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Encyclopedia > Apostrophe (mark)
Punctuation marks

apostrophe ( ' ) ( )
brackets ( ( ) ) ( [ ] ) ( { } ) ( 〈 〉 )
colon ( : )
comma ( , )
dashes ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
ellipsis ( ) ( ... )
exclamation mark ( ! )
full stop/period ( . )
hyphen ( - ) ( )
interrobang ( )
question mark ( ? )
quotation marks ( ‘ ’ ) ( “ ” )
semicolon ( ; )
slash/solidus ( / )
space (   )
interpunct ( · ) Punctuation marks are written symbols that do not correspond to either phonemes (sounds) of a spoken language nor to lexemes (words and phrases) of a written language, but which serve to organize or clarify written language. ... Various brackets in Arial See parenthesis for an account of the rhetorical concept from which the name of the punctuation mark is derived. ... A colon is a punctuation mark, with one dot above another, e. ... A comma ( , ) is a punctuation mark. ... A dash is a punctuation mark, and is not to be confused with the hyphen, which has quite different uses. ... Ellipsis Έλλειψις (plural: ellipses ελλείψεις, Greek for omission) in linguistics refers to any omitted part of speech that is understood; i. ... An exclamation mark or exclamation point, !, is usually used after an interjection or exclamation to indicate strong feeling. ... A full stop or period, also called a full point, is the punctuation mark commonly placed at the end of several different types of sentences in English and several other languages. ... A hyphen ( -, or ‐ ) is a punctuation mark. ... The interrobang ( ‽ ) is an English-language punctuation mark intended to combine the functions of a question mark and an exclamation point. ... Opening (inverted) and closing question marks A question mark (or, less commonly, an interrogation point or eroteme) is a punctuation mark that replaces the period at the end of an interrogative sentence. ... Quotation marks, also called quotes or inverted commas, are punctuation marks used in pairs to set off speech, a quotation, or a phrase. ... A semicolon ( ; ) is a kind of punctuation mark. ... A solidus, oblique or slash, /, is a punctuation mark. ... A space is a punctuation convention for providing interword separation in some scripts, including the Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, and Arabic. ... An interpunct is a small dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin script, being perhaps the first consistent visual representation of word boundaries in written language. ...

Other typographer's marks

ampersand ( & )
asterisk ( * )
asterism ( )
at ( @ )
backslash ( )
bullet ( , more )
dagger ( † ‡ )
degrees ( ° )
number sign ( # )
prime ( )
tilde ( ~ )
underscore ( _ )
vertical bar/pipe ( | )
The roman ampersand on the left is stylised, but the italic one on the right is clearly similar to et. An ampersand (&) is a logogram representing the word logical conjunction and. ... An asterisk (*) is a typographical symbol or glyph. ... In typography, an asterism is a rare symbol consisting of three asterisks placed in a triangle, used to call attention to a passage or to separate sub-chapters in a book. ... A commercial at, @, also called an at symbol, an at sign, or just at, and sometimes mistakenly called an ampersand (& is the ampersand), is a cursive form of ā, an abbreviation of debated origin. ... First introduced in 1960, the backslash, , is a typographical mark (glyph) used chiefly in computing. ... In typography, a bullet is a typographical symbol or glyph used to introduce items in a list, like below: This is the text of a list item. ... A dagger (†, †, U+2020) is a typographical symbol or glyph. ... In mathematics, a set of symbols is frequently used in mathematical expressions. ... Number sign is the preferred Unicode name for the glyph or symbol #. The name was chosen from several used in the United States and Canada. ... This article is not about the symbol for the set of prime numbers, â„™. The prime (′, Unicode U+2032, ′) is a symbol with many mathematical uses: A complement in set theory: A′ is the complement of the set A A point related to another (e. ... The tilde (~) is a grapheme which has several uses, described below. ... The underscore _ is the character with ASCII value 95. ... Vertical bar, or pipe is the name of the ASCII character at position 124 (decimal). ...

An apostrophe
An apostrophe

An apostrophe (French, from the Greek αποστροφος προσωδια, the accent of elision) ( ) is a punctuation and sometimes diacritic mark in languages written in the Latin alphabet. In English, it marks omissions, forms the possessive, and, in special cases, assists in forming plurals. Image File history File links Apostrophe. ... Image File history File links Apostrophe. ... Punctuation marks are written symbols that do not correspond to either phonemes (sounds) of a spoken language nor to lexemes (words and phrases) of a written language, but which serve to organize or clarify written language. ... A diacritical mark or diacritic, sometimes called an accent mark, is a mark added to a letter to alter a words pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Contents


English language usage

  • An apostrophe is used with an added s to indicate possession, as in Oliver's army, Elizabeth's crown. This derives from the Old English genitive case, indicating possession, which often ended in the letters "-es". The omitted "e" was indicated by the apostrophe. This is sometimes called the Saxon genitive.
  • An apostrophe is commonly used to indicate omitted characters as in:
    • abbreviations, as gov't for government, or '70s for 1970s. Note: These days apostrophes are generally omitted when letters are removed from the start of a word. For example, it is not common to write 'bus, 'phone, 'net.
    • contractions, such as can't from cannot and it's from it is or it has.
    • plurals, in a few unusual cases.
  • An apostrophe is used by some writers to form a plural for abbreviations and symbols where adding just s rather than ’s would be ambiguous. While British English did formerly endorse the use of such apostrophes after numbers and dates, this usage has now largely been superseded.
    • For the plural of single lower-case letters, such as mind your p's and q's. Some sources extend the use to the plural of single upper-case letters, others to the plural of single digits, and yet others to the plural of numerals, although in those latter cases there is no ambiguity being lifted.
    • For the plural of abbreviations, it is widely (but not universally) regarded as incorrect, so CDs not CD's.
    • For groups of years, it is not necessary where there is no ambiguity: 1960s not 1960's, 90s or '90s not '90's.
    • Finally, a few sources [1] accept its use as an alternative spelling of the plurals of a very few short words (such as do, ex, yes, no; in each case, dos, exes, yesses and noes would be preferred).

Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ... The saxon genitive is the traditional term used for the s word ending in the English language. ... It has been suggested that Acronym and initialism be merged into this article or section. ... In traditional grammar, a contraction is the formation of a new word from two or more individual words. ... In the English language, nouns are inflected for grammatical number — that is, singular or plural. ... In the English language, nouns are inflected for grammatical number — that is, singular or plural. ... British English (BrE) is a term used to differentiate the form of the written English language in the United Kingdom from other forms of the English language. ...

Non-English names

  • Irish surnames often contain apostrophes, for instance the name O'Reilly. This arose from a rendering of the Irish Ó.
  • Some Scottish surnames use an apostrophe, such as M'Gregor. The apostrophe here is a contraction where the Scots prefix Mc or Mac would normally appear.
  • French and Italian surnames sometimes contain apostrophes, e.g. D'Angelo. Other times, foreign names that would have used an accented character have an apostrophe substituted, e.g. DuPre'.

A formal Irish Gaelic name consists of a given name and a surname, as in English. ... Scots or Lallans (Eng: Lowlands), often Lowland Scots to distinguish it from the Scottish Gaelic language of the highlands, is a West Germanic language used in Scotland, parts of Northern Ireland, and border areas of the Republic of Ireland, where it is known in official circles as Ulster Scots or... MAC has several meanings, including: Multiplexed Analogue Components (TV transmission) MAC (cosmetics) Magnetic Accelerator Cannon in the Halo universe. ...

Geographic names

Place names usually take no apostrophe, except in a few special circumstances. The United States Geologic Survey, which has responsibility for formal naming of municipalities and geographic features, has deprecated the apostrophe since 1890. As of 2005, only five place names in the US are officially spelled with an apostrophe (one example being Martha's Vineyard). London has a St. James's Park, whereas Newcastle United play at St. James' Park. The special circumstances here may be these: the customary pronunciation of this place name is reflected in the addition of an extra -s. Since usage is firmly against a doubling of the final -s without an apostrophe, this place name has an apostrophe. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ... 1890 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The as of technique is a way to deal with statements that date quickly. ... 2005 (MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Marthas Vineyard. ... Part of the London skyline viewed from the South Bank London is the most populous city in the European Union, with an estimated population on 1 January 2005 of 7,421,328 and a metropolitan area population of between 12 and 14 million. ... St. ... For the Australian soccer club see Newcastle United (Australia). ... St James Park (despite being grammatically incorrect, it does not take an s after the apostrophe) is a 52,500 capacity football stadium in Newcastle upon Tyne, England and is the home of Newcastle United F.C. The four sides of the ground are known as the Gallowgate end (officially...


Things to note

  • The apostrophe in it's marks a contraction of it is or it has. The possessive its has no apostrophe. Many find this confusing. It might help to remember that there is no apostrophe in any of his, hers, its, whose (see below), ours, yours, or theirs. Other pronouns do take a possessive apostrophe: one's, everybody's (along with everyone's, anybody's, and similar), somebody else's, etc.
  • Who's means who is or who has. The possessive of who is whose. "The person whose responsibility it is is the member who's oldest."
  • You're means you are. This is different from the possessive your. "Your nuts" implies the nuts belong to you. "You're nuts" would mean "You are nuts". Similarly, "You're going" means "You are going". "Your going" refers to the act of going, similar to "his going". "You're going to Mexico. Your going will be helpful to the company."
  • Likewise, its role in pluralization of symbols has led to a modern tendency to use the apostrophe incorrectly to form plurals of words, that is plural's of word's, such as the movie title Dating Do's and Don'ts in which the first apostrophe is widely regarded as erroneous.
  • When the noun is plural and already ends in s, no extra s is added in the possessive, so pens' lids (where there is more than one pen) rather than pens's lids. If the plural noun doesn't end in s, then add s as usual: children's hats.
  • If a name already ends with an s, the extra s is sometimes dropped: Jesus' parables. This is more common in U.S. usage and with classical names (Eros' statue, Herodotus' book). Additionally, many contemporary names that end with -es (a -z sound) will see the extra s dropped by some writers: Charles' car, though most style guides advocate Charles's car.

This last principle may extend to words ending in -x, -z, -ss, or even -ce, though this is far from being universal. Note that some people would say Asterix' sons, others would say Asterix's sons. The formation of possessives in speech is one thing, and how possessives are represented in writing is another; but spoken practice sometimes helps in determining what it is proper to write. Look up Plural on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Plural is a grammatical number, typically referring to more than one of the referent in the real world. ... Dating Dos and Donts [sic]1 is a 1949 instructional film designed for high schools, to teach adolescents basic dating skills. ...


Tip

To check if you've got it right, swap the sentence around so that the part before the apostrophe becomes the last word, and insert of the in between the two. If the meaning hasn't changed, you've got it right.

  • Pens’ lids becomes lids of the pens.
  • Boy's hats becomes hats of the boy.
  • Boys' hats becomes hats of the boys.
  • Two weeks' notice becomes notice of two weeks.
  • One week's notice becomes notice of one week.
  • Children's hats becomes hats of the children.
  • But childrens' hats would become hats of the childrens, which is incorrect, so therefore childrens' hats must also be incorrect.

Greengrocers' apostrophe

Apostrophes used incorrectly to form plurals are known as greengrocers' apostrophes (also: greengrocer's apostrophes, grocers' apostrophes or grocer's apostrophes, sometimes humorously greengrocers apostrophe's). The term was coined in the United Kingdom where such mistakes are common in the signs and advertisements of greengrocers, e.g. “Apple's and orange's for sale, 50% off”. The practice comes from a widespread ignorance of the use of the apostrophe and the identical sound of the plural and possessive forms of most nouns. A greengrocer in central Milan with a sign in Milanese, the local dialect, claiming to be the oldest greengrocer of Milan (lortolán püŝee vêcc de Milan) A greengrocer is a retail trader in fruit and vegetables; that is, in green groceries. ... A noun, or noun substantive, is a part of speech (a word or phrase) that refers to a person, place, thing, event, substance or quality. ...


Derivation

The use of the apostrophe to note possession in the English language derived from the genitive case, but is now considered a clitic. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ... In linguistics, a clitic is a word that syntactically functions as a free morpheme, but phonetically appears as a bound morpheme; it is always pronounced with a following or preceding word. ...


Other languages

  • In many European languages, the apostrophe is used to indicate omitted characters, often in a contraction. For example, in the Portuguese language or Spanish language it is used when de (of) can elide with the following word, like galinha d'angola (literally, Angola's chicken) or some poetical constructions, like minh'alma, contraction of "minha alma" (my soul). In Spanish language it is used (mostly to depict low culture manners) when a consonant or vowel is not pronounced, e.g. Pa' (para, for), pa'l (para el, for the), to' (todo, all), to'l (todo el, all the), comi'o (comido, ate), vamo' (vamos, we go), etc.
  • In German, this is very similar: an apostrophe is used only to indicate omitted letters. It must not be used for plurals or possessive forms, both usages which are widespread, but deemed wrong. (See article Apostrophitis in the German Wikipedia.)
  • In the Dutch language, it is also used to indicate omitted characters. In addition however, it is used for plurals where the singulars end with certain vowels, e.g. foto's, taxi's, and for the genitive of proper names ending with these vowels, e.g. Anna's, Otto's.
  • In the Slovak and Czech languages, common typographic rendering (at least for some typefaces) of caron over lowercase t, d, l, and uppercase L consonants (ď, ť, ľ, Ľ) looks a lot like an apostrophe, but it is very incorrect to use apostrophe instead (compare previous example with incorrect d', t', l', L'). In Slovak, there is also l with acute accent (ĺ, Ĺ). In Slovak, it is used to indicate elision in certain words ("tys'" as an abbreviated form of "ty si"), however, these elisions are restricted to poetry.
  • In the Belarusian and Ukrainian languages, the apostrophe is used between a consonant and the following “soft” (iotified) vowel (е, ё, є, ю, я) to indicate that no palatalization of the preceding consonant takes place, and the vowel is pronounced in the same way as at the beginning of the word. The same function is served by the hard sign in some other Cyrillic alphabets.
  • In some transliterations from the Cyrillic alphabet (of Belarusian, Russian, or Ukrainian language), the apostrophe is used to replace the soft sign (ь, indicating palatalization of the preceding consonant), e.g., Русь is transliterated Rus’ according to the BGN/PCGN system. Confusingly, some of these transliteration schemes use a double apostrophe ( ” ) to represent the apostrophe in Cyrillic text, e.g. Ukrainian слов’янське (“Slavic”) is transliterated as slov”yans’ke.
  • Some Karelian orthographies use an apostrophe to indicate palatalization, e.g. n'evvuo "to give advice", d'uuri "just (like)", el'vüttiä "to revive".
  • In some languages it represents the glottal stop (as in Hawai'i, see ‘okina) or similar sounds in the Turkic language and in romanizations of Arabic languages. Sometimes this function is performed by the opening single quotation mark.
  • In Guaraní it performs the same function but it's considered a different letter on its own, called puso (/pu'so/), as in the words ñe'ẽ, ka'a, a' ỹ.
  • In Finnish, one of the consonant gradation patterns is the change of a 'k' into a hiatus, e.g. keko → keon "a pile → pile's". This hiatus has to be indicated in spelling with an apostrophe, if a long vowel or a diphthong would be immediately followed by the final vowel, e.g. ruoko → ruo'on, vaaka → vaa'an. (This is in contrast to compound words, where the same problem is solved with a hyphen, e.g. maa-ala "land area".) The same meaning for an apostrophe, a hiatus, is used in poetry to indicate contractions, e.g. miss' on for missä on "where is".
  • In the Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (pinyin) system of romanization for Standard Mandarin, the apostrophe is used to separate syllables in a word where ambiguity could arise.
  • In Jèrriais, one of the uses of the apostrophe is to mark gemination. For example, t't represents a long /t/, s's a long /s/, n'n a long /n/, th'th a long /ð/, and ch'ch a long /ʃ/.

Portuguese (Português) is a Romance language predominantly spoken in Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, East Timor, Guinea Bissau, Macao Special Administrative Region of China, Mozambique, Portugal, and São Tomé and Príncipe. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... In music, see elision (music). ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... Dutch ( â–¶(?)) is a West Germanic, Low German language spoken by around 24 million people, mostly in the Netherlands and Belgium. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-07-18, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Caron may refer to multiple things. ... See also consonance in music. ... In music, see elision (music). ... Ukrainian (украї́нська мо́ва, ukrayinska mowa) is the language of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages. ... Iotation is a form of palatalisation which occurs in Slavic languages. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ... The letter (Ъ, ъ) of the Cyrillic alphabet is known as the hard sign (твёрдый знак ) in the modern Russian alphabet and as er golyam (ер голям, big yer) in the Bulgarian alphabet. ... Transliteration in a narrow sense is a mapping from one system of writing into another. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Ukrainian (украї́нська мо́ва, ukrayinska mowa) is the language of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages. ... Soft Sign (Ь, ÑŒ) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet (Russian: мягкий знак (mÄ­ahkiy znak) [], Ukrainian: м’який знак (miakyy znak) [], Belarusian: мяккі знак (miakki znak) []). It is named so because it usually indicates softening, or palatalization, of the preceding consonant or of the group of them. ... Ivan Goryushkin-Skoropudov. ... The Karelian language is a variety closely related to Finnish. ... The glottal stop or voiceless glottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The Turkic languages are a group of closely related languages that are spoken by a variety of people distributed across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China. ... In linguistics, romanization or latinization is a system for representing a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, where the original word or language used a different writing system. ... The Arabic language (; , less formally, ) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Quotation marks, also called quotes or inverted commas, are punctuation marks used in pairs to set off speech, a quotation, or a phrase. ... Guaraní (local name: avañeẽ ) is the language of the Guaranies indigenous people still spoken in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and southwestern Brazil. ... Consonant gradation is a linguistic term for the changing of consonants. ... Hiatus (derives from Latin : gap; cf. ... A hyphen ( -, or ‐ ) is a punctuation mark. ... Hiatus (derives from Latin : gap; cf. ... Pinyin (Chinese: 拼音, pÄ«nyÄ«n) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard... In linguistics, romanization or latinization is a system for representing a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, where the original word or language used a different writing system. ... Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China on Taiwan, Malaysia and Singapore. ... Jèrriais is a form of Norman language spoken in Jersey in the Channel Islands. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-07-20, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ...

Alternative uses

This article is not about the symbol for the set of prime numbers, ℙ. The prime (′, Unicode U+2032, ′) is a symbol with many mathematical uses: A complement in set theory: A′ is the complement of the set A A point related to another (e. ... A foot (plural: feet) is a non-SI unit of distance or length, measuring around a third of a metre. ... A minute of arc, arcminute, or MOA is a unit of angular measurement, equal to one sixtieth (1/60) of one degree. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Zhadum is the final episode of the third season of the science fiction television series Babylon 5. ... Babylon 5 is an epic science fiction television series created, produced, and largely written by J. Michael Straczynski. ... Tupi is the name of one of the main people of Brazilian Indians who first inhabited the Amazon region, then spreading southward, gradually occupying the Atlantic coast. ... The Klingon language or Klingonese (tlhIngan Hol in Klingon) is a constructed language (an artistic language created by Marc Okrand for Paramount Pictures and spoken by Klingons in the fictional Star Trek universe). ... The glottal stop or voiceless glottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. ... An artificial or constructed language (known colloquially as a conlang among aficionados), is a language whose phonology, grammar and vocabulary are specifically devised by an individual or small group, rather than having naturally evolved as part of a culture as with natural languages. ... Lojban (IPA , official full name Lojban: a realization of Loglan) is a constructed language which was created by the Logical Language Group in 1987 based on the earlier Loglan, with the intent to make the language more complete, usable, and freely available. ... The voiceless glottal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...

Computers and Unicode

There are three types of apostrophe character in Unicode: Unicode is an industry standard whose goal is to provide the means by which text of all forms and languages can be encoded for use by computers. ...

  • ' ) Vertical typewriter apostrophe (Unicode name "apostrophe" or "apostrophe-quote"), Unicode and ASCII character 39, or hexadecimal U+0027.
  •  ) Punctuation apostrophe ("right single quotation mark" or "single comma quotation mark"), U+2019.
  • ʼ ) Letter apostrophe ("modifier letter apostrophe"), U+02BC.

In most cases, the preferred apostrophe character is the punctuation apostrophe (distinguished as typographic, or curly apostrophe). But historically, only the vertical typewriter apostrophe has been present on computer keyboards and in 7-bit ASCII character encoding. The typographic apostrophe is in different positions of the many 8-bit encodings. Unicode is an industry standard whose goal is to provide the means by which text of all forms and languages can be encoded for use by computers. ... There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal, or simply hex, is a numeral system with a radix or base of 16 usually written using the symbols 0–9 and A–F or a–f. ... Typographic work Typography (from the Greek words typos = form and graphein = to write) is the art and technique of selecting and arranging type styles, point sizes, line lengths, line leading, character spacing, and word spacing for typeset applications. ... There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... A character encoding consists of a code that pairs a set of characters (representations of graphemes or grapheme-like units, such as might appear in an alphabet or syllabary for the communication of a natural language) with a set of something else, such as numbers or electrical pulses, in order...


So in practice, the typewriter apostrophe is much more commonly used by writers and editors. For the same historic reasons, the typewriter apostrophe is a highly overloaded character position. In ASCII, it represents a right single quotation mark, left single quotation mark, apostrophe punctuation, vertical line, or prime (punctuation marks) or an apostrophe modifier or acute accent (modifier letters).


In some cases an apostrophe is not considered punctuation which separates letters, but as a letter in its own right; a letter apostrophe. Examples are in some national languages where the apostrophe is considered a letter (e.g, the Cyrillic Azerbaijani alphabet), or in some transliterations (e.g., transliterated Arabic glottal stop, hamza, or transliterated Cyrillic soft sign). As the letter apostrophe is seldom used in practice, the Unicode standard cautions that one should never assume text is coded thus. The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Two Alphabets Latin Alphabet Used officially since 1991. ... Transliteration in a narrow sense is a mapping from one system of writing into another. ... The glottal stop or voiceless glottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. ... Soft Sign (Ь, ь) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet (Russian: мягкий знак (mĭahkiy znak) [], Ukrainian: м’який знак (miakyy znak) [], Belarusian: мяккі знак (miakki znak) []). It is named so because it usually indicates softening, or palatalization, of the preceding consonant or of the group of them. ...


The Nenets language has single and double letter apostrophes: Nenets is a language spoken by the Nenets people in North Russia. ...

  • ( ˮ ) Double letter apostrophe (Unicode name "modifier letter double apostrophe"), U+02EE.

Entering apostrophes

During text entry on computers, some programs automatically convert to the appropriate apostrophe or quotation mark characters; the so-called "smart quotes" feature. Apostrophes and quotation marks that are not automatically altered by computer programs are known as "dumb quotes". Such conversion can be provided by word processing software as you type, or on web servers after submitting text in a form field, e.g., on weblogs or free encyclopedias. Many such software programs incorrectly enter an opening quotation mark for a leading apostrophe (e.g., in abbreviations of years: ‘04 rather than ’04 for 2004), or an apostrophe for a prime (e.g., latitude 49° 53′ 08″).


A useful quick solution to get such cases right in Microsoft Word is to type two apostrophes, and then simply delete the first. Microsoft Word is a word processing application from Microsoft. ...


On Microsoft Windows, Unicode special characters can be entered explicitly by holding the ALT key and typing the four-digit decimal code position of the character. An apostrophe is entered by holding alt while typing 8217. (Typing a three-digit code will enter a character value in the current code page, which may not correspond to its Unicode value.) Microsoft Windows refers to a series of operating environments and operating systems created by Microsoft for use on personal computers and servers. ... Code page is the traditional IBM term used for a specific character encoding table: a mapping in which a sequence of bits, usually a single octet representing integer values 0 through 255, is associated with a specific character. ...


On the Apple Macintosh, special characters are typed while holding down the option key, or option and shift keys together. In Macintosh English-language keyboard layouts, an apostrophe is typed with the shortcut option-shift-] The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984. ...


In publishing, typewriter apostrophes are always converted to typographic apostrophes. To a graphic designer's or typographer's eye, the appearance of the former in print is a glaring sign of unprofessionalism. Because of the egalitarian nature of electronic publishing, and the low resolution of computer monitors in comparison to print, typewriter apostrophes have been considered much more tolerable on the web. However, due to the wide adoption of the Unicode text encoding standard, near-universal web browser support, higher-resolution displays, and advanced anti-aliasing of text in modern operating systems, the use of typographic apostrophes is becoming common on web sites by discerning designers. Unfortunately, such use is not always done in accordance with the standards for character sets and encodings, as mentioned more fully below. Publishing is the activity of putting information into the public arena. ... Unicode is an industry standard whose goal is to provide the means by which text of all forms and languages can be encoded for use by computers. ... In digital signal processing, anti-aliasing is the technique of minimizing aliasing when representing a high-resolution signal at a lower resolution. ...


Eight-bit encodings

Older 8-bit character encodings, such as ISO-8859-1, Windows CP1252, or MacRoman, universally support the typewriter apostrophe in the same position, 39, inherited from ASCII (as does Unicode). But most of them place the typographic apostrophe in different positions. ISO-8859-1, the most common encoding used for web pages, omits the typographic apostrophe altogether. ISO 8859-1, more formally cited as ISO/IEC 8859-1 or less formally as Latin-1, is part 1 of ISO/IEC 8859, a standard character encoding defined by ISO. It encodes what it refers to as Latin alphabet no. ...


Microsoft Windows CP1252 (sometimes incorrectly called ANSI or ISO-Latin) is a duplicate of ISO-8859-1, with 27 additional characters in the place of control characters (in the range from 128 to 159). Microsoft software usually treats ISO-8859-1 as if it were CP1252. The wide adoption of Microsoft's web browser and web server has forced many other software makers to adopt this as a de facto convention—in some cases contravening established standards unnecessarily (e.g., some applications use CP1252 character values in HTML numeric references, where Unicode values are required, and would be sufficient for interoperation with MS software). Consequently, the typographic apostrophe and several other characters are handled inconsistently by web browsers and other software, and can cause interoperation problems. ISO 8859-1, more formally cited as ISO/IEC 8859-1 or less formally as Latin-1, is part 1 of ISO/IEC 8859, a standard character encoding defined by ISO. It encodes what it refers to as Latin alphabet no. ...


References

Lynne Truss is a British writer and journalist. ... Eats, Shoots & Leaves: The Zero Tolerance Approach to Punctuation is a short non-fiction book written by Lynne Truss, the former host of the BBCs Cutting a Dash radio programme. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
apostrophe: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (4577 words)
The apostrophe ( ’ ) is a punctuation mark, and sometimes a diacritic mark, in languages written in the Latin alphabet.
In Jèrriais, one of the uses of the apostrophe is to mark gemination, or consonant length.
The vertical typewriter apostrophe (') is often used to approximate the prime (′) (used as a symbol to indicate measurement in feet or arcminutes); the right single quotation mark apostrophe is less appropriate in this context.
Apostrophe at AllExperts (3823 words)
The practice comes from a widespread ignorance of the use of the apostrophe or of English grammar in general and the identical sound of the plural and possessive forms of most nouns.
The use of the apostrophe to mark the English possessive ultimately derives from the Old English genitive case, indicating possession, which often ended in the letters -es, which evolved into a simple s for the possessive ending.
* In Jèrriais, one of the uses of the apostrophe is to mark gemination.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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