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Encyclopedia > Appaloosa
Appaloosa
Appaloosa horse
Appaloosa horse
Distinguishing features: Most representatives have colorful spotted coat patterns, striped hooves, mottled skin and white sclera around the eye.
Country of origin: United States
Breed standards
Appaloosa Horse Club: Stds

The Appaloosa is a horse breed with preferred characteristics that include coat pattern.[1] It is best known for a distinctive leopard spotted coat color, but has other distinctive physical characteristics. The Nez Perce tribe of the American Pacific Northwest developed the breed. They were once referred to by white settlers as the "Palouse horse", probably because the Palouse River ran through the heart of Nez Perce country. Gradually, the name evolved into "Appaloosa". Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (640x707, 58 KB)Photo we took this summer of our Supreme Champion Stallion and Worlds Best Appaloosa Zip Me Impressive, Saddlebrook Appaloosas, http://www. ... Schematic diagram of the human eye. ... Look up Appaloosa, appaloosa in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This page is just a list. ... A Leopard, the animal with a classic Leopard hair coat pattern A Leopard-patterned Knabstrup horse. ... Wild horses on the range, showing a wide range of coat colors Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colors and distinctive markings. ... The Nez Perce (IPA: ) are a tribe of Native Americans who live in the Pacific Northwest region (Columbia River Plateau) of the United States. ... The Pacific Northwest from space The Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. ... A river that runs from Northwest Idaho to the Snake River in southest Washington. ...

Contents

History

Roots in Europe and Asia

The earliest evidence horses with a spotted coat pattern is from the cave paintings dating from the Upper Paleolithic era, circa 18,000 BC found at Lascaux and Peche-Merle in France.[2] Archaeologists have found later evidence of domesticated horses with blanket spotting patterns in the art of Ancient Persia, Ancient Greece, the T'ang Dynasty of China and 11th century France.[2] // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... Painting of bison attacking a man, from the cave at Lascaux, c. ... There are a number of theories regarding the domestication of the horse. ... Persia is the historical and alternative name for the state of Iran in the European languages. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... The Tang Dynasty (唐朝 pinyin: tángcháo) (June 18, 618 – June 4, 907) followed the Sui Dynasty and preceded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China. ...


Spotted horses in the Americas

Historians are not exactly sure how spotted horses arrived in the Americas. Some scholars believe the Spanish Conquistadors brought some vividly-marked horses with them when they first arrived in the early 1500s,[citation needed] others believe that the Russian fur-traders brought them at a later date.[citation needed] Another theory holds that when spotted horses went out of style in late-18th century Europe, large numbers were shipped to the west coast of America and traded to Spanish settlers and the Indian people of the Pacific Northwest, a voyage survived only by the hardiest animals.[3] Each theory has some historical support. World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Conquistador (Spanish: kōn-kē-stŏ-dōr) (meaning Conqueror in the Spanish language) is the term used to refer to the soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who brought much of the Americas and Asia Pacific under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 17th centuries, starting with the 1492 settlement...


The Appaloosa and the Nez Perce people

What is known is that horses in general had reached the Pacific Northwest by 1700 and the Nez Perce people, who lived in what today is eastern Washington and Oregon, were known as notable horse breeders by the early 1800s.[4] The Nez Perce obtained their original horses from the Shoshone people, and from there took advantage of the fact that they lived in excellent horse-breeding country, relatively safe from the raids of other tribes, and developed strict breeding selection practices for their horses. They were one of the few tribes to actively use the practice of gelding inferior male horses, and actively traded away poorer stock to remove unsuitable animals from the gene pool.[2] The Nez Perce (IPA: ) are a tribe of Native Americans who live in the Pacific Northwest region (Columbia River Plateau) of the United States. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... The Nez Perce (IPA: ) are a tribe of Native Americans who live in the Pacific Northwest region (Columbia River Plateau) of the United States. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... A gelding is a castrated animal—in English, a castrated male horse. ...


These early Nez Perce horses were considered to be of high quality. Meriwether Lewis of the Lewis and Clark Expedition wrote in his February 15, 1806 journal entry: "Their horses appear to be of an excellent race; they are lofty, eligantly [sic] formed, active and durable: in short many of them look like fine English horses and would make a figure in any country." Lewis did note spotting patterns, saying, "…some of these horses are pided [sic] with large spots of white irregularly scattered and intermixed with black, brown, bey [sic] or some other dark color."[4] Meriwether Lewis (August 18, 1774 – October 11, 1809) was an American explorer, soldier, and public administrator, best known for his role as the leader of the Corps of Discovery, whose mission was to explore the territory of the Louisiana Purchase. ... “Lewis and Clark” redirects here. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


By "pided", some historians argue that he meant pied, or pinto.[3] Even if Lewis did refer to leopard-spotted patterns seen in the modern Appaloosa, the Appaloosa Horse Club itself estimates that only about ten percent of the horses owned by the Nez Perce at the time were spotted.[4] It is clear the Nez Perce had many solid-colored horses in the early 1800s, and only began to emphasize color in their breeding program some time after the arrival of Lewis and Clark. In any case, the Nez Perce had many spotted horses by the late 1800s when they once again came to the attention of the rest of the world.[3] Pied generally means coloured black and white, although it is sometimes extended to mean parti-coloured. ... Pinto is a horse coloring that consists of large patches of white and another color. ...


The Nez Perce people were a relatively peaceful nation, many of whom engaged in agriculture as well as horse breeding. The encroachment of gold miners in the 1860s and settlers in the 1870s put pressure on the tribe to give up much of their land, and various treaties between 1855 and 1863 reduced their original treaty lands of seven million acres (28,000 km²) by 90%.[2]


Ultimately the Nez Perce drew the line at the Wallowa Valley of Oregon. While their leader, popularly known as Chief Joseph, was attempting to negotiate a new treaty, a small group of warriors attacked settlers in 1877, leading to a battle in the White Bird Canyon of Idaho and the 1877 Nez Perce War. Joseph then led about 800 of his people, mostly non-warriors, in a remarkable retreat southeast through Idaho and Montana and then back north across Yellowstone National Park, traveling roughly 1,700 miles while first trying to seek refuge with other tribes including the Shoshone and the Crow Nation, then ultimately deciding to try to reach safety in Canada. A small number of Nez Perce fighters, mounted on their fast, agile and hardy Appaloosa horses, successfully held off larger forces of the U.S. Army in several skirmishes, including the two-day Battle of the Big Hole in southwestern Montana. Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... Chief Joseph (March 3, 1840–September 21, 1904) was the chief of the Wal-lam-wat-kain (Wallowa) band of Nez Perce Indians during General Oliver O. Howards attempt to forcibly remove his band and the other non-treaty Indians to a reservation in Idaho. ... Official language(s) English [1] Capital Boise Largest city Boise Largest metro area Boise metropolitan area Area  Ranked 14th  - Total 83,642 sq mi (216,632 km²)  - Width 305 miles (491 km)  - Length 479 miles (771 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English [1] Capital Boise Largest city Boise Largest metro area Boise metropolitan area Area  Ranked 14th  - Total 83,642 sq mi (216,632 km²)  - Width 305 miles (491 km)  - Length 479 miles (771 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Helena Largest city Billings Area  Ranked 4th  - Total 147,165 sq mi (381,156 km²)  - Width 255 miles (410 km)  - Length 630 miles (1,015 km)  - % water 1  - Latitude 44° 21′ N to 49° N  - Longitude 104° 2′ W to 116° 3′ W Population  Ranked... Yellowstone redirects here. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... Crow indians (Karl Bodmer) The Crow, also called the Absaroka or Apsáalooke, are a tribe of Native Americans who historically lived in the Yellowstone river valley and now live on a reservation south of Billings, Montana, USA. The tribal headquarters are located at Crow Agency, Montana. ... Battle of the Big Hole Conflict Nez Percé War Date 9 August 1877 Place Beaverhead County, Montana Result slight U.S. victory The Battle of the Big Hole was a costly battle between the Nez Percé and United States army during the Nez Percé War of 1877. ... Official language(s) English Capital Helena Largest city Billings Area  Ranked 4th  - Total 147,165 sq mi (381,156 km²)  - Width 255 miles (410 km)  - Length 630 miles (1,015 km)  - % water 1  - Latitude 44° 21′ N to 49° N  - Longitude 104° 2′ W to 116° 3′ W Population  Ranked...


However, the journey came to an end when they stopped to rest near the Bears Paw Mountains in Montana, 40 miles (64 kilometers) from the Canadian border, thinking that they had shaken off their pursuers. But Nelson A. Miles, then a colonel, led his troops in a rapid march of over 200 miles (322 kilometers) to catch the Nez Perce. After a devastating five-day battle, the battle - and the war -was over. Chief Joseph declared in his famous speech that he'd "fight no more forever." Nelson Appleton Miles (August 8, 1839 – May 15, 1925) was an American soldier who served in the American Civil War, Indian Wars, and the Spanish-American War. ...


The aftermath of the Nez Perce War

When the U.S. 7th Cavalry captured Chief Joseph and the remaining Nez Perce on October 5, 1877, they immediately took over 1,000 of the tribe's horses, sold what they could, and shot many of the rest. A significant population of horses had been hastily left behind in the Wallowa valley when the Nez Perce began their retreat still remained, and additional animals escaped or were abandoned along the way.[2] The Nez Perce were ultimately settled on a reservation in north central Idaho, were allowed very few horses, and were required by the Army to breed what mares they still had to draft horse stallions in an attempt to create farm horses.[citation needed] Thus, though a remnant population of Appaloosa remained after 1877, the Appaloosa breed was virtually forgotten as a distinct breed for almost 60 years.[2] However, a few quality horses continued to be bred, mostly those captured or purchased by white settlers and used as working ranch horses. Chief Joseph (March 3, 1840–September 21, 1904) was the chief of the Wal-lam-wat-kain (Wallowa) band of Nez Perce Indians during General Oliver O. Howards attempt to forcibly remove his band and the other non-treaty Indians to a reservation in Idaho. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Official language(s) English [1] Capital Boise Largest city Boise Largest metro area Boise metropolitan area Area  Ranked 14th  - Total 83,642 sq mi (216,632 km²)  - Width 305 miles (491 km)  - Length 479 miles (771 km)  - % water 0. ... Two pairs of Shire horses and a pair of Suffolk Punches A draft horse, draught horse, or harness horse is a large, strong horse bred for heavy work rather than speed. ... For other uses, see Farm (disambiguation). ... This article is about a type of land use and method of raising livestock. ...


The revitalization of the breed

In 1937, the Appaloosa as a breed had caught the eye of the general public because of a series of articles in Western Horseman magazine, and in 1938 the Appaloosa Horse Club (ApHC) was founded by Claude Thompson and a small group of other dedicated breeders.[5] The registry was originally housed in Moro, Oregon, then in 1947 moved to Moscow, Idaho.[5] The Appaloosa Museum foundation was formed in 1975 to preserve the history of the Appaloosa horse.[6]

The State of Idaho offers an Appaloosa customized license plate

By 1978, the ApHC was the third largest horse registry in the United States.[5] Today, the Appaloosa breed is one of America's most popular breeds and there are over 670,000 Appaloosas registered by the ApHC.[7] The state of Idaho adopted the Appaloosa as its official state horse on March 25, 1975 when Idaho Governor Cecil Andrus signed the enabling legislation.[4] Idaho even offers a custom license plate featuring an Appaloosa horse,[8] the first state to offer a plate featuring a state horse.[9] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Official language(s) English [1] Capital Boise Largest city Boise Largest metro area Boise metropolitan area Area  Ranked 14th  - Total 83,642 sq mi (216,632 km²)  - Width 305 miles (491 km)  - Length 479 miles (771 km)  - % water 0. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cecil Dale Andrus (born August 25, 1931) is a U.S. Democratic politician from the state of Idaho. ...


The Nez Perce horse breeding program today

The Nez Perce tribe once again began a breeding program in 1995 to develop a distinct breed, the Nez Perce Horse. Based on crossbreeding the Appaloosa with a Central Asian breed called Akhal-Teke, the Nez Perce hope to resurrect their horse culture, a tradition of selective breeding and horsemanship that was destroyed by the 19th century Nez Perce war. The breeding program was financed by the United States Department of Health and Human Services, the Nez Perce tribe, and the First Nations Development Institute, a nonprofit organization that promotes tribal business development.[citation needed] The Nez Perce Horse is a horse breed of the Nez Perce tribe of Idaho. ... Akhal-Teke The Akhal-Teke, Ahalteke in the Turkmen language, horse breed (pronounced ) is a breed from Turkmenistan, where they are the national emblem. ... The United States Department of Health and Human Services, often abbreviated HHS, is a Cabinet department of the United States government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. ...


Physical characteristics

An Appaloosa horse with colorful blanket pattern
The head of an Appaloosa, showing characteristic white sclera of eye.
The head of an Appaloosa, showing characteristic white sclera of eye.

Most Appaloosas are recognized by their colorful spotted coat patterns, striped hooves, mottled skin (most visible around their eyes and on their muzzle) and white sclera around the eye. Appaloosas can have brown, blue or hazel eyes. Sometimes they will have eyes of different colors.[10] However, some "N" registered Appaloosas do not display all of the typical traits and may appear to be "solid" (without spots, visible coat pattern or other characteristics generally associated with the breed.) ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 828 KB) The Duty Free is in fact a large and busy shopping mall File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 828 KB) The Duty Free is in fact a large and busy shopping mall File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 401 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (428 × 640 pixel, file size: 28 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is a photo I took of my young colt this winter. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 401 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (428 × 640 pixel, file size: 28 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is a photo I took of my young colt this winter. ... Schematic diagram of the human eye. ...


While the original, "old time" Appaloosas often had a sparse mane and tail, it was not a predisposition for the breed as a whole; many original Appaloosas had full manes and tails. Today the "rat tail" trait is usually bred away from and most "modern" Appaloosas have full manes and tails. Look up mane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Modern conformation

Because the registered pedigree of the Appaloosa is the primary qualification, and Appaloosa coloring a preferred identifying factor, there are several body styles found in the breed, including stock horses, sport (English) horses, pleasure horses, race horses and trail horses. Because of this wide variety, Appaloosas are used in many different disciplines. Other popular breeds with Appaloosa coloring include the Pony of the Americas, the Colorado Ranger, and the Tiger Horse. The Pony of the Americas, or the POA, was developed to be a children’s mount. ... The Colorado Ranger Horse Association is one of the oldest horse registries in the United States. ... We dont have an article called Tiger Horse Start this article Search for Tiger Horse in. ...


The overwhelming majority of Appaloosas seen in the horse show ring today have an athletic build that resembles that of the Appendix Quarter Horse and hunter type Thoroughbred. Excessive heavy muscling is not desired, as slow twitch muscles hinder a horse's speed and maneuverability.[citation needed] A horse show is a judged exhibition of horses and ponies. ... The American Quarter Horse is a breed of horse originally bred specifically to race the quarter mile. ... For the processor with the same codename , see Athlon. ...


The middle of the road "stock horse" build is well suited to western riding disciplines such as cutting, reining, rodeo and O-Mok-See sports such as barrel racing (Camas Prairie Stump Race) and pole bending (Nez Percé Stake Race) as well as short-length horse racing, generally at the quarter-mile distance. The "foundation" or "working" Appaloosa is still sometimes seen, especially on working ranches. This is a slightly smaller, leaner animal considered to be closer in type to the original Nez Perce bloodstock. There are also some Appaloosas that display more of a Thoroughbred or sport horse conformation. The Appaloosa Sport Horse is taller, with longer legs and a leaner build, bred to be used in English riding sports, in particular dressage and Hunter-style events.[11] A similarly spotted breed in Europe, with a sport horse build, is the Knabstrup. Western riding is shown in this sculpture, Great Western Tradition, by Doug Israelsen Western riding evolved from the cattle-working and warfare traditions brought to the Americas by the Spanish Conquistadors, and both equipment and riding style evolved to meet the working needs of the cowboy in the American West. ... Cutting is an equestrian event in the western riding style where a horse and rider are judged on their ability to separate a calf away from a cattle herd and keep it away for a short period of time. ... Reining is a Western horseback riding competition. ... It has been suggested that History of rodeo be merged into this article or section. ... Gymkhana is a term used in the United Kingdom, east coast of the United States, and other English-speaking nations to describe an equestrian event consisting of timed games for riders on horses. ... // Barrel racing at the Calgary Stampede Barrel Racing is a timed rodeo event that demands some of the most athletic horses and dedicated riders in order to be successful in terms of financial earnings. ... Barrel racing/cloverleaf run in the traditional Nez Perce tradition of horse-against-horse. ... Pole Bending is an amateur rodeo event that features a horse and one mounted cowgirl, running a weaving or serpentine path around six poles arranged in a line. ... The Nez Percé Stake Race is a type of pole bending race. ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... This article is about a type of land use and method of raising livestock. ... For the processor with the same codename , see Athlon. ... A sport horse is term used to describe a type of horse, although not a particular breed. ... English riding is a term used in the United States to describe a form of horseback riding that is seen throughout the world. ... An upper-level dressage competitor performing an extended trot Dressage (a French term meaning training) is a path and destination of competitive horse training, with competitions held at all levels from amateur to the Olympics. ... Hunt seat is terminology used in the United States and Canada to refers to a style of forward seat riding commonly found at American horse shows. ... Spotted horses have been known and highly prized. ...


20th century development of Appaloosa conformation

an ideal modern Appaloosa

The physical conformation of the original Appaloosa was typical of the range horses found in the western United States. Original or "old style" Appaloosas were highly regarded as hardy range horses and many early ranchers and horse breeders used roan or minimally marked Appaloosas in their programs, particularly in parts of Texas and Colorado. This had an impact on the development of the American Quarter Horse, especially with regard to the Peavy, Roberd and Casement herds.[12] However, a significant crossbreeding used to revitalize the Appaloosa was the Arabian horse, as evidenced by early registration lists which show crossbred Appaloosa/Arabians as making up ten of the first fifteen horses registered with the ApHC.[13] For example, one of Claude Thompson's major herd sires was Ferras, an Arabian stallion bred by W.K. Kellogg from horses imported from the Crabbet Arabian Stud of England.[14] Ferras then sired Red Eagle, a prominent Appaloosa stallion, who was added to the Appaloosa Hall of Fame in 1988. Later, Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse lines were added, as well as crosses from other breeds, including Morgans and Standardbreds.[15] In 1983, the ApHC reduced the number of allowable outcrosses to three main breeds: the Arabian horse, the American Quarter Horse and the Thoroughbred.[16] Image File history File links The_Appaloosa. ... Image File history File links The_Appaloosa. ... Coat Color in Horses Roan is a type of coat color in horses that is a mixture of white hairs with a base coat of another color. ... A palomino Quarter Horse shown at halter. ... The Arabian horse is a breed of horse with a reputation for intelligence, high spirit, and outstanding stamina. ... The Arabian horse is a breed of horse with a reputation for intelligence, high spirit, and outstanding stamina. ... Will Keith Kellogg, usually referred to as W. K. Kellogg (April 7, 1860 – October 6, 1951) was a U.S. industrialist in food manufacturing. ... The Crabbet Arabian Stud was established on 2 July 1878 when the first Arabian horses brought to England by Wilfrid Scawen Blunt and Lady Anne Blunt arrived at Crabbet Park, their Queen Anne house in Sussex. ... For the processor with the same codename , see Athlon. ... The American Quarter Horse is a breed of horse originally bred specifically to race the quarter mile. ... The Morgan is one of the first horse breeds developed in the United States. ... Standardbred harness racing horses are so called because in the early years of the Trotting Registry, the standardbred stud book established in the United States in 1879 by the National Association of Trotting Horse Breeders, only horses who could race a mile in a standard time or better, or whose... The Arabian horse is a breed of horse with a reputation for intelligence, high spirit, and outstanding stamina. ... A palomino Quarter Horse shown at halter. ... For the processor with the same codename , see Athlon. ...


Color and spotting patterns

Main article: equine coat color

The base color of the Appaloosa horse can include bay, black, chestnut, palomino, buckskin, dun and grulla. However, it is the unique spotting patterns that most people associate with the Appaloosa horse. These spotted markings are not the same as the "dapples" sometimes seen in grays and some other horse colors. Appaloosa markings overlay the base coat color, and have several pattern variations.[17] Wild horses on the range, showing a wide range of coat colors Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colors and distinctive markings. ... Wild horses on the range, showing a wide range of coat colors Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colors and distinctive markings. ... A blood bay horse. ... Friesian horses are one of the best-known breeds of black-colored horse Black is a relatively uncommon coat color in horses, though not so unusual as to be considered rare. ... Chestnuts. ... Palomino is a coat color in horses, consisting of a gold coat and white or flaxen mane and tail. ... Buckskin is a color of horses; it also refers to other things that are the color of a buckskin horse, such as the color of some breeds of dogs. ... Dun is a yellow-brown color, sometimes seen in the hair coats of horses, characterized by a body color ranging from sandy yellow to reddish-brown. ... Grullo is a color of horses, characterized by smoky or mouse colored hairs on the body, often with shoulder and dorsal stripes and black barring on the lower legs. ... Gray is a coat color of horses, consisting of black skin, a white to dark gray coat, and a mane the same color or darker than the body coat. ...

This photograph shows the difference between a Pinto horse and a Leopard Appaloosa. The Pinto is on the left, the Appaloosa on the right. Photo credit: Jean-Pol Grandmont
This photograph shows the difference between a Pinto horse and a Leopard Appaloosa. The Pinto is on the left, the Appaloosa on the right. Photo credit: Jean-Pol Grandmont

Recognized spotting patterns of Appaloosas include the following: Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Pinto is a horse coloring that consists of large patches of white and another color. ...

  • BLANKET - white over the hip that may extend from the tail to the base of the neck. The spots inside the blanket (if present) are the same color as the horse's base coat.
  • LEOPARD - A horse whose Appaloosa white patterning is exhibited to an extreme with base colored spots of various sizes covering most of its body .
  • FEW SPOT LEOPARD - This is a horse whose base color is nearly obscured by its Appaloosa white patterning covering up to 90% of its body. Horse may exhibit patches of color on the heads, knees, elbows, flanks (called "varnish marks"). Some may have as few as only one or two spots.
  • SNOWFLAKE A horses with white spots, flecks, on a dark body. Typically the white spots increase in number and size as the horse ages.
  • VARNISH - dark points (legs and head) and some spots or roaning over a light body. May occur in conjunction with another spotting style and change with age. Often starts out as a solid colored horse that gets more white as it ages, but is not a gray.
  • FROST - similar to varnish but the white hairs are limited to the back, loins, and neck. May occur in conjunction with another spotting style and change with age. Often starts out as a solid colored horse that gets more white as it ages.

Gray is a coat color of horses, consisting of black skin, a white to dark gray coat, and a mane the same color or darker than the body coat. ...

Genetics

Genetic studies by Sponenberg and other researchers suggest that Appaloosa color patterns occur when at least one parent carries the "Lp" gene.[18] While there is currently no DNA test for the gene, it is believed that it is located on a single autosomal dominant locus, and may possibly be a gene-complex rather than a single gene.[19] It should be noted that not every horse with the Lp gene exhibits hair coat spotting. However, even some solid individuals will exhibit characteristics such as vertically striped hooves, white sclera of the eye, or mottled skin around the eyes, lips, and genitalia.[20] There are currently two theories of equine coat color genetics: Dr. Ann Bowlings and Dr. Phillip Sponenbergs. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... An autosome is a non-sex chromosome. ... In genetics, the term dominant gene refers to the allele that causes a phenotype that is seen in a heterozygous genotype. ... Schematic diagram of the human eye. ...


Sometimes, Appaloosas may also exhibit sabino or pinto type markings, but these are not desirable and are discouraged by the ApHC registration rules. The Appaloosa Project, a genetic study group, has also done extensive research on the interactions of Appaloosa and pinto genes and how they affect each other.[21] The genes that create these different patterns can all be present in the same horse. However, because pinto genes, particularly the overo pattern, may "cover-up" or obscure Appaloosa patterns, pinto breeding is discouraged by the ApHC, which will deny registration to some horses if they have excessive white markings.[22] This Clydesdale horse has classic Sabino belly spots, white above its hocks, a chin spot and wide white facial markings. ... Pinto is a horse coloring that consists of large patches of white and another color. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... Overo is the name of a coloration pattern in American Paint Horses in which the horses head is bald or nealy bald. ...


Registration

The preface of the ApHC rule book states that the Appaloosa is "a breed defined by ApHC bloodline requirements and preferred characteristics, including coat pattern."[1] In other words, the Appaloosa is a distinct breed from limited bloodlines with distinct physical traits and a desired color, referred to by breeders as a "color preference." Thus, Appaloosas are not strictly a "color breed" as many people believe. All ApHC-registered Appaloosas must be the offspring of two registered Appaloosa parents or a registered Appaloosa and a horse from an approved breed registry. The ApHC lists Arabian horses, Quarter Horses, and Thoroughbreds as approved breeds. In all cases, one parent must always be a regular registered Appaloosa. The only exception to the bloodline requirements is in the case of Appaloosa colored geldings or spayed mares with unknown pedigrees; owners may apply for "hardship registration" for these non-breeding horses.[23] A color breed is a term that refers to horses that are registered based primarily on their coat color, regardless of the horses actual breed or breed type. ... The Arabian horse is a breed of horse with a reputation for intelligence, high spirit, and outstanding stamina. ... A palomino Quarter Horse shown at halter. ... The Thoroughbred is a horse breed developed in 18th century England when English mares were bred with imported Arabian stallions to create a distance racer. ...


In addition to the spotting patterns previously mentioned, certain other characteristics are used to determine if a horse receives "regular" registration, including:

  • Mottling, spotted skin which is apparent around the lips, eyelids, and genitalia. The Appaloosa horse is the only horse to have this characteristic, and therefore mottled skin is a very basic and decisive indication of an Appaloosa.<refname="2007"/> Mottled skin is different from pink (flesh colored or non-pigmented) skin in that it will normally contain small, round, dark spots (pigmented skin)
  • Sclera a white ring around the eyes
  • Striped hooves

Appaloosas which are born with visible coat pattern, or mottled skin and at least one other characteristic, are registered with "regular" papers and have full show and breeding privileges. A horse that meets bloodline requirements but is born without the recognized color pattern/characteristics can still be registered with the Appaloosa Horse Club (ApHC) because registry is based upon the pedigree of the horse reflecting a recognized Appaloosa bloodline. These solid colored, "non-characteristic" Appaloosas are registered with an "N" prefix on their registration papers, indicating the horse does not show the preferred Appaloosa color or characteristics. N-registered Appaloosas may not be shown at ApHC events unless the owner DNA parentage-verifies the N-registered horse and pays an extra fee to enter the horse into the ApHC's Performance Permit Program (PPP).[24] PPP horses can be shown in ApHC approved events; however, all solid non-characteristic Appaloosas do have breeding restrictions and can only be bred to a regular (#) papered Appaloosa. A (N) registered horse can be upgraded to regular registration at any time if the horse begins to show a color pattern and/or required Appaloosa characteristics.[25] Schematic diagram of the human eye. ... The Appaloosa Horse Club, located in Moscow, Idaho is dedicated to preserving and promoting the Appaloosa breed. ...


Controversies

Color and registration

Any horse that shows Appaloosa markings carries the Lp gene, which must be present in at least one parent.[26] During the 1940s and 1950s, when both the Appaloose Horse Club (ApHC) and the American Quarter Horse Association (AQHA) were in their formative years, minimally marked or roan Appaloosas were sometimes used in Quarter Horse breeding programs.[27] At the same time, it was noted that two registered Quarter Horse parents would sometimes produce what was called a "crop-out" -- in the Quarter horse world, a term referring to an Appaloosa or Paint-colored foal, one with too much white in the "wrong" places. For a considerable time, until DNA testing could verify parentage, the AQHA refused to register such horses. However, the ApHC accepted "crop-out" horses that exhibited proper Appaloosa traits, and "crop-out" Paints became the core of the American Paint Horse registry, the American Paint Horse Association. Famous Appaloosas who were "crop-outs" included Colida, Joker B, Bright Eyes Brother and Wapiti. For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... Outside of the American Quarter Horse Associations Heritage Center and Museum. ... The American Quarter Horse is a breed of horse originally bred specifically to race the quarter mile. ... It has been suggested that Breeding Stock Paint be merged into this article or section. ... The American Paint Horse Association (APHA) is a breed registry for the American Paint Horse. ...


Later, in the 1970s, the color controversy went in the opposite direction. The ApHC generated considerable controversy by a decision to allow solid or "non-characteristic" Appaloosas to be registered with the "N" prefix system. Prior to the implementation of the rule, a foal of Appaloosa parents who did not have sufficient color was often denied registration. However, the non-characteristic Appaloosas were allowed into the registry primarily for two reasons; evidence showed that solid Appaloosas could throw a spotted foal in a subsequent generation, at least when bred to a spotted Appaloosa, and in addition, many horses with a solid coat nonetheless exhibited secondary characteristics.


Show rules

In 2007, the ApHC implemented new drug rules which will allow Appaloosas to show with the drugs Acetazolamide and Lasix. Acetazolamide is used for treating HYPP horses to prevent seizures. Lasix is used to prevent horses who bleed from the nose when subjected to strenuous work from having bleeding episodes when in competition. Both drugs are controversial in part because they are considered drug "maskers" and as diuretics which can be used to make it difficult to detect the use of other drugs from the horse's system. Both the USEF and the FEI ban the use of Lasix. For these reasons, and also due to lack of membership notice and comment, this rule change has generated controversy. [28] On the other side of the controversy, all major stock horse and related breed registries, including the American Quarter Horse, American Paint Horse, Pony of the Americas, PHBA (Palomino), IBHA (Buckskin (horse)s), and PtHA (Pinto horses) have the same or very similar drug rules and guidelines which were adopted before the ApHC adopted their policies; indicating that those involved with America's stock horse breeds' policy making consider these regulations "industry standard".[29] [30] [31] [32] Acetazolamide, sold under the trade name Diamox®, is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used to treat glaucoma, epileptic seizures, benign intracranial hypertension and altitude sickness. ... Furosemide (INN) or frusemide (former BAN) is a loop diuretic used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and oedema. ... Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HYPP), also known as Impressive Syndrome, is an inherited autosomal dominant disorder which affects sodium channels in muscle cells and the ability to regulate potassium levels in the blood. ... A diuretic is any drug that tends to increase the flow of urine from the body (diuresis). ... The United States Equestrian Federation (USEF) is the national governing body for most equestrian sports in the United States, including dressage, driving, endurance riding, eventing, hunt seat equitation, hunter, jumper, paralympic, reining, roadster, saddleseat equitation, vaulting, and western riding. ... The Fédération Equestre Internationale (commonly known as the FEI, or informally in English as the International Equestrian Federation) is the international governing body of equestrian (horse) sports. ... The American Quarter Horse is a breed of horse originally bred specifically to race the quarter mile. ... It has been suggested that Breeding Stock Paint be merged into this article or section. ... The Pony of the Americas, or the POA, was developed to be a children’s mount. ... Palomino is a coat color in horses, consisting of a gold coat and white or flaxen mane and tail. ... Buckskin New Forest pony A Buckskin Quarter Horse Mare Buckskin is a color of horses; it also refers to other things that are the color of a buckskin horse, such as the color of some breeds of dogs. ... Pinto is a horse coloring that consists of large patches of white and another color. ...


Popular culture

Appaloosas are often used in Western movies as mounts for both cowboy and Native American characters. Examples include the Clint Eastwood film Pale Rider. Broncho Billy Anderson, from The Great Train Robbery The Western movie is one of the classic American film genres. ... For other uses, see Cowboy (disambiguation). ... ... This article is about the actor/producer/director. ... Pale Rider is a 1985 Western film, directed by and starring Clint Eastwood. ...


References

  1. ^ a b 2007 Appaloosa Horse Club Handbook
  2. ^ a b c d e f "History of the Appaloosa," from The Appaloosa Museum.
  3. ^ a b c Bennett, Deb. Conquerors: The Roots of New World Horsemanship. Amigo Publications Inc; 1st edition 1998. ISBN 0-9658533-0-6
  4. ^ a b c d "Appaloosa History"
  5. ^ a b c "History of the ApHC" from The Appaloosa Museum
  6. ^ Appaloosa Museum
  7. ^ "Appaloosa Horse Club Fact Sheet", accessed February 1, 2007
  8. ^ "Personalized Plates for Your Vehicle & Souvenir Sample Plates"
  9. ^ "Everything you need to know about the Appaloosa License Plate"
  10. ^ Appaloosa characteristics
  11. ^ An Appaloosa Sport Horse
  12. ^ Harris, Fredie S. Horse Breeds of the West, Cordovan Corp (1973)ASIN B0006CAD0O, OCLC 1583675
  13. ^ ApHC Studbook Volume 1
  14. ^ Pedigree of Ferras
  15. ^ ApHC studbook, vols. 2 and 3
  16. ^ 2007 ApHC rule book, Rule 204 A. 1,2,3
  17. ^ "Equine Color Genetics Information - Appaloosa"
  18. ^ Archer, Sheila. "A Puzzle Worth Solving: Appaloosa Colour Pattern Transmission"
  19. ^ R. B. Terry, S. Archer, S. Brooks, D. Bernoco, E. Bailey (2004) Assignment of the appaloosa coat colour gene (LP) to equine chromosome 1 Animal Genetics 35 (2), 134–137. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2052.2004.01113.x
  20. ^ Bowling, Ann T. "Coat Color Genetics: Positive Horse Identification" from Veterinary Genetics Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis. Web Site accessed February 9, 2007
  21. ^ "What is the Appaloosa Project?"
  22. ^ 2007 ApHC rulebook, Rule 205.C
  23. ^ ApHC Rule Book
  24. ^ Performance Permit Program
  25. ^ ApHC Rule Book
  26. ^ The Appaloosa Project
  27. ^ Holmes, Frank. Spotted Pride. Loft Enterprises, 2003. ISBN-10: 0971499829
  28. ^ July 2007 Board Motions
  29. ^ [1]
  30. ^ [http://www.apha.com/forms/rulebooks.html[
  31. ^ [2]
  32. ^ [3]

is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Amazon Standard Identification Number (ASIN) is a product identification number used by Amazon. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

See also

There are currently two theories of equine coat color genetics: Dr. Ann Bowlings and Dr. Phillip Sponenbergs. ... Wild horses on the range, showing a wide range of coat colors Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colors and distinctive markings. ... The Nez Perce (IPA: ) are a tribe of Native Americans who live in the Pacific Northwest region (Columbia River Plateau) of the United States. ... Official language(s) English [1] Capital Boise Largest city Boise Largest metro area Boise metropolitan area Area  Ranked 14th  - Total 83,642 sq mi (216,632 km²)  - Width 305 miles (491 km)  - Length 479 miles (771 km)  - % water 0. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Appaloosa (2008) (252 words)
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Does this movie have anything to do with the breed of horse?
Guide to Identifying an Appaloosa (1392 words)
Although Appaloosas are most commonly recognized by their colorful coat patterns, they also have other distinctive characteristics.
Readily visible white sclera is a distinctive Appaloosa characteristic provided it is not in combination with a large white face marking, such as a bald face.
Appaloosa patterns are highly variable and there are many which may not fit into specific categories easily.
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