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Encyclopedia > Apologetics

Apologists are authors, writers, editors of scientific logs or academic journals, and leaders known for taking on the points in arguments, conflicts or positions that are either placed under popular scrutinies or viewed under persecutory examinations. The term comes from the Greek word apologia (απολογία), meaning a speaking in defense. For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... Diary redirects here. ... For other uses, see editor. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... For other uses, see Peer review (disambiguation). ... Socialist Reformism is the belief that gradual democratic changes in a society can ultimately change a societys fundamental economic relations and political structures. ... Scrutiny (Fr. ... Look up Persecution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... To examine somebody or something is to inspect it closely, hence an examination is a detailed inspection or analysis of an object or person. ... Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single natural language in the Indo-European language family. ...

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Notable apologists

Plato (Greek: Πλάτων, Plátōn) (428/427 BC[a] – 348/347 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, the second of the great trio of ancient Greeks –succeeding Socrates and preceding Aristotle– who between them laid the philosophical foundations of Western culture. For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single natural language in the Indo-European language family. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 433 BC 432 BC 431 BC 430 BC 429 BC - 428 BC - 427 BC 426 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 432 BC 431 BC 430 BC 429 BC 428 BC - 427 BC - 426 BC 425 BC... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC - 340s BC - 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 353 BC 352 BC 351 BC 350 BC 349 BC - 348 BC - 347 BC 346 BC 345... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC - 340s BC - 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 352 BC 351 BC 350 BC 349 BC 348 BC 347 BC 346 BC 345 BC 344... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... This page is about the Classical Greek philosopher. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ...


Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca.155–230) was a church leader and was a notable early Christian apologist. He was born, lived and died in Carthage. He was the first great writer of Latin Christianity, thus sometimes known as the "Father of the Latin Church". He introduced the term Trinity (Latin trinitas) to the Christian vocabulary[1] and also probably the formula "three Persons, one Substance" as the Latin "tres Personae, una Substantia" (itself from the Koine Greek "treis Hypostases, Homoousios"), and also the terms vetus testamentum ("old testament") and novum testamentum ("new testament"). Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullian (b. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... This article is about the year 155. ... This article is about the year 230. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Apologetics is the field of study concerned with the systematic defense of a position. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Latin Church is that part of the Roman Catholic Church where the Latin rites are or were used in the liturgy. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The vocabulary of a person is defined either as the set of all words that are understood by that person or the set of all words likely to be used by that person when constructing new sentences. ... Persona literally means mask , although it does not usually refer to a literal mask but to the social masks all humans supposedly wear. ... Consubstantial is a term used in orthodox Christian theology. ... Koine redirects here. ... In Christianity, the Greek word hypostasis [1] is usually translated into Latin as natura and then into English as nature, although the specific Greek word for nature and substance is physis. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ...


In his Apologeticus, he was the first Latin author who qualified Christianity as the 'vera religio' ("true religion"), and symmetrically relegated the classical Empire religion and other accepted cults to the position of mere 'superstitions'. Tertullian left the Church of Rome late in his life and joined the heretical Montanists, thus explaining his failure to attain sainthood.[citation needed] Apologeticus or Apologeticum[1]is Tertullians most famous work,[2] consisting of apologetic and polemic; it was written in Carthage in the summer or autumn of 197, during the reign of Septimius Severus. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Heresy, as a blanket term, describes a practice or belief that is labeled as unorthodox. ... Montanism was an early Christian sectarian movement of the mid-2nd century A.D., named after its founder Montanus. ... Saints redirects here. ...


Early uses of the term (in the first sense) include Plato's Apology (the defense speech of Socrates from his trial) and some works of early Christian apologists, such as St. Justin Martyr's two Apologies addressed to the emperor Marcus Aurelius. (The) Apology (of Socrates) is Platos version of the speech given by Socrates as he defends himself against the charges of being a man who corrupted the young, did not believe in the gods, and created new deities. Apology here has its earlier meaning (now usually expressed by the... This page is about the Classical Greek philosopher. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher) (100–165) was an early Christian apologist and saint. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (called the Wise) (April 26, 121[2] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ...


John Henry Cardinal Newman, JHCN. (February 21, 1801August 11, 1890) was an English convert to Roman Catholicism, later made a cardinal, and in 1991 proclaimed 'Venerable'. In early life he was a major figure in the Oxford Movement to bring the Church of England back to its Catholic roots. Eventually his studies in history persuaded him to become a Roman Catholic. When John Henry Newman entitled his spiritual autobiography Apologia Pro Vita Sua in 1864 , he was playing upon both this connotation, and the more commonly understood meaning of an expression of contrition or regret. J H Newman age 23 when he preached his first sermon. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cardinal (disambiguation). ... The Oxford Movement was a loose affiliation of High Church Anglicans, most of them members of the University of Oxford, who sought to demonstrate that the Church of England was a direct descendant of the Christian church established by the Apostles. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... Apologia Pro Vita Sua (Latin, A defence of ones life) is the classic defence of the religious opinions of John Henry Newman, published in 1864 in response to what he saw as an unwarranted attack on Roman Catholic doctrine by Charles Kingsley. ...


Colloquial usage

Today the term "apologist" is colloquially applied in a general manner to include groups and individuals systematically promoting causes, justifying orthodoxies, or denying certain events, even of crimes. Apologists have been characterized as being deceptive, or "whitewashing" their cause, primarily through omission of negative facts (selective perception) and exaggeration of positive ones, techniques of classical rhetoric. When used in this context, the term often has a pejorative meaning. Deception is providing intentionally misleading information to others. ... This article is for the meaning of censorship. ... Selective perception may refer to any number of cognitive biases in psychology related to the way expectations affect perception. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ...


Technical usages

The term apologetics etymologically derives from the Classical Greek word apologia. In the Classical Greek legal system two key technical terms were employed: the prosecution delivered the kategoria (κατηγορία), and the defendant replied with an apologia. To deliver an apologia then meant making a formal speech to reply and rebut the charges, as in the case of Socrates' defense.


This Classical Greek term appears in the Koine (i.e. common) Greek of the New Testament. The Apostle Paul employs the term apologia in his trial speech to Festus and Agrippa when he says "I make my defense" (Acts 26:2). A cognate term appears in Paul's Letter to the Philippians as he is "defending the gospel" (Philippians 1:7 & 16), and in 1 Peter 3:15 believers must be ready to give an "answer" for their faith. The word also appears in the negative in Romans 1:20: unbelievers are αναπολόγητοι (anapologētoi) (without excuse, defense, or apology)(Romans 1:20 probably referring not to unbelievers but to those who believe but continue in unrighteousness. Romans 1:21 Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened.See Romans 1:16-22) for rejecting the revelation of God in creation. A 19th century picture of Paul of Tarsus Paul of Tarsus (originally Saul of Tarsus) or Saint Paul the Apostle (fl. ... Festus can be several things: Festus, Missouri is a town in the United States. ... Agrippa may refer to: Menenius Agrippa, a Roman consul in 503 BC. Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (63–12 BC), Roman statesman and general, friend of Augustus Caesar. ... Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Polycarps Letter to the Philippians is referred to by Irenaus as follows: There is also a forceful epistle written by Polycarp to the Philippians, from which those who wish to do so, and are anxious about their salvation, can learn the character of his faith, and the preaching of...


The legal nuance of apologetics was reframed in a more specific sense to refer to the study of the defense of a doctrine or belief. In this context it most commonly refers to philosophical reconciliation. Religious apologetics is the effort to show that the preferred faith is not irrational, that believing in it is not against human reason, and that in fact the religion contains values and promotes ways of life more in accord with human nature than other faiths or beliefs.


In the English language, the word apology is derived from the Greek word apologia, but its use has changed; its primary sense now refers to a defensive plea for forgiveness for an action that is open to blame. Secondary but uncommonly, it is used to refer to a speech or writing that defends the speaker or author's position. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Christian apologetics

Main article: Christian apologetics

There are a variety of Christian apologetic styles and schools of thought. In the Thomistic or Classical apologetics tradition, philosophical arguments for God's existence are emphasized before turning to the specific case for Christian revelation claims. In the Evidentialist tradition empirical arguments about the life, miracles, death and resurrection of Christ are presented as probabilistic proofs. The presuppositional tradition argues that belief in God must be presupposed, and from that vantage point non-theistic assumptions are proven to be fallacious. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christian apologetics is the... Thomism is the philosophical school that followed in the legacy of Thomas Aquinas. ... Evidentialism is a theory of justification according to which believing proposition p is justified for some agent S at time t iff S s total evidence at t supports p; that, in short, the justified attitude toward a proposition, be it belief, disbelief, or suspension of judgment, is the one... Presuppositional apologetics is a school of Christian apologetics, a field of Christian theology that aims to (1) present a rational basis for the Christian faith, (2) defend the faith against objections, and (3) expose the perceived flaws of other worldviews. ...


Early Christian era

In the first centuries AD a number of Christian writers undertook the task of proving that Christianity was beneficial for the Roman Empire and for humanity as a whole. Also they wrote to defend their faith against attacks made by other people or to properly explain their faith. Aristides and Quadratus of Athens, writing in the early second century, were two of the first Christians to write apologetics treatises. Other second-century apologetics writings of note included the First Apology and Second Apology of Justin Martyr and the Epistle to Diognetus , a response to the accusation that Christians were a danger to Rome, further more: Athenagoras, Tatian, Theophilos of Antioch, Tertullian and Minucius Felix. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Note: This article is about the Christian author. ... Quadratus of Athens was a Christian apologist who presented his defense of Christianity to Hadrian (ruled 117 - 138) while the emperor was in Athens being initiated into the Eleusinian Mysteries. ... The First Apology was an early work of Christian apologetics addressed by Justin Martyr to the Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius. ... Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher) (100–165) was an early Christian apologist and saint. ... The Epistle of Mathetes to Diognetus is probably the earliest example of Christian apologetics, writings defending Christianity from its accusers. ...


About a century after Emperor Constantine I's conversion to Christianity, the Roman Empire began falling to invaders from northern Europe. Some Christian writers sought to explain the decline of Roman culture and power by systematically downplaying the achievements of classical antiquity while emphasizing the persecution of Christians and the positive role of Christianity in society. Paulus Orosius wrote the first book advancing this perspective (History Against the Pagans), though the far more learned and influential work of this type was The City of God by Augustine of Hippo (426). Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Paulus Orosius (c. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... Events Saint Augustine of Hippo publishes the City of God. ...


Several of the early Christian apologists developed arguments from fulfilled prophecy and gospel miracles as proofs of Christ's divinity. Eusebius of Caesarea in his Demonstration of the Gospel attempted to prove the truth of Christianity by fulfilled prophecies from the Old Testament, and by rebutting arguments that the apostles had made up the story of Christ's resurrection. Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ...


Medieval era

In Medieval Europe Anselm of Canterbury composed the Monologion and Proslogion in which he developed the ontological argument for God's existence. He believed that faith was necessary as a precursor to philosophical argument and expressed his position as "I do not seek to understand that I may believe, but I believe that I may understand: for this I also believe, that unless I believe I will not understand." For entities named after Saint Anselm, see Saint Anselms. ... Prosolgion (1077-1078) is an exercise in faith seeking understanding by Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 or 1034 – April 21, 1109), a widely influential medieval philosopher and theologian, held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. ... An ontological argument for the existence of God is one that attempts the method of a priori proof, which utilizes intuition and reason alone. ...


Theodore Abu Qurra, the ninth century bishop of Harran, composed On God and The True Religion. Abu Qurra represents a group of Christian Arabic apologists who argued their case under early Islamic rule. (8th century - 9th century - 10th century - other centuries) Events Beowulf might have been written down in this century, though it could also have been in the 8th century Viking attacks on Europe begin Oseberg ship burial The Magyars arrive in what is now Hungary, forcing the Serbs and Bulgars south... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Harran, also known as Carrhae, is a district of Åžanlıurfa Province in the southeast of Turkey, near the border with Syria, 24 miles (44 kilometres) southeast of the city of Åžanlıurfa, at the end of a long straight road across the roasting hot plain of Harran. ...


A highly influential Catholic apologist was Thomas Aquinas who presented five arguments for God's existence in the Summa Theologiae. His approach, which adapted Aristotelian thought, is known as Thomism, and has dominated both Roman Catholic and Protestant approaches. Aquinas redirects here. ... Summa theologiae, Pars secunda, prima pars. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Thomism is the philosophical school that followed in the legacy of Thomas Aquinas. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


Post-Reformation era

The first Protestant textbook of apologetics was written by the Dutch legal scholar Hugo Grotius, On The Truth of the Christian Religion. This work, which was released in 1632 and translated into many languages, remained in print in English until the late nineteenth century, defended the historicity of the gospels, and also addressed arguments to Jews and Muslims. Hugo Grotius (Huig de Groot, or Hugo de Groot; Delft, 10 April 1583 – Rostock, 28 August 1645) worked as a jurist in the Dutch Republic and laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Modern era

Since the seventeenth century the controversies over Deism, Atheism, the Enlightenment, Humanism, and theories of Feuerbach, Marx, Freud and Darwin, have each in turn spurred both Catholic and Protestant apologists to reply. Changing modes in apologetics, whether or not they are currently fashionable, are important markers in the history of ideas. Among the notable apologists of the early modern era are Blaise Pascal, Joseph Butler, William Paley, Søren Kierkegaard, and John Henry Newman. For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... Atheist redirects here. ... The word Enlightment redirects here. ... For the specific belief system, see Humanism (life stance). ... Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach (July 28, 1804 - September 13, 1872), German philosopher, fourth son of the eminent jurist Paul Johann Anselm Ritter von Feuerbach, was born in Landshut, Bavaria and died in Rechenberg (since 1899 a district of Nuremberg). ... Marx is a common German surname. ... Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... The history of ideas is a field of research in history that deals with the expression, preservation, and change of human ideas over time. ... Blaise Pascal (pronounced ), (June 20 [[1624 // ]] – August 19, 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher. ... Joseph Butler (May 18, 1692 O.S. – June 16, 1752) was an English bishop, theologian, apologist, and philosopher. ... William Paley William Paley (July 1743 – May 25, 1805) was an English divine, Christian apologist, utilitarian, and philosopher. ... Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (pronounced , but usually Anglicized as ;  ) (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a prolific 19th century Danish philosopher and theologian. ... J H Newman age 23 when he preached his first sermon. ...


The Roman Catholic G. K. Chesterton, the Anglican C. S. Lewis (who popularized the Christian trilemma), the Lutheran John Warwick Montgomery, and the Presbyterian Francis Schaeffer were among the most prolific Christian apologists in the 20th century. Among the most widely read Christian apologists writing in English have been Josh McDowell and Lee Strobel. Another modern apologist is Ravi Zacharias, author of The Lotus and the Cross: Jesus Talks with Buddha, who argues for Christianity over other religions and philosophies deemed false or heretical. Frank Morison is also notable, because of his famous defense of the historical Resurrection, Who Moved The Stone?, as is William Lane Craig. Although not primarily an apologist, Douglas John Hall authored Why Christian?: For Those on the Edge of Faith which is written as a series of dialogues with a young doubting inquirer. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Gilbert Keith Chesterton (May 29, 1874–June 14, 1936) was an influential English writer of the early 20th century. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... Clive Staples Jack Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ... Lewiss Trilemma (or the Lewis Triumvirate) is a form of apologetics intended to prove the divinity of Jesus. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... John Warwick Montgomery was born October 18, 1931 in Warsaw, New York. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Francis A. Schaeffer (30 January 1912 – 15 May 1984), an American Evangelical theologian, philosopher, and Presbyterian pastor, is most famous for his writings and his establishment of the LAbri community in Switzerland. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Joslin Josh McDowell is a Christian apologist, evangelist, and writer. ... Lee Patrick Strobel, a former legal editor for the Chicago Tribune and former non-believer, is a Christian apologist and former teaching pastor of Willow Creek Community Church. ... Ravi Zacharias (full name Frederick Antony Ravi Kumar Zacharias, born 1946) is an Indian-born, Canadian-American evangelical Christian philosopher, apologist and evangelist. ... William Lane Craig William Lane Craig (born August 23, 1949) is an American philosopher, theologian, New Testament historian, and Christian apologist. ...


Christian apologists

Some prominent Christian apologists include: Apologetics is the field of study concerned with the systematic defense of a position. ...

Although members of churches within the Latter Day Saint Movement self-identify as Christians, their most vocal critics are frequently other Christians. Organizations such as Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, a group of scholars at Brigham Young University, and Foundation for Apologetic Information & Research, an independent, not-for-profit group, have formed to defend the doctrines and history of the Latter Day Saint movement in general and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in particular. Jimmy Akin as he appears on his blog Jimmy Akin is a Catholic apologist for Catholic Answers who has authored several books on Catholic apologetics, evangelization, liturgy, and controversial issues. ... Gleason Leonard Archer (May 22, 1916 – April 27, 2004) was a Biblical scholar, theologian, educator, and author. ... Greg Bahnsen Greg Bahnsen (September 17, 1948-December 11, 1995) was an ordained minister in the Orthodox Presbyterian Church and a full time Scholar in Residence for the Southern California Center for Christian Studies. ... Francis J. Frank Beckwith (1960-) is an American Christian philosopher. ... Craig L. Blomberg has been a New Testament scholar at Denver Seminary in Colorado. ... Edward John Carnell (1919-1967) was a prominent Christian theologian and apologist, was an ordained Baptist pastor, and served as President of Fuller Theological Seminary in Pasadena, California. ... Gilbert Keith Chesterton (May 29, 1874–June 14, 1936) was an influential English writer of the early 20th century. ... Gordon Haddon Clark (August 31, 1902-April 9, 1985) was an American philosopher and Calvinist theologian. ... William Lane Craig William Lane Craig (born August 23, 1949) is an American philosopher, theologian, New Testament historian, and Christian apologist. ... William Dembski Dr William Albert Bill Dembski (born July 18, 1960) is an American mathematician, philosopher and theologian known for advocating the controversial idea of intelligent design. ... John Frame Dr. John M. Frame (born 1939) is an American philosopher and a Calvinist theologian especially noted for his work in epistemology and presuppositional apologetics, systematic theology, and ethics. ... Dr. Norman L. Geisler is a scholar, contributor to the field of Christian apologetics, and the author or coauthor of some sixty books defending the Christian faith. ... For other people with this name, see Michael Green. ... Douglas R. Groothuis is currently Professor of Philosophy at Denver Seminary. ... Gary Habermas is an American Christian apologist, theologian, and philosopher of religion. ... Kimberly Hahn (born in 1957) is a Catholic apologist and author. ... Scott Hahn - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Kenneth Alfred Ham (born October 20, 1951) is the president of Answers in Genesis USA and Joint CEO of Answers in Genesis International. ... Hendrik Hank Hanegraaff is an American author, radio talk-show host and advocate of evangelical Christianity. ... Carl F. H. Henry Carl Ferdinand Howard Henry (January 22, 1913 – December 7, 2003) was an American evangelical Christian theologian who served as the first editor-in-chief of the magazine Christianity Today, established to serve as a scholarly voice for evangelical Christianity and a challenge to the liberal Christian... Dietrich von Hildebrand (October 12, 1889, Florence, Italy - January 26, 1977, New Rochelle, New York) was a German Catholic philosopher and theologian who was called (informally) by Pope Pius XII the 20th Century Doctor of the Church. ... Karl Keating (born 1950), a prominent Catholic apologist and author, is the founder and president of Catholic Answers. ... Dennis James Kennedy, (November 3, 1930 – September 5, 2007) was an American televangelist and founder of the Coral Ridge Presbyterian Church in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, where he was senior pastor from 1960 until his death in 2007. ... Greg Koukl is a Christian apologist, radio talk show host, author and blogger in Los Angeles, California. ... Peter Kreeft Peter Kreeft is a Catholic apologist for Christianity, professor of philosophy at Boston College and The Kings College, and author of over 45 books including Fundamentals of the Faith, Everything you Ever Wanted to Know about Heaven, and Back to Virtue. ... Clive Staples Jack Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ... This article is about American evangelical writer and minister John F. MacArthur. ... Patrick Madrid (born 1960), is an American Catholic author, radio host, apologist, and host of several EWTN television and radio series. ... Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher) (100–165) was an early Christian apologist and saint. ... Joslin Josh McDowell is a Christian apologist, evangelist, and writer. ... Alister E. McGrath (b. ... Dr. Walter Ralston Martin (September 10, 1928 – June 26, 1989), was an American Evangelical minister, author, and Christian apologist who founded the Christian Research Institute in 1960 as a para-church ministry specialising as a clearing-house of information in both general Christian apologetics and in countercult apologetics. ... Richard Young is an American actor who has starred in film and in television. ... R. Albert Mohler, Jr. ... J. P. Moreland is a well-known Christian author and apologist, and professor of theology at Biola University in La Mirada, California (suburban Los Angeles). ... Henry M. Morris Henry Madison Morris, Ph. ... Lee Patrick Strobel, a former legal editor for the Chicago Tribune and former non-believer, is a Christian apologist and former teaching pastor of Willow Creek Community Church. ... Clark H. Pinnock(Toronto, Ontario, Canada, February 3, 1937) is a Christian theologian, apologist and author. ... Bernard L. Ramm (1916-1992) was born in Butte, Montana and was a Baptist theologian and apologist within the broad Evangelical tradition. ... Hugh Ross may refer to Hugh Ross (clergyman) (c. ... Jonathan D. Sarfati (born October 1, 1964) is a creationist who was trained as a scientist. ... Francis Schaeffer Francis A Schaeffer (January 30, 1912–May 15, 1984), an American Evangelical theologian, philosopher, and Presbyterian pastor, is most famous for his writings and his establishment of the LAbri community in Switzerland. ... R.C. Sproul Dr. Robert Charles Sproul (born 1939 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is an American, Calvinist theologian, and pastor. ... Robert A. Sungenis (born 1955), is a controversial American Catholic apologist and founder of Catholic Apologetics International. ... Cornelius Van Til Cornelius Van Til (May 4, 1895 - April 17, 1987), born in Grootegast, the Netherlands, was a Christian philosopher, Reformed theologian, and presuppositional apologist. ... Aquinas redirects here. ... James R. White is a Reformed Baptist apologist, and Christian author of books dealing with controversial issues. ... Carl Wieland is an Australian young Earth creationist, author, and speaker. ... The philosopher Nicholas Paul Wolterstorff was born January 21, 1932 in Bigelow, Minnesota. ... // John Smith is a name often regarded as the archetype of a common personal name in most English-speaking countries, a generic name sometimes representing everyman or the average person. ... Ravi Zacharias (full name Frederick Antony Ravi Kumar Zacharias, born 1946) is an Indian-born, Canadian-American evangelical Christian philosopher, apologist and evangelist. ... Dr. Timothy Tim J. Keller is the founding pastor of Redeemer Presbyterian Church in New York City, New York. ... The Latter Day Saint movement (a subset of Restorationism) is a group of religious denominations and adherents who follow at least some of the teachings and revelations of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Mormon Apologetics directly answer, or attempt to answer, the claims of Anti-Mormons, the critics of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, and Controversies regarding The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ... The Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS) is an informal collaboration of academics devoted to Mormon historical scholarship. ... , Brigham Young University (BYU), located in Provo, Utah, is a private coeducational school completely owned by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon Church) and run under the auspices of its Church Educational System. ... The Foundation for Apologetic Information & Research, usually shortened to FAIR, is an organization refuting accusations by anti-Mormons, specializing in Mormon apologetics. ... For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ...


Apologetics in other religions

As the world's religions have encountered one another, apologetics and apologists from within their respective faiths have emerged. Some of these apologetics are to do with responding to and fighting back against the arguments of both Christianity and secularism, some are not. This article is about secularism. ...


Apologists for Islam have defended the Koran using rationalist and empiricist arguments, and using cosmological arguments to prove God's existence. Muslims have actually developed their own form of creationism, Islamic creationism. Islamic apologists have also challenged both Jewish and Christian beliefs. The late South African Islamic scholar, Ahmed Deedat, was a prolific popular writer who debated Christian evangelists by arguing over discrepancies in the Bible, and claiming the Gospel of Barnabas is the only authentic record of Jesus' life. The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Islamic creationism is the belief that the universe (including humanity) was directly created by God as explained in the Quran or Genesis. ... Sheikh Ahmed Hussein Deedat (July 1, 1918 - August 8, 2005) was a Muslim scholar of Comparative religion, an author, lecturer, and an orator. ... The Gospel of Barnabas is a work purporting to be a depiction of the life of Jesus by his disciple Barnabas. ...


One of the earliest Buddhist apologetic texts is The Questions of King Milinda, which deals with ethical and intellectual problems. In the British colonial era, Buddhists in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) wrote tracts that challenged and rejected Christianity. In the mid-nineteenth century, encounters between Buddhists and Christians in Japan prompted the formation of a Buddhist Propagation Society. In recent times A. L. De Silva, an Australian convert to Buddhism, has written a text designed to refute the arguments of Christian evangelists. At a sophisticated academic level, Gunapala Dharmasiri has challenged the Christian concept of God from a Theravadan Buddhist perspective. The Milinda Pañha (Pali. ... 16th century Christian view of Genesis: God creates Adam (Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel) Judaism, Christianity and Islam see God as a being who created the world and who rules over the universe. ... Theravada (Pāli: theravāda (cf Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda); literally, the Teaching of the Elders, or the Ancient Teaching) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia...


Hindu apologetics designed to counter Christian missions developed in the British colonial era. Richard Fox Young has collated examples of these early apologetic tracts. Hindus have also developed their creationism, Hindu creationism, and even their own form of cosmology, Hindu cosmology. This article examines the concept of creationism as found in Hinduism and movements associated with the concept. ... // an egg broke and out came the planets thanks to gods pet hen The Rig Veda describes the origin of the universe as: Then was not non-existence nor existence: there was no realm of air, no sky beyond it. ...


In a famous speech called Red Jacket on Religion for the White Man and the Red in 1805, Seneca chief Red Jacket was an apologist for American Indian religion, as opposed to Christianity. American Indians have also developed their own form of creationism, North American Indian creationism. Thomas Jefferson. ... The Seneca are a Native American people, one of the Six Nations of the Iroquois League. ... Red Jacket (known as Otetiani in his youth and Segoyewatha after 1780) (c. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ...


Some pantheists have formed organizations such as the World Pantheist Movement and Universal Pantheist Society to promote and logically defend belief in pantheism. The World Pantheist Movement (WPM) is an organization of people associated with pantheism, a philosophy which asserts that spirituality should be centered around nature. ... The Universal Pantheist Society, founded in 1975, is one of the worlds first official organizations dedicated to the promotion and understanding of modern pantheism. ...


See also

Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christian apologetics is the... The Christian countercult movement, also known as discernment ministries is the collective designation for many mostly unrelated ministries and individual Christians who oppose non-mainstream Christian and non-Christian religious groups, which they often call cults. ... Arguments for and against the existence of God have been proposed by philosophers, theologians, and others. ... In Christian theology, fideism is any of several belief systems which hold, on various grounds, that reason is irrelevant to religious faith. ... This is a list of books in the field of Christian apologetics. ... A Mathematicians Apology is a 1940 essay by British mathematician G. H. Hardy. ... Godfrey Harold Hardy FRS (February 7, 1877 Cranleigh, Surrey, England [1] – December 1, 1947 Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England [2]) was a prominent English mathematician, known for his achievements in number theory and mathematical analysis. ... Mormon Apologetics directly answer, or attempt to answer, the claims of Anti-Mormons, the critics of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, and Controversies regarding The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ... Look up Polemic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Presuppositional apologetics is a school of Christian apologetics, a field of Christian theology that aims to (1) present a rational basis for the Christian faith, (2) defend the faith against objections, and (3) expose the perceived flaws of other worldviews. ... In the philosophy of religion and theology, the problem of evil is the problem of reconciling the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the existence of a god. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Theodicy (IPA: ) (adjectival form theodicean) is a specific branch of theology and philosophy that attempts to reconcile the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the belief in an omniscient, omnipotent, and benevolent God, i. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ A History of Christian Thought, Paul Tillich, Touchstone Books, 1972. ISBN 0-671-21426-8 (p. 43)
Paul Johannes Tillich (August 20, 1886 – October 22, 1965) was a German-American theologian and Christian existentialist philosopher. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
APOLOGETICS, by B.B. Warfield (4106 words)
Apologetics undertakes not the defense, not even the vindication, but the establishment, not, strictly speaking, of Christianity, but rather of that knowledge of God which Christianity professes to embody and seeks to make efficient in the world, and which it is the business of theology scientifically to explicate.
Apologetics is the name which most naturally suggests itself, and it is the name which, with more or less accuracy of view as to the nature and compass of the discipline, has been consecrated to this purpose by a large number of writers from Schleiermacher down (e.g.
Having defined apologetics as the proof of the truth of the Christian religion, many writers naturally confine it to what is commonly known somewhat loosely as the "evidences of Christianity." Others, defining it as "fundamental theology," equally naturally confine it to the primary princi-pies of religion in general.
Apologetics (3736 words)
Apologetics undertakes not the defense, not even the vindication, but the establishment, not, strictly speaking, of Christianity, but rather of that knowledge of God which Christianity professes to embody and seeks to make efficient in the world, and which it is the business of theology scientifically to explicate.
Apologetics is the name which most naturally suggests itself, and it is the name which, with more or less accuracy of view as to the nature and compass of the discipline, has been consecrated to this purpose by a large number of writers from Schleiermacher down (e.g.
Having defined apologetics as the proof of the truth of the Christian religion, many writers naturally confine it to what is commonly known somewhat loosely as the "evidences of Christianity." Others, defining it as "fundamental theology," equally naturally confine it to the primary princi-pies of religion in general.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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