligent act, such as an allision with a fixed object, may also be alleged to establish a presumption.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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