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Encyclopedia > Apparel
Girls wearing formal attire for dancing, an example of one of the many modern forms of clothing. (Banjul, Gambia)

Clothing is defined, in its broadest sense, as coverings for the torso and limbs as well as coverings for the hands (gloves), feet (socks, shoes, sandals, boots), and head (hats, caps). People almost universally wear clothing, which is also known as dress, garments, attire, or apparel. People wear clothing for functional as well as for social reasons. Clothing protects the vulnerable nude human body from the extremes of weather, other features of our environment, and for safety reasons. Every article of clothing also carries a cultural and social meaning. Human beings are the only mammals known to wear clothing, with the exception of pets clothed by their owners. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... // Long satin gloves Leather gloves A glove (Middle English from Old English glof) is a type of garment which covers the hand of a human. ... Socks Various brands of socks in a pile A sock is a knitted garment for enclosing the human foot. ... A shoe is an item of footwear worn on the foot or feet of a human, dog, cat, horse, or doll. ... Modern multi-colored Sandalette Yoga sandals In some parts of the United States, this type of sandal is referred to in slang as the mandal in that it is worn primarily by men. ... Mexican cowboy boots custom made for Harry S. Truman. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the acronym CAP, see CAP. A cap is a form of headgear. ... The word nude may refer to: The state of nudity. ... The human body is the entire physical structure of a human organism. ... Weather is a term that encompasses phenomena in the atmosphere of a planet. ... Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ...


People also decorate their bodies with makeup or cosmetics, perfume, and other ornamentation; they also cut, dye, and arrange the hair of their heads, faces, and bodies (see hairstyle), and sometimes also mark their skin (by tattoos, scarifications, and piercings). All these decorations contribute to the overall effect and message of clothing, but do not constitute clothing per se. Cosmetics or makeup are substances to enhance the beauty of the human body, apart from simple cleaning. ... For other uses, see Cosmetic. ... Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils and aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give the human body, objects, and living spaces a pleasant smell. ... Variation in the physical appearance of humans is believed by anthropologists to be an important factor in the development of personality and social relations in particular physical attractiveness. ... Modern bearded adult. ... Street haircut in Harbin, China For humans, haircut, hairstyle, or hairdo normally describe cutting or styling head hair. ... A tattoo is a mark made by inserting pigment into the skin; in technical terms, tattooing is dermal pigmentation. ... Scarification is a permanent body modification that uses scar tissue produced by the body to form designs, pictures, or words in the skin. ... Body piercing is a form of body modification. ...


Articles carried rather than worn (such as purses, canes, and umbrellas) are normally counted as fashion accessories rather than as clothing. Jewelry and eyeglasses are usually counted as accessories as well, even though in common speech these items are described as being worn rather than carried. Purses, such as this one by Burberry, are fashion accessories with a function. ... Look up cane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Parasol” redirects here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Jewelry (the American spelling; spelled jewellery in Commonwealth English) consists of ornamental devices worn by persons, typically made with gems and precious metals. ... Glasses, spectacles, or eyeglasses are frames bearing lenses worn in front of the eyes, sometimes for purely aesthetic reasons but normally for vision correction or eye protection. ...

Contents

the major function of clothing

The practical function of clothing is to protect the human body from dangers in the environment: weather (strong sunlight, extreme heat or cold, and precipitation, for example), insects, noxious chemicals, weapons, and contact with abrasive substances, and other hazards. Clothing can protect against many things that might injure the naked human body. In some cases clothing protects the environment from the clothing wearer as well (example: medical scrubs). {{Taxobox | color = pink | name = Insects | fossil_range = Carboniferous - Recent | image = European honey bee extracts nectar. ... The bayonet is used as both knife and spear. ... Scrubs are the shirts and trousers/dresses worn by surgeons, nurses, and other operating room personnel when scrubbing in for surgery. ...


Humans have shown extreme inventiveness in devising clothing solutions to practical problems and the distinction between clothing and other protective equipment is not always clear-cut. See, among others: air conditioned clothing, armor, diving suit, swimsuit, bee-keeper's costume, motorcycle leathers, high-visibility clothing, and protective clothing. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Armor or armour (see spelling differences) is protective clothing intended to defend its wearer from intentional harm in combat and military engagements, typically associated with soldiers. ... Two divers, one wearing a 1 atmosphere diving suit and the other standard diving dress, preparing to explore the wreck of the RMS Lusitania, 1935 A diving suit is a garment or device designed to protect a diver from the underwater environment. ... A swimsuit (also swimmers), bathing suit (also bathers), aqua jammies or swimming costume (sometimes shortened to cozzie) is an item of clothing designed to be worn for swimming. ... Beekeeping, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century) Beekeeping (or apiculture, from Latin apis, a bee) is the practice of intentional maintenance of honey bee colonies, commonly in hives, by humans. ... Motorcycle safety clothing. ... High-visibility clothing is any clothing worn that has highly reflective properties or a color that is easily discernable from any background. ... Protective clothing is clothing designed to protect either the wearers body or other items of clothing from hazards such as heat, chemicals and infection. ...


Clothing as social reason

Social messages sent by clothing, accessories, and decorations can involve social status, occupation, ethnic and religious affiliation, marital status and sexual availability, etc. Humans must know the code in order to recognize the message transmitted. If different groups read the same item of clothing or decoration with different meanings, the wearer may provoke unanticipated responses. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


Social status

In many societies, people of high rank reserve special items of clothing or decoration for themselves as symbols of their social status. In ancient times, only Roman senators could wear garments dyed with Tyrian purple; only high-ranking Hawaiian chiefs could wear feather cloaks and palaoa or carved whale teeth. Under the Travancore kingdom of Kerala (India), lower caste women caste had to pay a tax for the right to cover their upper body. In China before the establishment of the republic, only the emperor could wear yellow. In many cases throughout history, there have been elaborate systems of sumptuary laws regulating who could wear what. In other societies (including most modern societies), no laws prohibit lower-status people wearing high status garments, but the high cost of status garments effectively limits purchase and display. In current Western society, only the rich can afford haute couture. The threat of social ostracism may also limit garment choice. Social status is the standing, the honour or prestige attached to ones position in society. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Murex brandaris, also known as the Spiny dye-murex The chemical structure of 6,6′-dibromoindigo, the main component of Tyrian Purple A space-filling model of 6,6′-dibromoindigo Tyrian purple (Greek: , porphura), also known as royal purple or imperial purple, is a purple-red dye made by the... The Feather Cloak was made in the early 100 BC. It was a garment of great price and value to the Romans because it was thought to grant special powers. ... Motto Three Principles of the People (三民主義 San-min Chu-i) Anthem National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei (de facto)  Nanking (de jure)1  Largest city Taipei Official languages Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Chen Shui-bian  -  Vice President Annette Lu  -  Premier Chang Chun-hsiung... Sumptuary laws (from Latin sumptuariae leges) were laws that regulated and reinforced social hierarchies and morals through restrictions on clothing, food, and luxury expenditures. ... Haute couture (French for high sewing or high dressmaking; IPA: ) refers to the creation of exclusive custom-fitted fashions. ...


Occupation

Military, police, and firefighters usually wear uniforms, as do workers in many industries. School-children often wear school uniforms, while college and university students sometimes wear academic dress. Members of religious groups may wear uniforms known as habits. Sometimes a single item of clothing or a single accessory can declare one's occupation or rank within a profession — for example, the high toque or chef's hat worn by a chief cook. A uniform is a set of standard clothing worn by members of an organisation whilst participating in that organisations activity. ... Students in Bangkok Over one thousand students in uniform during an assembly at a secondary school in Singapore. ... St. ... The ‘Langtry’ toque A toque (pronounced /tok/; for /tuk/ see Canadian variant below) is a type of hat with a narrow brim or no brim at all. ... The Swedish Chef, wearing a chefs hat The traditional chefs hat is a tall white hat with pleats. ...

See also: undercover.

Look up Undercover in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Ethnic, political, and religious affiliation

In many regions of the world, national costumes and styles in clothing and ornament declare membership in a certain village, caste, religion, etc. A Scotsman declares his clan with his tartan. A Muslim woman might wear a hijab to express her religion. A male Sikh may display his religious affiliation by wearing a turban and other traditional clothing. A French peasant woman may identify her village with her cap or coif. Faroese folk dance club with some members in national costumes National costume, also known as national dress, regional costume or folk dress, expresses an identity through costume which usually relates to a geographic area, but can also indicate social, marital and/or religious status. ... A tartan is type of pattern, originating in woven cloth, but now used in many materials. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Illustration of an Islamic headscarf “Higab” redirects here. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi and Hindi A Sikh ( or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The turban (from the Persian , dulband via the Turkish ) is a headdress consisting of a long scarf-like single piece of cloth wound round the head or an inner hat. ... Medieval coif Detail of Edward VI as a child by Holbein, 1538. ...


Clothes can also proclaim dissent from cultural norms and mainstream beliefs, as well as personal independence. In 19th-century Europe, artists and writers lived la vie de Bohème and dressed to shock: George Sand in men's clothing, female emancipationists in bloomers, male artists in velvet waistcoats and gaudy neckcloths. Bohemians, beatniks, hippies, goths, punks and skinheads have continued the (counter-cultural) tradition in the 20th-century West. Now that haute couture plagiarises street fashion within a year or so, street fashion may have lost some of its power to shock, but it still motivates millions trying to look hip and cool. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term Bohemian was first used in the nineteenth century to describe the non-traditional lifestyles of marginalized and impoverished artists, writers, musicians, and actors in major European cities. ... George Sand in 1864 (picture by Nadar). ... For the 1979 sitcom, see Bloomers (television). ... The term Bohemian was first used in the nineteenth century to describe the non-traditional lifestyles of marginalized and impoverished artists, writers, musicians, and actors in major European cities. ... Beatnik cartoon Beatnik is a media stereotype that borrowed the most superficial aspects of the Beat Generation literary movement of the 1950s to present a distorted, cartoon-like misrepresentation of the real-life people found in Jack Kerouacs autobiographical fiction. ... Singer at a modern Hippie movement in Russia A hippie or hippy is a member of a specific subgroup of the counterculture that began in the United States during the early 1960s, spread to other countries, and declined in the mid-1970s. ... Gothic woman, traditional style, with big hair, spikes and piercings Gothic fashion is a dark, sometimes morbid, eroticized fashion and style of dress. ... Punk fashion is the styles of clothing, hairstyles, cosmetics, jewelry, and body modifications of the punk subculture. ... Skinheads, named after their cropped or shaven heads, are members of a working class subculture that originated in Britain in the 1960s, where they were heavily influenced by the rude boys of the West Indies and the mods of the UK. In subsequent decades, the skinhead subculture spread to other... During the 1960s the term underground acquired a new meaning in that it referred to members of the so-called counterculture, i. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Western World. ... Haute couture (French for high sewing or high dressmaking; IPA: ) refers to the creation of exclusive custom-fitted fashions. ... It has been suggested that Japanese fashion be merged into this article or section. ... Bones of the Hip In anatomy, the hip is the bony projection of the femur, known as the greater trochanter, and the overlying muscle and fat. ... Look up Cool in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Marital status

Hindu women, once married, wear sindoor, a red powder, in the parting of their hair; if widowed, they abandon sindoor and jewelry and wear simple white clothing. Men and women of the Western world may wear wedding rings to indicate their marital status. This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Aishwarya Rai as Paro in Devdas with applied Sindoor Sindoor is a red powder used by married Hindu women. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

See also: Visual markers of marital status

Humans use clothing, hairstyle, accessories, jewelry, tattoos, and other bodily adornments as indicators of social status. ...

Sexual availability

Clothing may signal an individual's receptiveness to sexual advances. Some garments signal lack of interest in advances; some garments and accessories indicate openness to flirtation. What constitutes modesty and allurement varies radically from culture to culture, within different contexts in the same culture, and over time as different fashions rise and fall. Often, exposure of skin and hair is an availability signal; covering skin and hair signals unavailability. However, minute adjustments of "modesty" signals can subvert the surface meaning and convey a mixed message ("I'm nice but I like to flirt too"). Fashion illustration by George Barbier of a gown by Jeanne Paquin, 1912, from La Gazette du bon ton, the most influential fashion magazine of its era. ...


The vocabulary of women's clothing is usually more developed than the vocabulary of men's clothing in this regard.


Examples of sexual signaling:

  • In Amish communities, both men and women dress in plain garments that cover the body, without intricate details or patterns. Women also wear a prayer veil. Unmarried women wear black veils, married women wear white ones.
  • Many Muslim women wear a head or body covering (see hijab, burqa or bourqa, chador and abaya) that proclaims their status as "respectable" and modest women.
  • Streetwalking prostitutes in countries such as the United States where prostitution is illegal dress to advertise their status to potential customers, while avoiding anything that might constitute an unambiguous offer of sex for sale (which would increase their chances of being caught and convicted). They tend to wear current fashions in exaggerated form, bare a great deal of skin, and wear heavy makeup.
  • An American or European woman who wants to signal availability must sport some culturally accepted signals of flirtatious intent, but without the exaggeration that might lead others to say that she is dressing like a prostitute. In the last few decades, there has been a consistent trend towards the mainstreaming of formerly extreme fashion, in which "over-the-top" becomes ordinary and loses any shock value it might once have had.

The Amish (Amisch or Amische) (IPA: ) are an Anabaptist Christian denomination in the United States and Canada (Ontario and Manitoba) that are known for their plain dress and limited use of modern conveniences such as automobiles and electricity. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Illustration of an Islamic headscarf “Higab” redirects here. ... Woman in an Afghan burqa A burqa (also burkha, burka or burqua) is an all-enveloping outer garment worn by most women in Afghanistan, and many in India and Pakistan. ... A chador (Persian چادر) is an outer garment worn by some Iranian women when they venture out into public; it is one possible way in which a Muslim woman may follow the Islamic ħijāb dress code. ... A shop selling abayasin Bahrain The abaya is an overgarment worn by some women in Muslim-majority countries. ... Prostitution is the sale of sexual services (typically manual stimulation, oral sex, sexual intercourse, or anal sex) for cash or other kind of return, generally indiscriminately with many persons. ...

Clothing fetishes

Because clothing and adornment have such frequent links with sexual display, humans may develop clothing fetishes. They may strongly prefer to have sexual relations with other humans wearing clothing and accessories they consider arousing or sexy. In Western culture, such fetishes may include extremely high heels, lace, leather, or military clothing. Other cultures have different fetishes. The men of Heian Japan lusted after women with floor-sweeping hair and layers of silk robes. Fetishes vary as much as fashion. Sometimes the clothing itself becomes the object of fetish, such as the case with used girl panties in Japan. A fetish (from French fétiche; from Portuguese feitiço; from Latin facticius, artificial and facere, to make) is an object believed to have supernatural powers, or in particular a man-made object that has power over others. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ... Fashion illustration by George Barbier of a gown by Jeanne Paquin, 1912, from La Gazette du bon ton, the most influential fashion magazine of its era. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Religious habits and special religious clothing

Religious clothing might be considered a special case of occupational clothing. Sometimes it is worn only during the performance of religious ceremonies. However, it may also be worn everyday as a marker for special religious status.


For example, Jains wear unstitched cloth pieces when performing religious ceremonies. The unstitched cloth signifies unified and complete devotion to the task at hand, with no digression. JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ...


The cleanliness of religious dresses in Eastern Religions like Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism is of paramount importance, which indicates purity. Hinduism (known as in some modern Indian languages[1]) is a religion that originated on the Indian subcontinent. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ...

See also: Category:Religious vesture.

Sport and activity

Most sports and physical activities are practised wearing special clothing, for practical, comfort or safety reasons. Common sportswear garments include shorts, T-shirts, polo shirts, tracksuits, and trainers. Specialised garments include wet suits (for swimming, diving or surfing) and salopettes (for skiing). Sportswear is clothing, including footwear, worn for sport or exercise. ... For other uses, see Shorts (disambiguation). ... T-Shirt A T-shirt (or tee shirt) is a shirt with short or long sleeves, a round neck, put on over the head, without pockets. ... Categories: Stub | Tops ... A tracksuit is an article of clothing consisting of two parts- trousers and a jacket. ... A sneaker is an individual hired to break into places in order to test their security; analogous to tiger team. ... Two divers, one wearing a 1 atmosphere diving suit and the other standard diving dress, preparing to explore the wreck of the RMS Lusitania, 1935. ... This article concentrates on human swimming. ... For other uses, see Dive. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A woman in a one-piece ski suit (what could also be called a ski jumpsuit). ... Alpine skier carving a turn on piste Members of the U.S. Air Force skiing (and snowboarding) at Keystone Resorts 14th Annual SnoFest Downhill Ski Racing This article is about snow skiing. ...


Clothing materials

Common clothing materials include:

Less-common clothing materials include: It has been suggested that Textile be merged into this article or section. ... Cotton ready for harvest. ... Binomial name Linum usitatissimum Linnaeus. ... Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, Arizona Wool is the fiber derived from the fur of animals of the Caprinae family, principally sheep, but the hair of certain species of other mammals such as goats, alpacas, llamas and rabbits may also... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaudich. ... Silk dresses Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. ... The label of a coat with Tencel® Lyocell is a fibre made from wood pulp cellulose. ... Synthetic fibers are the result of extensive research by scientists to increase and improve upon the supply of naturally occurring animal and plant fibers that have been used in making cloth and rope. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester is a category of polymers, or, more specifically condensation polymers, which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers first produced on February 28, 1935 by Wallace Carothers at DuPont. ... The down of birds is a layer of fine feathers found under the tougher exterior feathers. ... This article is about the article of clothing. ... A fur mozetta, worn by a canon, Flanders Fur clothing is clothing made entirely of, or partially of, the fur of animals. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ... Denim as used for blue jeans, with a copper rivet to strengthen the pocket. ...

Reinforcing materials such as wood, bone, plastic and metal may be used in fasteners or to stiffen garments. A blank sheet of paper Paper is a commodity of thin material produced by the amalgamation of fibers, typically vegetable fibers composed of cellulose, which are subsequently held together by hydrogen bonding. ... The word Jute is also used in reference to the Germanic people, the Jutes. ... Latex being collected from a tapped rubber tree Rubber is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer which occurs as a milky colloidal suspension (known as latex) in the sap of several varieties of plants. ... Polyvinyl chloride PVC, (IUPAC Polychloroethene) commonly abbreviated PVC, is a widely used thermoplastic polymer. ... Polyethylene terephthalate (aka PET, PETE or the obsolete PETP or PET-P) is a thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family that produced by the chemical industry and is used in synthetic fibers; beverage, food and other liquid containers; thermoforming applications; and engineering resins often in combination with glass fiber. ... Tyvek house wrap Tyvek suit Tyvek USPS Express Mail Envelope Tyvek is a brand of spunbonded olefin, a synthetic material made of high-density polyethylene fibers; the name is a registered trademark of the DuPont Company. ... Rayon is a manufactured regenerated cellulosic fiber. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Diversity Around 91 genera and 1,000 species Subtribes Arthrostylidiinae Arundinariinae Bambusinae Chusqueinae Guaduinae Melocanninae Nastinae Racemobambodinae Shibataeinae See the full Taxonomy of the Bambuseae. ... Cotton ready for harvest. ... Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fiber. ... Trunks A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood is a solid material derived from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of a human femur. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Hot metal work from a blacksmith In chemistry, a metal (Greek: Metallon) is an element that readily loses electrons to form positive ions (cations) and has metallic bonds between metal atoms. ... A fastener is a hardware device that mechanically joins or affixes two or more objects together. ...


Clothing maintenance

Clothing, once manufactured, suffers assault both from within and from without. The human body inside sheds skin cells and body oils, and exudes sweat, urine, and feces. (ermmm, totally disgust). From the outside, sun damage, damp, abrasion, dirt, and other indignities afflict the garment. Fleas and lice take up residence in clothing seams. Well-worn clothing, if not cleaned and refurbished, will smell, itch, look scruffy, and lose functionality (as when buttons fall off and zippers fail). A small flat button Metal, plastic, and leather shank buttons. ... Zipper slider brings together the two sides A zipper (British English: zip fastener or zip) is a popular device for temporarily joining two edges of fabric. ...


In some cases, people simply wear an item of clothing until it falls apart. Cleaning leather presents difficulties; one cannot wash bark cloth (tapa) without dissolving it. Owners may patch tears and rips, and brush off surface dirt, but old leather and bark clothing will always look old.


But most clothing consists of cloth, and most cloth can be laundered and mended (patching, darning, but compare felt). Italian street, with laundry hung to dry Laundry can be: items of clothing and other textiles that require washing, the act of washing clothing and textiles, the room of a house in which this is done. ... Cashmere darn, a fine darning technique for twill fabric, from The Dictionary of Needlework, 1885. ... A selection of 4 different felt cloths. ...


Laundry, ironing, storage

Humans have developed many specialized methods for laundering, ranging from the earliest "pound clothes against rocks in running stream" to the latest in electronic washing machines and dry cleaning (dissolving dirt in solvents other than water). Front-loading washing machine. ... Dry cleaning is any cleaning process for clothing and textiles using an organic solvent other than water -- generally known as dry cleaning fluid, and typically this is tetrachloroethylene. ... A substance is soluble in a fluid if it dissolves in the fluid. ...


Many kinds of clothing are designed to be ironed before they are worn to remove wrinkles. Most modern formal and semi-formal clothing is in this category (for example, dress shirts and suits). Ironed clothes are believed to look clean, fresh, and neat. However, much contemporary casual clothing is made of knit materials that do not readily wrinkle and so do not have to be ironed. Some clothing is permanent press, meaning that it has been treated with a synthetic coating (such as polytetrafluoroethylene) that suppresses wrinkles and creates a smooth appearance without ironing. An iron Ironing or smoothing is the work of using a heated tool to remove wrinkles from washed clothes. ... In American English, a dress shirt is a mens shirt with a collar, a full-length opening up the front from the collar to the hem, and full length sleeves with cuffs. ... Suits from the 1937 Chicago Woolen Mills catalog At the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 heads of state wore morning dress or lounge suits for more informal meetings but frock coats for formal daytime meetings A suit, with varieties such as a business suit, three-piece suit... A permanent press is a fabric that has been chemically processed with methanol to resist wrinkles and hold its shape. ... Teflon is polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), a polymer of fluorinated ethylene. ...


Once clothes have been laundered and possibly ironed, they are usually hung up on clothes hangers or folded, to keep them fresh until they are worn. Clothes are folded to allow them to be stored compactly, to prevent creasing, to preserve creases or to present them in a more pleasing manner, for instance when they are put on sale in stores. Wire (top) and wooden (bottom) clothes hangers A clothes hanger, or coat hanger, is a device in the shape of human shoulders designed to facilitate the hanging of a coat, jacket, sweater, shirt, blouse or dress in a manner that prevents wrinkles, with a lower bar for the hanging of... Fold may refer to: Look up Folding in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In the sport of cricket, the crease is the area demarcated by white lines painted or chalked on the field of play. ...


Many kinds of clothes are folded before they are put in suitcases as preparation for travel. Other clothes, such as suits, may be hung up in special garment bags, or rolled rather than folded. Many people use their clothing as packing material around fragile items that might otherwise break in transit. A typical suitcase A suitcase is a narrow box-shaped bag, usually made of cloth or vinyl that more or less keeps its shape, has a handle at one end and is used mainly for transporting clothes and other possessions during trips. ... Suits from the 1937 Chicago Woolen Mills catalog At the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 heads of state wore morning dress or lounge suits for more informal meetings but frock coats for formal daytime meetings A suit, with varieties such as a business suit, three-piece suit...


Mending

In past times, mending was an art. A meticulous tailor or seamstress could mend rips with thread raveled from hems and seam edges so skillfully that the darn was practically invisible. When the raw material — cloth — was worth more than labor, it made sense to expend labor in saving it. Today clothing is considered a consumable item. Mass-manufactured clothing is less expensive than the time it would take to repair it. Many people prefer to buy a new piece of clothing rather than to spend their time mending old clothes. But the thrifty still replace zippers and buttons and sew up ripped hems. Mending is referred to as the fixing of something that is broken. ... A tailor attending to a customer in Hong Kong. ... Turn of the century sewing in Detroit, Michigan An old sewing machine Sewing is an ancient craft involving the stitching of cloth, animal skins, furs, or other materials, using needle and thread. ... For a place in France, see Hem, France For the band, see Hem (band) To hem a piece of cloth, the cut edges are folded up, folded up again, and then sewed down. ... Zipper slider brings together the two sides A zipper (British English: zip fastener or zip) is a popular device for temporarily joining two edges of fabric. ... A small flat button Metal, plastic, and leather shank buttons. ... For a place in France, see Hem, France For the band, see Hem (band) To hem a piece of cloth, the cut edges are folded up, folded up again, and then sewed down. ...


The life cycle of clothing

Used, no-longer-wearable clothing was once desirable raw material for quilts, rag rugs, bandages, and many other household uses. It could also be recycled into paper. Now it is usually thrown away. Used but still wearable clothing can be sold at consignment shops, flea markets, online auction, or just donated to charity. Charities usually skim the best of the clothing to sell in their own thrift stores and sell the rest to merchants, who bale it up and ship it to poor Third World countries, where vendors bid for the bales and then make what profit they can selling used clothing. A quilt is a type of puppy with long fluffy ears. ... Bandages are also used for martial arts. ... A blank sheet of paper Paper is a commodity of thin material produced by the amalgamation of fibers, typically vegetable fibers composed of cellulose, which are subsequently held together by hydrogen bonding. ... Consignment is placing a person or thing in the hand of another, but retaining ownership until the goods are sold or person is transfered. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The online auction business model is one in which participants bid for products and services over the internet. ... A charity shop (UK), thrift store (US) or op shop (Australia/NZ, from opportunity shop) is a retail establishment operated by a charitable organization for the purpose of fundraising. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...


Early 21st-century clothing styles

Western fashion has, to a certain extent, become international fashion, as Western media and styles penetrate all parts of the world. Very few parts of the world remain where people do not wear items of cheap, mass-produced Western clothing. Even people in poor countries can afford used clothing from richer Western countries.


However, people may wear ethnic or national dress on special occasions or if carrying out certain roles or occupations. For example, most Japanese women have adopted Western-style dress for daily wear, but will still wear silk kimonos on special occasions. Items of Western dress may also appear worn or accessorized in distinctive, non-Western ways. A Tongan man may combine a used T-shirt with a Tongan wrapped skirt, or tupenu. Faroese folk dance club with some members in national costumes National costume, also known as national dress, regional costume or folk dress, expresses an identity through costume which usually relates to a geographic area, but can also indicate social, marital and/or religious status. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... T-Shirt A T-shirt (or tee shirt) is a shirt with short or long sleeves, a round neck, put on over the head, without pockets. ... Children dressed in their best for a church festival. ...


Western fashion, too, does not function monolithically. It comes in many varieties, from expensive haute couture to thrift store grunge. Haute couture (French for high sewing or high dressmaking; IPA: ) refers to the creation of exclusive custom-fitted fashions. ... A charity shop (UK), thrift store (US) or op shop (Australia/NZ, from opportunity shop) is a retail establishment operated by a charitable organization for the purpose of fundraising. ... Grunge music (sometimes also referred to as the Seattle Sound) is an independent-rooted music genre that became a commercially successful offshoot of hardcore punk, thrash metal, and alternative rock in the late 1980s and early 1990s. ...


Regional styles

  • Clothing of Europe and Russia
  • Clothing in the Americas
For example: "Catalogue" fashion, regional styles such as preppy or Western wear.
    • United States alternative fashion
These fashions are often associated with fans of various musical styles.
See also: Gothic fashion, Hippie, Grunge, Hip hop music, and Fetish clothing

South American fashion describes clothing design in South America. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mail order. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Gene Autry in the western wear typical of the singing cowboys of the 1950s. ... Gothic woman, traditional style, with big hair, spikes and piercings Gothic fashion is a dark, sometimes morbid, eroticized fashion and style of dress. ... Singer at a modern Hippie movement in Russia A hippie or hippy is a member of a specific subgroup of the counterculture that began in the United States during the early 1960s, spread to other countries, and declined in the mid-1970s. ... Grunge music (sometimes also referred to as the Seattle Sound) is an independent-rooted music genre that became a commercially successful offshoot of hardcore punk, thrash metal, and alternative rock in the late 1980s and early 1990s. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Fetish clothing includes any type of clothing and clothing material which is commonly fetishized. ... African clothing, are traditional garments worn by the indigenous peoples of the continent, in some instances these traditional costumes have been replaced by western clothings introduced by the European colonialists. ... Understanding Women Hijab, Abaya for woman and other Islamic and Muslim Clothing Muslims follow the religion of Islam. ...

Origin and history of clothing

Main article: History of clothing
A Neanderthal clothed in fur

According to archaeologists and anthropologists, the earliest clothing probably consisted of fur, leather, leaves or grass, draped, wrapped or tied about the body for protection from the elements. Knowledge of such clothing remains inferential, since clothing materials deteriorate quickly compared to stone, bone, shell and metal artifacts. Archeologists have identified very early sewing needles of bone and ivory from about 30,000 BC, found near Kostenki, Russia, in 1988. ... Image File history File links Neandertal. ... Image File history File links Neandertal. ... Binomial name †Homo neanderthalensis King, 1864 Neanderthal range Synonyms Palaeoanthropus neanderthalensis The Neanderthal (IPA pronunciation: ), (Homo neanderthalensis) or Neandertal was a species of the Homo genus that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia. ... A dogs fur usually consists of longer, stiffer, guard hairs—which can be straight, wiry, or wavy, and of various lengths, hiding a soft, short-haired undercoat. ... A dogs fur usually consists of longer, stiffer, guard hairs—which can be straight, wiry, or wavy, and of various lengths, hiding a soft, short-haired undercoat. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ... Needles used for sewing A sewing needle is a long slender object with a pointed tip. ...


Ralf Kittler, Manfred Kayser and Mark Stoneking, anthropologists at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, have conducted a genetic analysis of human body lice that indicates that they originated about 107,000 years ago. Since most humans have very sparse body hair, body lice require clothing to survive, so this suggests a surprisingly recent date for the invention of clothing. Its invention may have coincided with the spread of modern Homo sapiens from the warm climate of Africa, thought to have begun between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago. However, a second group of researchers used similar genetic methods to estimate that body lice originated about 540,000 years ago (Reed et al. 2004. PLoS Biology 2(11): e340). For now, the date of the origin of clothing remains unresolved. Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the comparative study of the physical and social characteristics of humanity through the examination of historical and present geographical distribution, cultural history, acculturation, and cultural relationships. ... The Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology is a research institute for evolutionary anthropology based in Leipzig, Germany. ... ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Some human cultures, such as the various peoples of the Arctic Circle, until recently made their clothing entirely of furs and skins, cutting clothing to fit and decorating lavishly. World map showing the Arctic Circle in red A sign along the Dalton Highway marking the location of the Arctic Circle The Arctic Circle is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. ...


Other cultures have supplemented or replaced leather and skins with cloth: woven, knitted, or twined from various animal and vegetable fibres.

See also: weaving, knitting, and twining

Although modern consumers take clothing for granted, making the fabrics that go into clothing is not easy. One sign of this is that the textile industry was the first to be mechanized during the Industrial Revolution; before the invention of the powered loom, textile production was a tedious and labor-intensive process. Therefore, methods were developed for making most efficient use of textiles. Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Woven sheet Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn made of fiber called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ... Knit hat, yarn, and knitting needles Knitting is a craft by which thread or yarn may be turned into cloth. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Sunday textile market on the sidewalks of Karachi, Pakistan. ... A Watt steam engine. ... Some of the 1200 power looms at the Plevna factory building, completed in 1877, at the Finlayson & Co cotton mills in Tampere, Finland The power loom was designed in 1784 by Edward Cartwright and first built in 1785. ...


One approach simply involves draping the cloth. Many peoples wore, and still wear, garments consisting of rectangles of cloth wrapped to fit — for example, the dhoti for men and the saree for women in the Indian subcontinent, the Scottish kilt or the Javanese sarong. The clothes may simply be tied up, as is the case of the first two garments; or pins or belts hold the garments in place, as in the case of the latter two. The precious cloth remains uncut, and people of various sizes or the same person at different sizes can wear the garment. Similar to sarongs, dhotis are commonly worn with western-style oxford shirts by the men of South India. ... Sari has two meanings: name of an Indian garment worn by women. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Formal Highland regalia, kilt and Prince Charlie jacket for Black tie. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... A sarong or sarung is a large sheet of fabric, often wrapped around the waist and worn as a skirt by men and women throughout much of south Asia and southeast Asia, parts of Africa, and on many Pacific islands. ...


Another approach involves cutting and sewing the cloth, but using every bit of the cloth rectangle in constructing the clothing. The tailor may cut triangular pieces from one corner of the cloth, and then add them elsewhere as gussets. Traditional European patterns for men's shirts and women's chemises take this approach. Business shirt A shirt is a piece of clothing for the trunk of the body. ... Fashionable young men in early 16th century Germany showed a lot of fine linen in a studied negligence. ...


Modern European fashion treats cloth much more prodigally, typically cutting in such a way as to leave various odd-shaped cloth remnants. Industrial sewing operations sell these as waste; home sewers may turn them into quilts. Fashion illustration by George Barbier of a gown by Jeanne Paquin, 1912, from La Gazette du bon ton, the most influential fashion magazine of its era. ... A quilt is a type of puppy with long fluffy ears. ...


In the thousands of years that humans have spent constructing clothing, they have created an astonishing array of styles, many of which we can reconstruct from surviving garments, photos, paintings, mosaics, etc., as well as from written descriptions. Costume history serves as a source of inspiration to current fashion designers, as well as a topic of professional interest to costumers constructing for plays, films, television, and historical reenactment. A photograph (often just called a photo) is an image (or a representation of that on e. ... For building painting, see painter and decorator. ... Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ... Brief introduction on the history of fashion design and designers Fashion design is the art dedicated to the creation of wearing apparel and lifestyle. ... A professional can be either a person in a profession (certain types of skilled work requiring formal training / education) or in sports (a sportsman / sportwoman doing sports for payment). ... Romeo and Juliet by Ford Madox Brown A play, written by a playwright, or dramatist, is a form of literature, almost always consisting of dialog between characters, and intended for performance rather than reading. ... Film is a term that encompasses individual motion pictures, the field of film as an art form, and the motion picture industry. ... Reenactors of the American Civil War A one-on-one combat reenactment demonstration. ...

See also: History of Western fashion and :Category:History of clothing

Overview of fashion from The New Students Reference Work, 1914. ...

Future trends

As technologies change, so will clothing. Many people, including futurologists have extrapolated current trends and made the following predictions: Futurology or futures studies (called futurism in the United States) is the study of the medium to long-term future, by extrapolating present technological, economic or social trends, or by attempting to predict future trends. ...

  • Man-made fibers such as nylon, polyester, terylene, terycot, lycra, and Gore-Tex already account for much of the clothing market. Many more types of fibers will certainly be developed.

Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers first produced on February 28, 1935 by Wallace Carothers at DuPont. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester is a category of polymers, or, more specifically condensation polymers, which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... Polyethylene terephthalate (aka PET, PETE, PETP,PET-P) is a thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family that is used in synthetic fibers; beverage, food and other liquid containers; thermoforming applications; and engineering resins often in combination with glass fiber. ... Lycra is INVISTAs trademark for a synthetic polyurethane-based elastane textile with elastic properties of the sort known generically as spandex. As with other spandex materials, Lycra is commonly used in athletic or active clothing, such as clothes for cycling, swimwear, leotards and dancewear, as well as in underclothes. ... Gore-Tex membrane, electron microphotograph Gore-Tex (abbreviated GTX) is a registered trademark of W.L. Gore & Associates best known for its use in relation to waterproof/breathable fabrics. ...

Clothing industry

The clothing industry is concentrated outside of western Europe and America, and garment workers often have to labor under poor conditions. Coalitions of NGO's, designers (Katharine Hamnett, American Apparel, Veja, Edun,...) and trade unions like the Clean clothes campaign (CCC) seek to improve these conditions as much as possible by sponsoring awareness-raising events, which draw the attention of both the media and the general public to the workers' conditions. NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... American Apparel, LLC is a vertically integrated clothing company based out of Los Angeles, California. ... At least two things are called veja: A Latvian festival, Veja Diena. ...


See also

Clothing terminology comprises the names of individual garments and classes of garments, as well as the specialized vocabularies of the trades that have designed, manufactured, marketed and sold clothing over hundreds of years. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Clothes valet, also called mens valet and valet stand, is an implement on which clothes may be hung. ... Wire (top) and wooden (bottom) clothes hangers A clothes hanger, or coat hanger, is a device in the shape of human shoulders designed to facilitate the hanging of a coat, jacket, sweater, shirt, blouse or dress in a manner that prevents wrinkles, with a lower bar for the hanging of...

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