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Encyclopedia > Appalachian Mountains
The Appalachian Mountains
Appalachians in North Carolina
Countries United States, Canada
Regions New Brunswick, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina
Highest point Mount Mitchell
 - elevation 6,684 ft (2,037 m)

The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 537 pixelsFull resolution (2922 × 1962 pixel, file size: 751 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Appalachians near the Blue Ridge Parkway in North Carolina. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[2] Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Mount Mitchell can refer to: Mount Mitchell in Jasper National Park of Canada Mount Mitchell in North Carolina, the highest point in eastern North America Mount Mitchell in Oregon Mount Mitchell in Washington Mount Mitchell in Queensland, Australia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ...


The range is mostly located in the United States but extends into southeastern Canada, forming a zone, from 100 to 300 miles (160 to 480 km) wide, running from the island of Newfoundland 1,500 miles (2,400 km) south-westward to central Alabama in the United States (with foothills in northeastern Mississippi). The system is divided into a series of ranges, with the individual mountains averaging around 3,000 ft (900 m). The highest of the group is Mt. Mitchell in North Carolina (6,684 ft or 2,037m), which is the highest point in the United States east of the Mississippi River. Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... A view from the observation tower. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 1 km and 10 km (103 and 104 m). ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ...


The term Appalachia refers to several different regions associated with the mountain range. Most broadly, it refers to the entire mountain range with its surrounding hills and the dissected plateau region. However, the term is often used more restrictively to refer to regions in the central and southern Appalachian Mountains, usually including areas in the states of Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, and North Carolina, and sometimes extending as far south as northern Georgia and western South Carolina, as far north as Pennsylvania, and as far west as southern Ohio. It has been suggested that Poverty in Appalachia be merged into this article or section. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


The Ouachita Mountains in Arkansas and Oklahoma were originally part of the Appalachians as well, but were disconnected through geologic history. Ouachita Mountains The Ouachita Mountains are a mountain range located in west central Arkansas and east central Oklahoma. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ...


While exploring the northern coast of Florida in 1528, the members of the Narváez expedition, including Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, found a Native American town which they transliterated as Apalachen [a.paˈla.tʃɛn]. This name and its pronunciation were applied to the Apalachee Native Americans, as well as a nearby body of water, now spelled Apalachee Bay, to the Apalachicola River, Apalachicola Bay, and the Apalachicola Native Americans, and to the city known as Apalachicola, Florida. The Narváez expedition was a Spanish attempt to install Pánfilo de Narváez as adelantado (governor) of Spanish Florida during the years 1527 – 1528. ... Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca (c. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Approximate area of the Apalachee culture region. ... View of the Apalachicola River near Fort Gadsden, Florida. ... The Apalachicola (also called Pallachacola[1]) were a group of Native Americans related to the Creek. ... The mouth of the Apalachicola River, looking towards the Bay. ...


The word "Apalachen" was also applied to an inland mountain range, and through the course of time it became applied to the entire range and its spelling was changed.


The mountains are pronounced the [æ.pəˈ.tʃənz], and the cultural region of the mountain South is pronounced [æ.pəˈ.tʃ(i)ə]. The third and fourth syllables, respectively, are like the "la" in "lateral," and the "ch" in "chin." Pronouncing the last two syllables like "Asian," though common among non-natives, is incorrect.

Contents

Regions

Appalachian zones in the United States - USGS
Appalachian zones in the United States - USGS
Shaded relief map of Cumberland Plateau and Ridge and Valley Appalachians on the Virginia/West Virginia border
Shaded relief map of Cumberland Plateau and Ridge and Valley Appalachians on the Virginia/West Virginia border

The whole system may be divided into three great sections: the Northern, from the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador to the Hudson River; the Central, from the Hudson Valley to the New River (Great Kanawha), in Virginia and West Virginia; and the Southern, from the New River onwards. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (432x613, 55 KB)The Appalachians - USGS http://3dparks. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (432x613, 55 KB)The Appalachians - USGS http://3dparks. ... Download high resolution version (800x784, 472 KB)Relief Map: Cumberland Plateau, West Virginia and Ridge and Valley region of Virginia Image is Shaded Relief Imagery, derived from the US Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset, modified by Pollinator. ... Download high resolution version (800x784, 472 KB)Relief Map: Cumberland Plateau, West Virginia and Ridge and Valley region of Virginia Image is Shaded Relief Imagery, derived from the US Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset, modified by Pollinator. ... Canada consists of ten provinces and three territories. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami, Muhheakantuck, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and... Map of the Kanawha River watershed, with the New River and its watershed highlighted. ...


The northern section includes the Long Range Mountains and Annieopsquotch Mountains on the island of Newfoundland, Shickshock Mountains and Notre Dame Range in Quebec and New Brunswick, scattered elevations and small ranges elsewhere in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, the Longfellow Mountains in Maine, the White Mountains in New Hampshire, the Green Mountains in Vermont, and The Berkshires in Massachusetts. The central section comprises, besides various minor groups, the Valley Ridges between the Allegheny Front of the Allegheny Plateau and the Great Appalachian Valley, the New York - New Jersey Highlands, the Taconic Mountains in New York, and a large portion of the Blue Ridge. The southern section consists of the prolongation of the Blue Ridge, the Unaka Range, and the Valley Ridges adjoining the Cumberland Plateau, with some lesser ranges. The Long Range Mountains are a series of mountains along the west coast of the Canadian island of Newfoundland. ... The Annieopsquotch Mountains are located in the southwestern interior of Newfoundland, east of Bay St. ... Shickshock Mountains, range of the Appalachian system, E Que. ... The Notre Dame Mountains are a portion of the Appalachian Mountains extending into Canada off the Green Mountains. ... The Longfellow Mountains, named after the poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1959, are a interrupted Mountain range in the state of Maine, running from the western Maine, north of Fryeburg to the east of Maine. ... Looking south on the Franconia Ridge Trail. ... The Green Mountains may refer to: The Green Mountains in Vermont in the United States extending into southern Quebec in Canada. ... Berkshire region of Massachusetts The Berkshires (pronounced as or ) is a region located in Western Massachusetts (with portions located in the adjacent states of Vermont, New York, and Connecticut). ... The Ridge-and-valley Appalachians are a belt within the Appalachian Mountains extending from northern New Jersey westward into Pennsylvania and southward into Maryland, West Virginia, and Virginia. ... The Allegheny Front is an escarpment delineating the eastern edge of the Allegheny Mountains. ... Map of the Allegheny plateau. ... The Great Valley, also called the Great Appalachian Valley or Great Valley Region, is one of the major landform features of eastern North America. ... The New York - New Jersey Highlands is a geological formation composed primarily of precambrian igneous and metamorphic rock running from the Delaware River near Musconetcong Mountain, northeast through the Skylands region of New Jersey along the Bearfort Ridge and the Ramapo Mountains, Sterling Forest, Harriman and Bear Mountain State Parks... The Taconic Mountains are part of the Appalachian Mountains, running along the eastern border of New York State, United States. ... Blue Ridge Mountains, Shining Rock Wilderness Area Appalachian Mountain system The Blue Ridge is a mountain chain in the eastern United States, part of the Appalachian Mountains, forming their eastern front from Georgia to Pennsylvania. ... The Unaka Range is a southern mountain range of the Appalachian Mountains that follows the border of Tennessee and North Carolina. ... The Ridge-and-valley Appalachians are a belt within the Appalachian Mountains extending from northern New Jersey westward into Pennsylvania and southward into Maryland, West Virginia, and Virginia. ... The Cumberland Plateau includes much of eastern Kentucky and western West Virginia in the United States. ...


The Adirondack Mountains in New York are sometimes considered part of the Appalachian chain but, geologically speaking, are a southern extension of the Laurentian Mountains of Canada. Stream on the hike to the top of Ampersand Mountain The Adirondack mountain range is located in the northeastern part of New York that runs through Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Fulton, Hamilton, Herkimer, Lewis, St. ... The Laurentians mountains in the Hautes-Gorges Quebec national parc, Charlevoix, Quebec, Canada The Laurentian mountains (French: Laurentides) are a mountain range in southern Quebec, Canada, north of the St. ...


In addition to the true folded mountains, known as the ridge and valley province, the area of dissected plateau to the north and west of the mountains is usually grouped with the Appalachians. This includes the Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York, the Poconos in Pennsylvania, and the Allegheny Plateau of southwestern New York, western Pennsylvania, eastern Ohio and northern West Virginia. This same plateau is known as the Cumberland Plateau in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, western Virginia, and eastern Tennessee. The Ridge-and-valley Appalachians are a belt within the Appalachian Mountains extending from northern New Jersey westward into Pennsylvania and southward into Maryland, West Virginia, and Virginia. ... Shaded relief map of Cumberland Plateau and Ridge and Valley Appalachians on the Virginia/West Virginia border A dissected plateau is an area that has been uplifted, then severely eroded so that the relief is sharp. ... The Catskill Mountains (also known as simply the Catskills), a natural area in New York State northwest of New York City and southwest of Albany are a mature dissected plateau, an uplifted region that was subsequently eroded into sharp relief. ... This article is about the state. ... Pennsylvanias Pocono region counties The Pocono Mountains region is a mountainous region of about 2,400 square miles (6,200 km²) located in northeastern Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Map of the Allegheny plateau. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... The Cumberland Plateau includes much of eastern Kentucky and western West Virginia in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ...


The dissected plateau area, while not actually made up of geological mountains, is popularly called "mountains", especially in eastern Kentucky and West Virginia, and while the ridges are not high, the terrain is extremely rugged. In Ohio and New York, some of the plateau has been glaciated, which has rounded off the sharp ridges, and filled the valleys to some extent. The glaciated regions are usually referred to as hill country rather than mountains. For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ...


The Appalachian region is generally considered the geographical dividing line between the eastern seaboard of the United States and the Midwest region of the country. The Eastern Continental Divide follows the Appalachian Mountains from Pennsylvania to Georgia. Categories: US geography stubs ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... North American continental divides. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


The Appalachian Trail is a 2,175 mile hiking trail that runs all the way from Mount Katahdin in Maine to Springer Mountain in Georgia, passing over or past a large part of the Appalachian system. The International Appalachian Trail is an extension of this hiking trail into the Canadian portion of the Appalachian range. The Appalachian National Scenic Trail, generally known as the Appalachian Trail or simply The A.T., is a marked hiking trail in the eastern United States, extending between Springer Mountain in Georgia and Mount Katahdin in Maine. ... Mount Katahdin (USGS name) is the highest mountain in Maine. ... Springer Mountain (3,280 feet), located in the Chattahoochee National Forest in northern Georgia, is the southernmost point on and southern terminus of the Appalachian Trail. ... The International Appalachian Trail (IAT; French: Sentier International des Appalaches, SIA) is a hiking trail which runs from the northern terminus of the Appalachian Trail at Mount Katahdin, Maine to the northernmost tip of the Appalachian Mountains at Belle Isle, Newfoundland and Labrador. ...


Chief summits

The Appalachian belt includes, with the ranges enumerated above, the plateaus sloping southward to the Atlantic Ocean in New England, and south-eastward to the border of the coastal plain through the central and southern Atlantic states; and on the north-west, the Allegheny and Cumberland plateaus declining toward the Great Lakes and the interior plains. A remarkable feature of the belt is the longitudinal chain of broad valleys—the Great Appalachian Valley—which in the southerly sections divides the mountain system into two subequal portions, but in the northernmost lies west of all the ranges possessing typical Appalachian features, and separates them from the Adirondack group. The mountain system has no axis of dominating altitudes, but in every portion the summits rise to rather uniform heights, and, especially in the central section, the various ridges and intermontane valleys have the same trend as the system itself. None of the summits reaches the region of perpetual snow.

Old fault exposed by roadcut near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania along Interstate 81. Such faults are common in the folded Appalachians.
Old fault exposed by roadcut near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania along Interstate 81. Such faults are common in the folded Appalachians.

Mountains of the Long Range in Newfoundland reach heights of nearly 3,000 ft. In the Shickshocks and Notre Dame ranges in Quebec the higher summits rise to about 4,000 ft. elevation. Isolated peaks and small ranges in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick vary from of 1,000 - 2,700 ft. In Maine several peaks exceed 4,000 ft., including Mount Katahdin (5,267 ft.). In New Hampshire, many summits rise above 4,000 feet, including Mount Washington in the White Mountains (6,288 ft.), plus Adams (5,771), Jefferson (5,712), Monroe (5,380), Madison (5,367), and Lafayette (5,260). In the Green Mountains the highest point, Mt. Mansfield, is 4,393 feet in elevation; others include Killington Peak at 4,226 ft., Camel's Hump at 4,083 ft., Mt. Abraham at 4,006 ft., and a number of other heights exceeding 3,000 ft. Image File history File links Appalachian_fault. ... Image File history File links Appalachian_fault. ... This article is about the capital city of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. ... Interstate 81 (abbreviated I-81) is an interstate highway in the eastern part of the United States. ... The Long Range Mountains are a series of mountains along the west coast of the Canadian island of Newfoundland. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... The Notre Dame Mountains are a portion of the Appalachian Mountains extending into Canada off the Green Mountains. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Mount Katahdin (USGS name) is the highest mountain in Maine. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... The Summit Mount Washington is the highest peak in the American Northeast at 6,288 ft. ... Looking south on the Franconia Ridge Trail. ... Mount Adams is the second highest mountain in New Hampshire, after Mt. ... For other mountains named Mount Jefferson, see Mount Jefferson. ... Mount Monroe is one of the tallest mountains in the state of New Hampshire. ... Mount Madison is a mountain in the Presidential Range of New Hampshire in the Unitred States. ... ... The Green Mountains may refer to: The Green Mountains in Vermont in the United States extending into southern Quebec in Canada. ... Mount Mansfield is the highest mountain in the U.S. State of Vermont. ... Killington Peak, with an elevation of 4,241 feet, is the second highest summit in the Green Mountains and is the point with the second highest elevation in the U.S. state of Vermont. ... Camels Hump is Vermonts third highest mountain (and its highest undeveloped peak), but because of its distinctive profile, perhaps the states most recognized mountain. ... Mount Abraham is the fifth tallest peak in Vermont at 4006 ft. ...


In Pennsylvania, there are over sixty summits that rise over 2,500 ft., the summits of Mount Davis and Blue Knob rise over 3,000 ft. In Maryland, Eagle Rock and Dans Mountain are conspicuous points reaching 3,162 ft. and 2,882 ft. respectively. On the same side of the Great Valley, south of the Potomac, are the Pinnacle (3,007 ft.) and Pidgeon Roost (3,400 ft.). In West Virginia, more than 150 peaks rise above 4,000 ft., including Spruce Knob (4863 ft.), the highest point in the Allegheny Mountains. A number of other points in the state rise above 4,800 ft. Thorny Flat (4,848 ft.) and Bald Knob (4,842 ft.) are among the more notable peaks in West Virginia. Mount Davis is the highest mountain in Pennsylvania, located in the 5,685 acre (23. ... // Blue Knob is a peak in the Allegheny Mountains of Pennsylvania in the United States at 3,146 feet (959 m) above sea level. ... Dans Mountain is located in Allegany County, Maryland, USA between Georges Creek and the North Branch Potomac River, the mountain is the Allegheny Front in Maryland. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Bald Knob is the highest point on Back Allegheny Mountain in Pocahontas County, West Virginia and is part of Cass Scenic Railroad State Park. ...


The Blue Ridge Mountains, rising in southern Pennsylvania and there known as South Mountain, attain in that state an elevation of about 2,000 ft.; southward to the Potomac its altitudes diminish, but once in Virginia the Blue Ridge again reaches 2,000 ft. and higher. In the Virginia Blue Ridge, the following are the highest peaks east of the New River: Mary's Rock (3,523 ft), Stony Man (4,031), Hawksbill Mountain (4,066), and Peaks of Otter (4001 and 3875). Blue Ridge Mountains, Shining Rock Wilderness Area Appalachian Mountain system The Blue Ridge is a mountain chain in the eastern United States, part of the Appalachian Mountains, forming their eastern front from Georgia to Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... South Mountain is a long mountain ridge in Maryland and Pennsylvania which comprises a northern extension of the Blue Ridge Mountains. ... The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Map of the Kanawha River watershed, with the New River and its watershed highlighted. ... Hawksbill Mountain is the tallest mountain in Shenandoah National Park. ... The Peaks of Otter are three mountain peaks in the Blue Ridge Mountains, near 37°2649N, 79°3501W, overlooking the town of Bedford, Virginia, nine miles (14km) to the southeast along Virginia State Highway 43. ...


In the southern section of the Blue Ridge are Grandfather Mountain (5,964 ft.), with three other summits above 5,000, and a dozen more above 4000. The Unaka Ranges (including the Black and Great Smoky Mountains) have eighteen peaks higher than 5,000 ft., and eight surpassing 6,000 ft. In the Black Mountains, Mt. Mitchell (the culminating point of the whole system) attains an altitude of 6,684 feet. In the Great Smoky Mountains, Clingmans Dome (6,643 ft.) is the highest peak, with several others above 6,000 and many higher than 5,000. The Grandfather Mountain mile high swinging bridge Grandfather Mountain is a mountain near Linville, North Carolina. ... The Unaka Range is a southern mountain range of the Appalachian Mountains that follows the border of Tennessee and North Carolina. ... The Black Mountains are a part of the great Appalachian Mountain range. ... A view from the observation tower. ... A rainy day in the Great Smoky Mountains, Western North Carolina Appalachian Mountain system The Great Smoky Mountains are a major mountain range in the southern part of the Appalachian Mountains, the second ridge line forming a north-south running mountain chain from the Eastern United States and bordering the... Clingmans Dome (or Clingmans Dome) is, at an elevation of 6,643 feet (2,025 metres), the highest point both in the state of Tennessee and on the Appalachian Trail. ...


In spite of the existence of the Great Appalachian Valley, the master streams are transverse to the axis of the system. The height of land (water divide) of the Appalachians follows a tortuous course which crosses the mountainous belt just north of the New River in Virginia; south of the New River the rivers head in the Blue Ridge, cross the higher Unakas, receive important tributaries from the Great Valley, and traversing the Cumberland Plateau in spreading gorges, escape by way of the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers to the Ohio and Mississippi, and thus to the Gulf of Mexico; in the central section the rivers, rising in or beyond the Valley Ridges, flow through great gorges (water gaps) to the Great Valley, and by south-easterly courses across the Blue Ridge to tidal estuaries penetrating the coastal plain; in the northern section the height of land lies on the inland side of the mountainous belt, the main lines of drainage running from north to south. Main European water divides (red lines) separating catchments (gray regions). ... Main European water divides (red lines) separating catchments (gray regions). ...


Geology

Cliffs overlooking the New River near Gauley Bridge, WV.
Cliffs overlooking the New River near Gauley Bridge, WV.

The Appalachians are aging mountains. A look at rocks exposed in today's Appalachian mountains reveals elongated belts of folded and thrust faulted marine sedimentary rocks, volcanic rocks and slivers of ancient ocean floor, which provides strong evidence that these rocks were deformed during plate collision. The birth of the Appalachian ranges, some 300 million years ago, marks the first of several mountain building plate collisions that culminated in the construction of the supercontinent Pangea with the Appalachians near the center. Because North America and Africa were connected, the Appalachians form part of the same mountain chain as the Anti-Atlas in Morocco. To the northeast, the same mountain chain continues into Scotland, from the North America/Europe collision. The geology of the Appalachians dates back to more than 480 million years ago. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 480 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 480 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Map of the Kanawha River watershed, with the New River and its watershed highlighted. ... Gauley Bridge is a town in Fayette County, West Virginia, United States. ... Geologic faults, fault lines or simply faults are planar rock fractures, which show evidence of relative movement. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... Ignimbrite is a deposit of a pyroclastic flow. ... Pangea may refer to: a common alternative spelling of the name Pangaea given to the supercontinent that is believed to have existed during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras Pangea, a geology equipment supplier/developer of mineralogical testing equipment Pangea (cable system), a submarine telecommunications cable system connecting the Netherlands and... Map showing the location of the Anti-Atlas Mountains in North Africa Anti Atlas Anti Atlas close to Tafraoute At Tafraoute on a market day Anti Atlas, valley of the Ammeln (near Tafraout) The Anti-Atlas is one of the mountain ranges lying in Morocco lying as part of the...


During the middle Ordovician Period (about 496-440 million years ago), a change in plate motions set the stage for the first Paleozoic mountain building event (Taconic orogeny) in North America. The once-quiet Appalachian passive margin changed to a very active plate boundary when a neighboring oceanic plate, the Iapetus, collided with and began sinking beneath the North American craton. With the birth of this new subduction zone, the early Appalachians were born. Along the continental margin, volcanoes grew, coincident with the initiation of subduction. Thrust faulting uplifted and warped older sedimentary rock laid down on the passive margin. As mountains rose, erosion began to wear them down. Streams carried rock debris down slope to be deposited in nearby lowlands. The Taconic Orogeny was just the first of a series of mountain building plate collisions that contributed to the formation of the Appalachians, culminating in the collision of North America and Africa (see Appalachian orogeny). The Ordovician period is the second of the six (seven in North America) periods of the Paleozoic era. ... Illustration of the Taconic orogeny The Taconic orogeny was a great mountain building period that perhaps had the greatest overall effect on the geologic structure of basement rocks within the New York Bight region. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... The Iapetus Ocean was an Ocean that existed in the Southern Hemisphere between Scotland, England and Scandinavia between 400 and 600 million years ago. ... The North American craton, like all craton land, was created as continents move about the surface of the Earth, bumping into other continents and drifting away. ... The Juan de Fuca plate sinks below the North America plate at the Cascadia subduction zone. ... The Appalachian orogeny is a geological event that formed the Appalachian Mountains. ...


By the end of the Mesozoic era, the Appalachian Mountains had been eroded to an almost flat plain. It was not until the region was uplifted during the Cenozoic Era that the distinctive topography of the present formed. Uplift rejuvenated the streams, which rapidly responded by cutting downward into the ancient bedrock. Some streams flowed along weak layers that define the folds and faults created many millions of years earlier. Other streams downcut so rapidly that they cut right across the resistant folded rocks of the mountain core, carving canyons across rock layers and geologic structures. The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... The Cenozoic or Cainozoic era (sometimes Caenozoic Era) is the most recent of the four classic geological eras. ... A river which is said to be rejuvenated when the base level that it is flowing down to, is lowered. ... Erosional downcutting by the San Juan River in Utah. ...


The Appalachian Mountains contain major deposits of anthracite coal as well as bituminous coal. In the folded mountains the coal is in metamorphosed form as anthracite represented by the Coal Region of northeastern Pennsylvania. The bituminous coal fields of western Pennsylvania, western Maryland, southeastern Ohio, eastern Kentucky, southwestern Virginia, and West Virginia is the sedimentary form. Some plateaus of the Appalachian Mountains contain metallic minerals such as iron and zinc. Anthracite coal Anthracite (Greek Ανθρακίτης, literally a form of coal, from Anthrax [Άνθραξ], coal) is a hard, compact variety of mineral coal that has a high luster. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal (pronounced ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Asphalt is a highly viscous liquid that occurs naturally in most crude petroleums. ... Counties of the Coal Region of Pennsylvania, known for anthracite mining. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Western Maryland is the portion of U.S. state of Maryland that consists of Frederick, Washington, Allegany, and Garrett counties. ... Southwest Virginia at its greatest geographical definition Southwest Virginia is a mountainous region of Virginia in the westernmost part of the commonwealth. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ...


Flora and fauna

At 6,684 feet, Mount Mitchell is the highest point in the Appalachians.
At 6,684 feet, Mount Mitchell is the highest point in the Appalachians.

The floras of the Appalachians are diverse and vary primarily in response to geology, latitude, elevation and moisture availability. Geobotanically, they constitute a floristic province of the North American Atlantic Region. The Appalachians consist primarily of deciduous broad-leaf trees and evergreen needle-leaf conifers, but also contain the evergreen broad-leaf American Holly (Ilex opaca), and the deciduous needle-leaf conifer, the Tamarack, or Eastern Larch (Larix laricina). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 440 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1100 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 440 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1100 pixel, file size: 1. ... Mount Mitchell can refer to: Mount Mitchell in Jasper National Park of Canada Mount Mitchell in North Carolina, the highest point in eastern North America Mount Mitchell in Oregon Mount Mitchell in Washington Mount Mitchell in Queensland, Australia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other... A floristic province is a geographic area with a relatively uniform composition of plant species. ... The Blue Ridge, heartland of the region Liriodendron tulipifera, closely related to L. chinense from China North American Atlantic Region is a floristic region within the Holarctic Kingdom identified by Armen Takhtajan and Robert F. Thorne, spanning from the Atlantic and Gulf coasts to the Great Plains and comprising a... Binomial name American holly (Ilex opaca) is a small to medium broadleaved evergreen tree in the family Aquifoliaceae. ... Binomial name Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch Uses Young tree with fall colors The wood is tough and durable, but also flexible in thin strips, and was used by the Algonquian people for making snowshoes and other products where toughness was required. ...


The dominant northern and high elevation conifer is the Red Spruce (Picea rubens), which grows from near sea level to above 4000 feet (1219 m) above sea level (asl) in northern New England and southeastern Canada. It also grows southward along the Appalachian crest to the highest elevations of the southern Appalachians, as in North Carolina and Tennessee. In the central Appalachians it is usually confined above 3000 feet (914 m) asl, except for a few cold valleys in which it reaches lower elevations. In the southern Appalachians it is restricted to higher elevations. Another species is the Black Spruce (Picea mariana), which extends farthest north of any conifer in North America, is found at high elevations in the northern Appalachians, and in bogs as far south as Pennsylvania. Binomial name Picea rubens Sarg. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Binomial name Picea mariana The Black Spruce (Picea mariana) is a common coniferous tree in North America. ...


The Appalachians are also home to two species of fir, the boreal Balsam Fir (Abies balsamea), and the southern high elevation endemic, Fraser Fir (Abies fraseri), which is confined to the highest parts of the southern Appalachian mountains. By contrast, Balsam Fir is found from near sea level to the tree line in the northern Appalachians, but ranges only as far south as Virginia and West Virginia in the central Appalachians, where it is usually confined above 3900 feet (1189 m)asl, except in cold valleys. Curiously, it is associated with oaks in Virginia. The Balsam Fir of Virginia and West Virginia is thought by some to be a natural hybrid between the more northern variety and Fraser Fir. While Red Spruce is common in both upland and bog habitats, Balsam Fir, as well as Black Spruce and Tamarack, are more characteristic of the latter. However Balsam Fir also does well in soils with a pH as high as 6 [1]. Binomial name Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. ... Binomial name Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. ...


Eastern or Canada Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) is another important evergreen needle-leaf conifer that grows along the Appalachian chain from north to south, but is confined to lower elevations than Red Spruce and the firs. It generally occupies richer and less acidic soils than the spruce and firs and is characteristic of deep, shaded and moist mountain valleys and coves. It is, unfortunately, subject to the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelges tsugae), an introduced insect, that is rapidly extirpating it as a forest tree. Less abundant, and restricted to the southern Appalachians, is Carolina Hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana). Like Canada Hemlock, this tree suffers severely from the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid. Binomial name Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. ... Hemlock Woolly Adelgid or HWA: Hemlock Woolly Adelgid or HWA is a destructive introduced pest that poses a major threat to eastern and Carolina hemlock trees throughout their range. ... Binomial name Tsuga caroliniana Engelmann Carolina Hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana) is a coniferous tree. ...


Several species of pines characteristic of the Appalachians are Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus ), Virginia Pine (Pinus virginiana), Pitch Pine (Pinus rigida ), Table Mountain Pine (Pinus pungens) and Shortleaf Pine (Pinus echinata). Red Pine (Pinus resinosa) is a boreal species that forms a few high elevation outliers as far south as West Virginia. All of these species except White Pine tend to occupy sandy, rocky, poor soil sites, which are mostly acidic in character. White Pine, a large species valued for its timber, tends to do best in rich, moist soil, either acidic or alkaline in character. Pitch Pine is also at home in acidic, boggy soil, and Table Mountain Pine may occasionally be found in this habitat as well. Shortleaf Pine is generally found in warmer habitats and at lower elevations than the other species. All the species listed do best in open or lightly shaded habitats, although White Pine also thrives in shady coves, valleys, and on floodplains. Binomial name L. Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus) is a large pine native to eastern North America, occurring from Newfoundland west to Minnesota and southeastern Manitoba, and south along the Appalachian Mountains to the extreme north of Georgia. ... Headline text rose rox my sox in a shoebox The Virginia Pine (Pinus virginiana) is a medium-sized tree, often found on poorer soils from Long Island in southern New York south through the Appalachian Mountains to western Tennessee and Alabama. ... Binomial name Pinus rigida Mill. ... Binomial name Pinus pungens Lambert The Table Mountain Pine (Pinus pungens) is a small pine native to the Appalachian Mountains in the United States. ... Binomial name Pinus echinata Mill. ... Binomial name Pinus resinosa The Red Pine (Pinus resinosa), is a North American pine, occurring from Newfoundland west to southeast Manitoba, and south to northern Illinois and Pennsylvania, with a small outlying population in the Appalachian Mountains in West Virginia. ...

The view from Craggy Gardens on the Blue Ridge Parkway.
The view from Craggy Gardens on the Blue Ridge Parkway.

The Appalachians are characterized by a wealth of large, beautiful deciduous broadleaf (hardwood) trees. Their occurrences are best summarized and described in E. Lucy Braun's 1950 classic, Deciduous Forests of Eastern North America (Macmillan, New York). The most diverse and richest forests are the Mixed Mesophytic or medium moisture types, which are largely confined to rich, moist montane soils of the southern and central Appalachians, particularly in the Cumberland and Allegheny Mountains, but also thrive in the southern Appalachian coves. Characteristic canopy species are White Basswood (Tilia heterophylla), Yellow Buckeye (Aesculus octandra), Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum), American Beech (Fagus grandifolia), Tuliptree (Liriodendron tulipifera), White Ash (Fraxinus americana ) and Yellow Birch (Betula alleganiensis). Other common trees are Red Maple (Acer rubrum), Shagbark and Bitternut Hickories (Carya ovata and C. cordiformis) and Black or Sweet Birch (Betula lenta ). Small understory trees and shrubs include Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida), Hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana), Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) and Spicebush (Lindera benzoin). There are also hundreds of perennial and annual herbs, among them such herbal and medicinal plants as American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius), Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) and Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 480 pixel Image in higher resolution (2000 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 480 pixel Image in higher resolution (2000 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Blue Ridge Parkway route map The Blue Ridge Parkway is a National Parkway and All-American Road in the United States, noted for its scenic beauty. ... Emma Lucy Braun (1889-1971) was an American botanist and ecologist, whose commitment to conservation led to the eventual preservation of over 10,000 acres in Ohio. ... Binomial name Tilia heterophylla L. White Basswood, a species of basswood common to mesic forests in Eastern North America. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Binomial name Acer saccharum Marshall The Sugar Maple Acer saccharum is a prominent tree in the hardwood forests of eastern North America. ... Binomial name Fagus grandifolia Ehrenb. ... Species Liriodendron chinense (Hemsl. ... Binomial name Fraxinus americana L. The White Ash (Fraxinus americana) is one of the largest of the ash genus Fraxinus, growing to 35 m tall. ... Binomial name Betula alleghaniensis Britt. ... Binomial name Acer rubrum L. Red Maple (Acer rubrum) is also known as Swamp Maple or Soft Maple. ... Binomial name Carya ovata (Mill. ... Binomial name Carya cordiformis (Wangenh. ... Binomial name Betula lenta L. Sweet Birch (Betula lenta), also known as Cherry Birch or Black Birch, is a species of birch native to eastern North America, from southern Maine west to southernmost Ontario and southern Michigan, and south in the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia. ... Binomial name Cornus florida L. The flowering dogwood (Cornus florida or Benthamidia florida) is a showy small tree native to eastern and southeastern North America. ... Species See text. ... Witch hazel is the name of: Witch-hazel: Hamamelis, a genus of decorative shrubs in North America and east Asia. ... species See text. ... Not to be confused with ginger. ... Binomial name L. Goldenseal (Orange-root, Orangeroot; Hydrastis canadensis) is a perennial herb in the buttercup family Ranunculaceae, native to southeastern Canada and the northeastern United States. ... Binomial name L. Range in the United States Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) is a perennial, herbaceous flowering plant native to eastern North America from Nova Scotia, Canada southward to Florida, United States. ... Binomial name Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt. ...


The foregoing trees, shrubs and herbs are also more widely distributed in less rich mesic forests that generally occupy coves, stream valleys and flood plains throughout the southern and central Appalachians at low and intermediate elevations. In the northern Appalachians and at higher elevations of the central and southern Appalachians these diverse mesic forests give way to less diverse "Northern Hardwoods" with canopies dominated only by American Beech, Sugar Maple, American Basswood (Tilia americana) and Yellow Birch and with far fewer species of shrubs and herbs. A mesic habitat, in ecology, a is type of habitat with a moderate or well-balanced supply of moisture, i. ... Binomial name Tilia americana L. Tilia americana is a medium-sized to large deciduous tree in the genus Tilia, native to eastern North America. ...


Dryer and rockier uplands and ridges are occupied by Oak-Chestnut type forests dominated by a variety of oaks (Quercus spp.), hickories (Carya spp.) and, in the past, by the American Chestnut (Castanea dentata). The American Chestnut was virtually eliminated as a canopy species by the introduced fungal Chestnut Blight (Cryphonectaria parasitica), but lives on as sapling-sized sprouts that originate from roots, which are not killed by the fungus. In present day forest canopies Chestnut has been largely replaced by oaks. Species See text Comparison of Carya nuts Ripe hickory nuts ready to fall, Andrews, SC Hickory is a tree of the genus Carya, including 17-19 species of deciduous trees with pinnately compound leaves and large nuts. ... Binomial name (Marsh. ... Binomial name Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr The chestnut blight is a fungal disease caused by the sac fungus (Ascomycota), Cryphonectria parasitica (formerly Endothia parasitica). ...


The oak forests of the southern and central Appalachians consist largely of Black, Northern Red, White, Chestnut and Scarlet Oaks (Quercus velutina, Q. rubra, Q. alba, Q. prinus and Q. coccinea) and hickories, such as the Pignut (Carya glabra) in particular. The richest forests, which grade into mesic types, usually in coves and on gentle slopes, have dominantly White and Northern Red Oaks, while the driest sites are dominated by Chestnut Oak, or sometimes by Scarlet or Northern Red Oaks. In the northern Appalachians the oaks, except for White and Northern Red, drop out, while the latter extends farthest north. Binomial name Quercus velutina Lamb. ... Binomial name Quercus rubra L. The Northern Red Oak or Champion Oak, Quercus rubra (syn. ... Binomial name Quercus alba L. The White oak (Quercus alba) is one of the most magnificent of oaks. ... Binomial name Willdenow The Chestnut oak (Quercus montana, or Quercus prinus in some references) is a species of oak in the white oak group, Quercus sect. ... Binomial name Quercus coccinea Muenchh. ...


The oak forests generally lack the diverse small tree, shrub and herb layers of mesic forests. Shrubs are generally ericaceous, and include the evergreen Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia), various species of blueberries (Vaccinium spp.), Black Huckleberry (Gaylussacia baccata), a number of deciduous rhododendrons (azaleas), and smaller heaths such as Teaberry ( Gaultheria procumbens) and Trailing Arbutus (Epigaea repens ). The evergreen Great Rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum) is characteristic of moist stream valleys. These occurrences are in line with the prevailing acidic character of most oak forest soils. In contrast, the much rarer Chinquapin Oak (Quercus muehlenbergii) demands alkaline soils and generally grows where limestone rock is near the surface. Hence no ericaceous shrubs are associated with it. Binominal name Kalmia latifolia L. Mountain-laurel is the common name of Kalmia latifolia a flowering shrub of the family Ericaceae Found in the eastern USA, this is a poisonous broad-leaved (3-12 cm long, 1-4 cm wide) evergreen shrub, between 3-9 m tall. ... For other uses, see Blueberry (disambiguation). ... Subgenera Azaleastrum Candidastrum Hymenanthes Mumeazalea Pentanthera (Azaleas) Rhododendron Therorhodion Tsutsusi (Azaleas) Vireya Source: RBG, Edinburgh Rhododendron (from the Greek: rhodos, rose, and dendron, tree) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Ericaceae. ... Binomial name Gaultheria procumbens L. Eastern Teaberry (Gaultheria procumbens), also known as Checkerberry, Boxberry and American Wintergreen, is a small shrub native to northeastern North America. ... Species Epigaea asiatica Epigaea repens Epigaea is a genus of two species of flowering plants in the Ericaceae. ... Binomial name Quercus muhlenbergii Engelm. ...


The Appalachian floras also include a diverse assemblage of bryophytes (mosses and liverworts), as well as fungi. Some species are rare and/or endemic. As with vascular plants, these tend to be closely related to the character of the soils and thermal environment in which they are found. The bryophytes are those embryophytes (land plants) that are non-vascular: they have tissues and enclosed reproductive systems, but they lack vascular tissue that circulates liquids. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ...


Eastern deciduous forests are subject to a number of serious insect and disease outbreaks. Among the most conspicuous is that of the introduced Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar), which infests primarily oaks, causing severe defoliation and tree mortality. But it also has the benefit of eliminating weak individuals, and thus improving the genetic stock, as well as creating rich habitat of a type through accumulation of dead wood. Because hardwoods sprout so readily, this moth is not as harmful as the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid. Perhaps more serious is the introduced Beech Bark Disease Complex, which includes both a scale insect (Cryptococcus fagisuga) and fungal components. Binomial name Lymantria dispar Linnaeus, 1758 The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a moth in the family Lymantriidae of Eurasian origin. ... Hemlock Woolly Adelgid or HWA: Hemlock Woolly Adelgid or HWA is a destructive introduced pest that poses a major threat to eastern and Carolina hemlock trees throughout their range. ...


During the 19th and early 20th centuries the Appalachian forests were subject to severe and destructive logging and land clearing, which resulted in the designation of the National Forests and Parks as well many state protected areas. However, these and a variety of other destructive activities continue, albeit in diminished forms; and thus far only a few ecologically based management practices have taken hold.


Animals that characterize the Appalachian forests include five species of tree squirrels. The most commonly seen is the low to moderate elevation Eastern Gray Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis). Occupying similar habitat is the slightly larger Fox Squirrel ( Sciurus niger) and the much smaller Southern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys volans). More characteristic of cooler northern and high elevation habitat is the Red Squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), whereas the Appalachian Northern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus), which closely resembles the Southern Flying Squirrel, is confined to northern hardwood and spruce-fir forests. Binomial name Gmelin, 1788 The Eastern Gray Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) is a tree squirrel that is native to the eastern to midwestern United States and the eastern provinces of Canada. ... Binomial name Sciurus niger Linnaeus, 1758 The Fox Squirrel (Sciurus niger) is the largest species of tree squirrels native to North America. ... Binomial name Glaucomys volans (Linnaeus, 1758) The Southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans) is one of two species of the genus Glaucomys, the only flying squirrels found in North America (the other is the somewhat larger Northern flying squirrel, ). It is found in deciduous and mixed woods in the eastern half... Binomial name (Erxleben, 1777) The North American red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) is one of two species of tree squirrel currently classified in the genus Tamiasciurus and known as pine squirrels (the other is the Douglas squirrel, ). It is a medium sized (200–250g) diurnal mammal that defends a year-round... Binomial name Glaucomys sabrinus (Shaw, 1801) The Northern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) is one of two species of the genus Glaucomys, the only flying squirrels found in North America (the other is the somewhat smaller Southern Flying Squirrel, ). Flying squirrels are strictly nocturnal. ...


As familiar as squirrels are the Eastern Cottontail rabbit ( Silvilagus floridanus) and the White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The latter in particular has greatly increased in abundance as a result of the extirpation of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus ) and the Eastern Cougar or Mountain Lion (Felis concolor cougar) by Euro-Americans. This has led to the overgrazing and browsing of many plants of the Appalachian forests, as well as destruction of agricultural crops. Other deer include the Moose (Alces alces ), found only in the north, and the Elk (Cervus canadensis), which, although once extirpated, is now making a comeback, through transplantation, in the southern and central Appalachians. An additional species that is common in the north but extends its range southward at high elevations to Virginia and West Virginia is the Varying or Snowshoe Hare (Lepus americanus). However, these central Appalachian populations are scattered and very small. Binomial name Sylvilagus floridanus J. A. Allen, 1890 The Eastern Cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) is a New World cottontail rabbit, a member of the family Leporidae. ... Binomial name Zimmermann, 1780 The White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), also known as the Virginia deer, or simply as the whitetail, is a medium-sized deer found throughout most of the continental United States, southern Canada, Mexico, Central America and northern portions of South America as far south as Peru. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map. ... For other uses, see Cougar (disambiguation) or Puma (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moose (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Elk (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Lepus americanus Erxleben, 1777 The Snowshoe Hare (Lepus americanus) is a species of hare found in North America. ...


Another species of great interest is the Beaver (Castor canadensis), which is showing a great resurgence in numbers after its near extirpation for its pelt. This resurgence is bringing about a drastic alteration in habitat through the construction of dams and other structures throughout the mountains. For other uses, see Beaver (disambiguation). ...


Other common forest animals are the Black Bear (Ursus americanus), Striped Skunk (Mephitis mephitis), Raccoon (Procyon lotor), Woodchuck (Marmota monax), Bobcat (Felis rufus), Gray Fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and in recent years, the Coyote (Canis latrans), another species favored by the advent of Europeans and the extirpation of the Gray Wolf. Black Bear redirects here. ... The striped skunks show up in our neighborhood every summer from July onward, and have been quite the nuisance to anyone who likes to go out for an evening stroll. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Raccoon native range in red, feral range in blue. ... This article is about the mammal. ... For other uses, see Bobcat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gray Fox (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Coyote (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map. ...


Characteristic birds of the forest are Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus), Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura), Common Raven (Corvus corax), Wood Duck (Aix sponsa), Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus), Barred Owl (Strix varia), Screech Owl (Megascops asio), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus), and Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), as well as a great variety of "songbirds" (Passeriformes), like the warblers in particular. Binomial name Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Wild Turkey (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1766) The Ruffed Grouse, Bonasa umbellus, is a medium-sized grouse occurring in forests across Canada and the Appalachian and northern United States including Alaska. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Winter only (blue), summer only (light green), and year-round (dark green) range Subspecies See text The Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) is a member of the dove family Columbidae. ... Binomial name Corvus corax Linnaeus, 1758 Common Raven range Subspecies The Common Raven (Corvus corax), also known as the Northern Raven, is a large all-black passerine bird in the crow family, with iridescent feathers. ... Binomial name Aix sponsa Linnaeus, 1758 Nesting (light green), wintering (blue) and year-round (dark green) ranges of . ... Binomial name (Gmelin, 1788) Distribution Subspecies see text Synonyms Strix virginiana Gmelin, 1788 The Great Horned Owl, Bubo virginianus, is a very large owl native to North and South America. ... Binomial name Barton, 1799 The Barred Owl, Strix varia, is a large typical owl. ... Species many, see species list The scops owls, known as screech owls in the Americas are small owls in the genus Otus of the typical owl family Strigidae. ... Binomial name (Gmelin, 1788) The Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) is a medium-sized bird of prey, one of three species colloquially known in the United States as the chickenhawk. ... Binomial name Buteo lineatus (Gmelin, 1788) The Red-shouldered Hawk, Buteo lineatus, is a medium-sized hawk. ... Binomial name Accipiter gentilis (Linnaeus, 1758) The Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis; from OE. góshafuc goose-hawk) is a medium large bird of prey in the family Accipitridae which also includes many other diurnal raptors such as eagles, buzzards and harriers. ... Families Many, see text A passerine is a bird of the giant order Passeriformes. ...


Of great importance are the many species of salamanders, and in particular the lungless species (Family Plethodontidae) that live in great abundance concealed by leaves and debris, on the forest floor. Most frequently seen, however, is the Eastern or Red-spotted Newt (Notophthalmus viridescens), whose terrestrial eft form is often encountered on the open, dry forest floor. It has been estimated that salamanders represent the largest class of animal biomass in the Appalachian forests. Frogs and toads are of lesser diversity and abundance, but the Wood Frog (Rana sylvatica) is, like the eft, commonly encountered on the dry forest floor, while a number of species of small frogs, such as Spring Peepers (Pseudacris crucifer), enliven the forest with their calls. Salamanders and other amphibians contribute greatly to nutrient cycling through their consumption of small life forms on the forest floor and in aquatic habitats. For other uses, see Salamander (disambiguation). ... Subfamilies Desmognathinae Plethodontinae Lungless salamanders (Family Plethodontidae) are salamanders which do not have lungs and instead conduct respiration through their skin and the tissues lining their mouth. ... Binomial name Notophthalmus viridescens Rafinesque, 1820 The Eastern Newt is a common newt in eastern North America. ... Binomial name LeConte, 1825 Wood Frog range Synonyms Rana sylvatica Wood Frog is the common name given to Lithobates sylvaticus[1][2], previously Rana sylvatica. ... Binomial name Pseudacris crucifer (Wied-Neuwied, 1838) The Spring Peeper (Pseudacris crucifer, synonym Hyla crucifer) is a small tree frog widespread throughout the eastern USA. The spring peeper is a small frog, attaining an adult size between 0. ...


Although reptiles are less abundant and diverse than amphibians, a number of snakes are conspicuous members of the fauna. One of the largest is the non-poisonous Black Rat Snake (Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta), while the Common Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) is among the smallest but most abundant. The American Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and the Timber Rattler (Crotalus horridus) are poisonous pit vipers. There are few lizards, but the Broad-headed Skink (Eumeces laticeps), at up to 13 inches (33 cm) in length, and an excellent climber and swimmer, is one of the largest and most spectacular in appearance and action. The most common turtle is the Eastern Box Turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina), which is found in both upland and lowland forests in the central and southern Appalachians. Prominent among aquatic species is the large Snapping Turtle (Chelydra serpentina), which occurs throughout the Appalachians. Trinomial name Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta Say in James, 1923 A Black Rat Snake (Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta) is a species of rat snake. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Common Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) is a non-venomous snake indigenous to North America. ... Binomial name Agkistrodon contortrix Linnaeus, 1766 The American copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) is a species of venomous viper native to eastern North America. ... Binomial name Crotalus horridus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Crotalus horridus - Linnaeus, 1758 Crotalus boiquira - Lacépède, 1989 Crotalus atricaudatus - Latreille In Sonnini & Latreille, 1801 Crotalus zetazomae - Brickell, 1805 Crotalinus cyanurus - Rafinesque, 1818 Crotalus catesbaei - Hemprich, 1820 Crotalurus cyanurus - Rafinesque, 1820 Caudisona horrida - Fleming, 1822 C[rotalus]. horidus - Gray, 1825 Crotalus... Genera See text. ... Binomial name Eumeces laticeps Schneider, 1801 The Broad-headed Skink (Eumeces laticeps) is — together with the Great Plains Skink — the largest of the Eumeces-skinks, growing to a total length of 15 to nearly 33 cm (6 to 13 inches). ... Identification The Eastern Box Turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) is a member of the Box Turtle species. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Snapping Turtle head The Snapping Turtle (Chelydra serpentina), or more formally referred to as Common Snapping Turtle when distinguishing them from their larger cousins (Macrochelys), and are popularly nicknamed snappers. They are large freshwater turtles of the family Chelydridae, ranging from southeastern Canada west to...


Appalachian streams are notable for their highly diverse freshwater fish life. Among the most abundant and diverse are those of the minnow family (Family Cyprinidae), while species of the colorful Darters (Percina spp.) are also abundant [2]. Genera (many, see text) The family Cyprinidae, named after the Greek word for goldfish, consists of the carps and minnows. ... Genera Ammocrypta, Crystallaria, EtheostomaPercina The fish popularly known as darters are small perch-like fish. ...


A characteristic fish of shaded, cool Appalachian forest streams is the Wild Brook or Speckled Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), which is much sought after for its sporting qualities. However in past years such trout waters have been much degraded by increasing temperatures due to timber cutting, global warming and by pollution from various sources. This article is about the species of fish. ...


The following are journals that often feature useful articles about Appalachian Flora and Fauna:
Castanea, the journal of the Southern Appalachian Botanical Society
Banisteria, a journal devoted to the Natural History of Virginia
The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society


Influence on history

For a century, the Appalachians were a barrier to the westward expansion of the British colonies; the continuity of the system, the bewildering multiplicity of its succeeding ridges, the tortuous courses and roughness of its transverse passes, a heavy forest, and dense undergrowth all conspired to hold the settlers on the seaward-sloping plateaus and coastal plains. Only by way of the Hudson and Mohawk Valleys, and round about the southern termination of the system were there easy routes to the interior of the country, and these were long closed by powerful Native American tribes such as the Iroquois, Creek, and Cherokee, among others. British expansion was also blocked by Spanish colonies in the south and French activity throughout the interior. For the magazine, see Hudson Valley (magazine). ... The Mohawk Valley region of the U.S. state of New York includes the industrialized cities of Utica and Rome, along with other smaller commercial centers. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... The Creek are an American Indian people originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Muscogee (or Muskogee), the name they use to identify themselves today. ... For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ...


In eastern Pennsylvania the Great Appalachian Valley, or Great Valley, was accessible by reason of a broad gateway between the end of South Mountain and the Highlands, and here between the Susquehanna and Delaware Rivers settled many Germans and Moravians, whose descendants even now retain the peculiar patois known as "Pennsylvania Dutch". These were late comers to the New World forced to the frontier to find cheap land. With their followers of both German and Scots-Irish origin, they worked their way southward and soon occupied all of the Shenandoah Valley, ceded by the Iroquois, and the upper reaches of the Great Valley tributaries of the Tennessee, ceded by the Cherokee. The Great Valley, also called the Great Appalachian Valley or Great Valley Region, is one of the major landform features of eastern North America. ... South Mountain is a long mountain ridge in Maryland and Pennsylvania which comprises a northern extension of the Blue Ridge Mountains. ... This article deals with the modern national/ethnic group. ... The Pennsylvania Dutch (perhaps more strictly Pennsylvania Deitsch or Pennsylvanian German) are the descendants of German immigrants who came to Pennsylvania prior to 1800. ... Scots-Irish (formerly Scotch-Irish) is a term used to describe inhabitants of the USA and Canada of Scots-Irish (particularly Ulster-Scots) descent, who formed distinctive communities and had distinctive social characteristics. ... Canoeing on the Shenandoah River near Winchester, VA. The Shenandoah Valley region of western Virginia, from Winchester to Staunton, is bounded by the Blue Ridge mountains to the East and the Allegheny mountains to the West. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ...


By 1755, the obstacle to westward expansion had been thus reduced by half; outposts of the English colonists had penetrated the Allegheny and Cumberland plateaus, threatening French monopoly in the transmontane region, and a conflict became inevitable. Making common cause against the French to determine the control of the Ohio valley, the unsuspected strength of the colonists was revealed, and the successful ending of the French and Indian War extended England's territory to the Mississippi. To this strength the geographic isolation enforced by the Appalachian mountains had been a prime contributor. The confinement of the colonies between an ocean and a mountain wall led to the fullest occupation of the coastal border of the continent, which was possible under existing conditions of agriculture, conducing to a community of purpose, a political and commercial solidarity, which would not otherwise have been developed. As early as 1700 it was possible to ride from Portland, Maine, to southern Virginia, sleeping each night at some considerable village. In contrast to this complete industrial occupation, the French territory was held by a small and very scattered population, its extent and openness adding materially to the difficulties of a disputed tenure. Bearing the brunt of this contest as they did, the colonies were undergoing preparation for the subsequent struggle with the home government. Unsupported by shipping, the American armies fought toward the sea with the mountains at their back protecting them against British leagued with the Aboriginals. The few settlements beyond the Great Valley were free for self-defence because debarred from general participation in the conflict by reason of their position. View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... Nickname: Motto: Resurgam (Latin for I will rise again) Coordinates: , Country State County Cumberland Settled 1632 Incorporated 1786 Government  - Mayor Nicholas M. Mavodones, Jr Area  - City  52. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

Mount Carleton, tallest mountain in the New Brunswick section of the Appalachian Mountains.
Mount Carleton, tallest mountain in the New Brunswick section of the Appalachian Mountains.

Before the French and Indian War, the Appalachian Mountains lay on the indeterminate boundary between Britain's colonies along the Atlantic and French areas centered in the Mississippi basin. After the French and Indian War, the Proclamation of 1763 restricted settlement for Great Britain's thirteen original colonies in North America to east of the summit line of the mountains (except in the northern regions where the Great Lakes formed the boundary). Although the line was adjusted several times to take frontier settlements into account and was impossible to enforce as law, it was strongly resented by backcountry settlers throughout the Appalachians. The Proclamation Line can be seen as one of the grievances which led to the American Revolutionary War. Many frontier settlers held that the defeat of the French opened the land west of the mountains to English settlement, only to find settlement barred by the British King's proclamation. The backcountry settlers who fought in the Illinois campaign of George Rogers Clark were motivated to secure their settlement of Kentucky. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (4030x1421, 587 KB) Panorama of Mount/Mont Carleton taken with a Canon PowerShot A510 and assembled with hugin. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (4030x1421, 587 KB) Panorama of Mount/Mont Carleton taken with a Canon PowerShot A510 and assembled with hugin. ... Mount Carleton is the highest mountain in New Brunswick. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763 by the British government in the name of King George III to prohibit settlement by British colonists beyond the Appalachian Mountains in the lands captured by Britain from France in the French and Indian War/Seven Years War and to... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... This article is about military actions only. ... Combatants Illinois Regiment, Illinois militia Great Britain, Detroit militia, American Indians Commanders George Rogers Clark, Joseph Bowman, Leonard Helm Henry Hamilton #, Chevalier de Rocheblave #, Egushawa Strength 180 30 regulars, 60 Indians, 145 militia The Illinois campaign was a series of events in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) in which... Clark as painted by Matthew Harris Jouett in 1825 George Rogers Clark (November 19, 1752 – February 13, 1818) was a soldier from Virginia and the preeminent American military officer on the northwestern frontier during the American Revolutionary War. ...


With the formation of the United States of America, an important first phase of westward expansion in the late 18th century and early 19th century consisted of the migration of European-descended settlers westward across the mountains into the Ohio Valley through the Cumberland Gap and other mountain passes. The Erie Canal, finished in 1825, formed the first route through the Appalachians that was capable of large amounts of commerce. Manifest Destiny, meaning obvious (or undeniable) fate was a belief originally held by Democratic Republicans, specifically Warhawks during the presidency of James Madison, that stated the United States had a divinely-inspired mission to expand itself and its system of government to the western frontier. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... Daniel Boone Escorting Settlers through the Cumberland Gap (George Caleb Bingham, oil on canvas, 1851–52) Cumberland Gap (el. ... The Erie Canal (currently part of the New York State Canal System) is a canal in New York State, United States, that runs from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ...


See also

The Appalachian National Scenic Trail, generally known as the Appalachian Trail or simply The A.T., is a marked hiking trail in the eastern United States, extending between Springer Mountain in Georgia and Mount Katahdin in Maine. ... The International Appalachian Trail (IAT; French: Sentier International des Appalaches, SIA) is a hiking trail which runs from the northern terminus of the Appalachian Trail at Mount Katahdin, Maine to the northernmost tip of the Appalachian Mountains at Belle Isle, Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Looking south on the Franconia Ridge Trail AMC Headquarters, 5 Joy Street, Boston, Massachusetts. ... It has been suggested that Poverty in Appalachia be merged into this article or section. ... The Allegheny Mountain Range (also spelled Alleghany and Allegany) -- informally, the Alleghenies -- is part of the Appalachian Mountain Range of the eastern United States. ... The Allegheny Front is an escarpment delineating the eastern edge of the Allegheny Mountains. ... The Maritime provinces. ...

References

  1. ^ Fowells, H.A., 1965, Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, Agricultural Handbook No. 271, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington D.C.
  2. ^ Page, Lawrence M. and Brooks M. Burr 1991, A Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes, North America, North of Mexico, Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston
  • Topographic maps and Geologic Folios of the United States Geological Survey
  • Bailey Willis, The Northern Appalachians, and C. W. Hayes, The Southern Appalachians, both in National Geographic Monographs, vol. i.
  • chaps, iii., iv. and v. of Miss E. C. Semple's American History and its Geographic Conditions (Boston, 1903).
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Further reading

  • Caudill, Harry M., Night Comes to the Cumberlands (1963). ISBN 0-316-13212-8
  • Weidensaul, Scott.; 2000, Mountains of the Heart: A Natural History of the Appalachians, Fulcrum Publishing, 288 pages, ISBN 1-55591-139-0
  • Constantz, George. 2004. "Hollows, Peepers, and Highlanders: an Appalachian Mountain Ecology" (2nd ed.). West Virginia University Press, Morgantown WV. 359 p.

Harry M. Caudill (b. ...

External links

Coordinates: 40°00′N, 78°00′W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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