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Encyclopedia > Apollonius of Tyana
Western Philosophy
Ancient philosophy
Apollonius of Tyana

Name This page lists some links to ancient philosophy, although for Western thinkers prior to Socrates, see Pre-Socratic philosophy. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Apollonius of Tyana

Birth

ca. 40 AD Events Roman Empire Caligula embarks on a campaign to conquer Britain, and fails miserably. ...

Death

ca. 120 AD For other uses, see number 120. ...

School/tradition

Hellenistic philosophy Hellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy that was developed in the Hellenistic civilization following Aristotle and ending with Neo-Platonism. ...

Main interests

Pythagoreanism Occultism Bust of Pythagoras Pythagoreanism is a term used for the esoteric and metaphysical beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans, who were much influenced by mathematics and probably a main inspirational source for Plato and platonism. ... For other uses of this term, see occult (disambiguation). ...

Influences

Pythagoras Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: ; between 580 and 572 BC–between 500 and 490 BC) was an Ionian (Greek) philosopher[1] and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. ...

Influenced

Philostratus Philostratus, was the name of several, three (or four), Greek sophists of the Roman imperial period: Philostratus the Athenian (c. ...

Apollonius of Tyana (Greek: Ἀπολλώνιος ὁ Τυανεύς; 16—ca. 97 AD[1]) was a Greek Pythagorean philosopher and teacher. He hailed from the town of Tyana in the Roman province of Cappadocia in Asia Minor. After his death his name remained famous among philosophers and occultists. Events A Roman army of 90,000 men commanded by Germanicus gains a victory at Idistaviso, defeating the German war chief Arminius and capturing his wife Thusnelda, and recovering the lost eagles of Varus legions. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 Events Pope Evaristus succeeds Pope Clement I Tacitus advanced to consulship. ... The Pythagoreans were an Hellenic organization of astronomers, musicians, mathematicians, and philosophers; who believed that all things are, essentially, numeric. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... For university teachers, see professor. ... Tyana was an ancient city of Anatolia, in modern south-eastern Turkey. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... In ancient geography, Cappadocia or Capadocia, Turkish Kapadokya (from Persian: Katpatuka meaning the land of beautiful horses, Greek: Καππαδοκία; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was the name of the extensive inland district of Asia Minor (modern Turkey). ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... For other uses of this term, see occult (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Sources

By far the most detailed source is the Life of Apollonius of Tyana, a lengthy, novelistic biography written by the sophist Philostratus at the request of empress Julia Domna. She died in 217 AD, and he completed it after her death, between 217 and 238 AD. Philostratus’ account shaped the image of Apollonius for posterity and still dominates discussions about him in our times. To some extent it is a valuable source because it contains data from older writings which were available to Philostratus but disappeared later on. On the other hand, it is full of obviously fictitious stories and dialogues. Modern scholars challenge its credibility in many regards. Most of the stuff it contains must be dismissed as pure invention (either by Philostratus or by his sources).[2] Philostratus’ chronology, for instance, is quite remote from historical truth. According to him, Apollonius lived from ca. 3 BC to about 97 AD, whilst in fact he was born more than four decades later and died more than two decades later.[3] Life of Apollonius Tyana is the story of Apollonius of Tyana (170-247 CE), a sophist teacher of the school of Pythagoras, written by Philostratus. ... The Second Sophistic is a literary-historical term referring to the Greek showpiece orators who flourished from the reign of Nero until c. ... Philostratus, was the name of several, three (or four), Greek sophists of the Roman imperial period: Philostratus the Athenian (c. ... Julia Domna (170-217) was member of the Severan dynasty of the Roman Empire. ...


One of the essential sources Philostratus claimed to know are the “memoirs” (or “diary”) of Damis, an alleged disciple and companion of Apollonius. Some scholars believe the notebooks of Damis are an invention of Philostratus, while others think it was a real book forged by someone else and used by Philostratus. In any case it is a literary fake.[4] Philostratus describes Apollonius as a wandering teacher of philosophy and miracle worker who was active in Italy, Spain and Ethiopia and even travelled to Mesopotamia, Arabia and India. In particular, he tells lengthy stories of Apollonius entering the city of Rome in disregard of emperor Nero’s ban on philosophers, and later on being summoned, as a defendant, to the court of emperor Domitian, where he defied the emperor in blunt terms. In reality it is most likely that Apollonius never left the Greek East. He never came to Western Europe and was virtually unknown there till the third century AD when empress Julia Domna, who was herself an Easterner, decided to popularize him and his teachings in Rome.[5] For that purpose she commissioned Philostratus to write the biography, where Apollonius is exalted as a fearless sage with supernatural powers, even greater than Pythagoras. Subsequently Apollonius was worshipped by Julias’s son emperor Caracalla[6] and possibly also by her grand-nephew emperor Severus Alexander.[7] Damis was the name of the scribe and follower of Apollonius of Tyana who according to the account of Philostratus documented many incidents and events in the life of the philosopher. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ... Caracalla (April 4, 186 – April 8, 217) was Roman Emperor from 211 – 217. ... Alexander Severus Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander (October 1, 208- March 18?, 235), commonly called Alexander Severus, Roman emperor from AD 222 to 235, was born at Arca Caesarea in Palestine. ...


Two biographical sources earlier than Philostratus are lost: a book by emperor Hadrian’s secretary Maximus of Aegae describing Apollonius’ activities in the city of Aegae in Cilicia, and a biography by a certain Moiragenes. Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In Antiquity, Cilicia (Κιλικία) was the name of a region, now known as Çukurova, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ...


Historical facts

Little can be derived from sources other than Philostratus, and those sources, too, are late and more or less suspicious. Hence if we dismiss Philostratus’ colorful stories as fiction, the figure of the historical Apollonius appears to be rather shadowy. As James Francis put it, "the most that can be said … is that Apollonius appears to have been a wandering ascetic/philosopher/wonderworker of a type common to the eastern part of the early empire."[8] What we can safely assume is that he was indeed a Pythagorean and as such, in conformity with the Pythagorean tradition, opposed to animal sacrifice, and lived on a frugal, strictly vegetarian diet.[9] He seems to have spent his entire life in the cities of his native Asia Minor and of northern Syria, in particular his home town of Tyana, Ephesus, Aegae, and Antioch.[10] As for his philosophical convictions, we have an interesting, probably authentic fragment of one of his writings (On sacrifices) where he expresses his view that God, who is the most beautiful being, cannot be influenced by prayers or sacrifices and has no wish to be worshipped by humans, but can be reached by a spiritual procedure involving nous, because he himself is pure nous and nous is also the greatest faculty of mankind.[11] Map of Lydia in ancient times showing location of Ephesus and other ancient cities in western Anatolia Ephesus (Greek: , Turkish: ) was an Ionian Greek city in ancient Anatolia, founded by colonists from Athens in the 10th century BC[1]. The city was located in Ionia, where the Cayster River (K... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Nous (Νους) is a Greek word (pronounced noose), that corresponds to the English words intelligence, intellect, or mind. ...


Alleged extra-sensory perception

Apollonius was credited with extra-sensory perceptions. When emperor Domitian was murdered on September 18, 96 AD, Apollonius allegedly witnessed the event in Ephesus on precisely the day and hour it happened in Rome, and told those present what he saw. Both Philostratus and renowned historian Cassius Dio report this incident, probably on the basis of an oral tradition. Both state that the philosopher welcomed the deed as a praiseworthy tyrannicide.[12] Extra-sensory perception (ESP) is defined in parapsychology as the ability to aquire information by paranormal means. ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ...


Alleged journey to India

Philostratus devoted two and a half of the eight books of his Life of Apollonius (1.19-3.58) to the description of a journey of his hero to India. His story has it that en route to the Far East, Apollonius reached Hierapolis Bambyce (Manbij) in Syria (not Nineveh, as some scholars believed), where he met Damis, a native of that city who became his lifelong companion. Pythagoras, whom the Neo-Pythagoreans regarded as an exemplary sage, was believed to have travelled to India. Hence such a feat made Apollonius look like a good Pythagorean who spared no pains in his efforts to discover the sources of oriental piety and wisdom. As quite a number of details in Philostratus’ account of the Indian adventure are obviously incompatible with known facts, modern scholars are inclined to dismiss the whole story as a fanciful fabrication, but not all of them rule out the possibility that the Tyanean actually did visit India.[13] The theatre Hierapolis Bambyce or Mabug (Arabic Manbij or Mumbij) is not to be confused with the better known Hierapolis on top of the Pamukkale hot springs in western Turkey near Denizli, listed as a World Heritage Site. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: ; between 580 and 572 BC–between 500 and 490 BC) was an Ionian (Greek) philosopher[1] and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. ... Bust of Pythagoras Pythagoreanism is a term used for the esoteric and metaphysical beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans, who were much influenced by mathematics and probably a main inspirational source for Plato and platonism. ...


On the other hand, there seemed to be independent evidence showing that Apollonius was known in India. In two Sanskrit texts quoted by Sanskritist V. Bhattacharya in 1943 he appears as "Apalūnya", in one of them together with Damis (called "Damīśa"). There it is claimed that Apollonius and Damis were Western yogis who held wrong Buddhist views, but later on were converted to the correct Advaita philosophy.[14] Classical philologists believed that these Indian sources derived their information from a Sanskrit translation of Philostratus’ work (which would be a most uncommon and amazing occurrence), or even considered the possibility that it was really an independent confirmation of the historicity of the journey to India.[15] Only in 1995 the passages in the Sanskrit texts were proven to be interpolations by a modern forger (late 19th century).[16] Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Advaita Vedanta is probably the best known of all Vedanta schools of Hinduism, the others being Dvaita and Vishishtadvaita. ...


Writings

Several writings and many letters have been ascribed to Apollonius, but some of them are lost (if they ever existed), others have only been preserved in parts or fragments of disputed authenticity. Porphyry and Iamblichus refer to a biography of Pythagoras by Apollonius, which has not survived; it is also mentioned in the Suda.[17] Apollonius wrote a treatise On sacrifices, of which only a short, probably authentic fragment has come down to us.[18] Porphyry (Greek Πορφύριος purple-clad) may refer to: Porphyry of Tyros (c. ... Iamblichus, also known as Iamblichus Chalcidensis, (ca. ... Suda (Σουδα or alternatively Suidas) is a massive 10th century Byzantine Greek historical encyclopædia of the ancient Mediterranean world. ...


Philostratus’ Life and the anthology assembled by John Stobaeus contain purported letters of Apollonius. Some of them are cited in full, others only partially. Besides, there is an independently transmitted collection of letters preserved in medieval manuscripts. It is difficult to determine what is authentic and what not. Some of the letters were forgeries or literary exercises assembled in collections which were already circulated in the 2nd century AD. In any case there is no doubt that Philostratus himself forged a considerable part of the letters he inserted into his work; others were older forgeries available to him.[19] Joannes Stobaeus, so called from his native place Stobi in Macedonia, was the compiler of a valuable series of extracts from Greek authors. ...


Impact on posterity

Antiquity

In the second century the satirist Lucian of Samosata was a sharp critic of Neo-Pythagoreanism. After 180 AD he wrote a pamphlet where he attacked Alexander of Abonoteichus, a student of one of Apollonius’ students, as a charlatan, and suggested that the whole school was based on fraud.[20] From this we can infer that Apollonius really had students and that his school survived at least till Lucian’s time. One of Philostratus’ foremost aims was to oppose this view; although he related various miraculous feats of Apollonius, he emphasized at the same time that his hero was not a magician, but a serious philosopher and a champion of traditional Greek values.[21] Lucian. ... Alexander of Abonoteichus (c. ...


When emperor Aurelian conducted his military campaign against the Palmyrene Empire, he captured Tyana in 272 AD. According to the Historia Augusta he abstained from destroying the city after having a vision of Apollonius admonishing him to spare the innocent citizens.[22] Lucius Domitius Aurelianus[1] (September 9, 214–September 275), known in English as Aurelian, Roman Emperor (270–275), was the second of several highly successful soldier-emperors who helped the Roman Empire regain its power during the latter part of the third century and the beginning of the fourth. ... Early morning panorama of Palmyra. ... The Augustan History (Lat. ...


In Philostratus’ description of Apollonius’ life and deeds there is a number of similarities with the life and especially the miracles of Jesus. Perhaps this parallel was intentional, but the original aim was hardly to present Apollonius as a rival of Jesus. However, in the late third century Porphyry, an anti-Christian Neoplatonic philosopher, claimed in his treatise Against the Christians that the miracles of Jesus were not unique, and mentioned Apollonius as a non-Christian who had accomplished similar achievements. Around 300, Roman authorities used the fame of Apollonius in their struggle to wipe out Christianity. Hierocles, one of the main instigators of the persecution of Christians in 303, wrote a pamphlet where he argued that Apollonius exceeded Christ as a wonder-worker and yet wasn’t worshipped as a god, and that the cultured biographers of Apollonius were more trustworthy than the uneducated apostles. This attempt to make Apollonius a hero of the anti-Christian movement provoked sharp replies from bishop Eusebius of Caesarea and from Lactantius.[23] Eusebius wrote an extant reply to the pamphlet of Hierocles, where he claimed that Philostratus was a fabulist and that Apollonius was a sorcerer in league with demons. This started a debate on the relative merits of Jesus and Apollonius that has gone on in different forms into modern times. This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Porphyry of Tyre (Greek: , c. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... Hierocles, proconsul of Bithynia and Alexandria, lived during the reign of Diocletian (AD 284-305). ... Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ... Lucius Caelius (or Caecilius?) Firmianus Lactantius was an early Christian author who wrote in Latin (c. ...


In Late Antiquity talismans allegedly made by Apollonius appeared in several cities of the Eastern Roman Empire, as if they were sent from heaven. They were magical figures and columns erected in public places, meant to protect the cities from afflictions. The great popularity of these talismans was a challenge to the Christians. Some Byzantine authors condemned them as sorcery and the work of demons, others admitted that such magic was beneficial; none of them claimed that it didn’t work.[24] An amulet from the Black Pullet grimoire An amulet (from Latin amuletum, meaning A means of protection) or a talisman (from Arabic tilasm, ultimately from Greek telesma or from the Greek word talein wich means to initiate into the mysteries. ...


In the Western Roman Empire, Sidonius Apollinaris was a Christian admirer of Apollonius in the 5th century. He produced a Latin translation of Philostratus’ Life, which is lost.[25] Gaius Sollius Modestus Sidonius Apollinaris (c. ...


Islamic world and Baha’i

Apollonius was a known figure in the medieval Islamic world. In the Arabic literature he appears as Balīnūs (or Balīnās or Abūlūniyūs). Arabic-speaking occultists dubbed him „Lord of the talismans“ (Ṣᾱḥib aṭ-ṭilasmᾱt) and related stories about his achievements as a talisman-maker. They appreciated him as a master of alchemy and a transmitter of Hermetic knowledge. Some occult writings circulated under his name; among them were:[26] For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Hermeticism should not be confused with the concept of a hermit. ...

  • the Kitᾱb Sirr al-ḫalīqa (Book on the Secret of Creation), also named Kitᾱb al-῾ilal (Book of the Causes)
  • the Risᾱla fī taṯīr ar-rūḥᾱnīyᾱt fī l-murakkabᾱt (Treatise on the influence of the spiritual beings on the composite things)
  • al-Mudḫal al-kabīr ilᾱ risᾱlati aṭ-ṭalᾱsim (Great introduction to the treatise on the talismans)
  • the Kitᾱb ṭalᾱsim Balīnᾱs al-akbar (Great book of Balinas’ talismans)
  • the Kitᾱb Ablūs al-ḥakīm (Book of the sage Ablus)

Medieval alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan's Book of Stones is a lengthy analysis of alchemical works attributed to Apollonius (called “Balinas”). For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... 15th century European portrait of Geber, Codici Ashburnhamiani 1166, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence Abu Musa Jabir Ibn Hayyan, in Latin Geber, was one of the most notable Islamic alchemists. ...


There were also medieval Latin and vernacular translations of Arabic books attributed to “Balinus”.[27]


The Tablet of Wisdom written by Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Baha'i Faith, names "Balinus" (Apollonius) as a great philosopher, who "surpassed everyone else in the diffusion of arts and sciences and soared unto the loftiest heights of humility and supplication."[28] Known in India as the Lotus Temple, the Bahai House of Worship attracts an average of three and a half million visitors a year. ...


Early modern period

In Europe, there was great interest in Apollonius since the beginning of the 16th century, but the traditional ecclesiastical viewpoint still prevailed. Till the Age of Enlightenment the Tyanean was usually treated as a demonic magician and a great enemy of the Church who collaborated with the devil and tried to overthrow Christianity.[29] On the other hand, several advocates of Enlightenment, deism and anti-Church positions saw him as an early forerunner of their ethical and religious ideas, a proponent of a universal, non-denominational religion compatible with reason. In 1680 Charles Blount, a radical English deist, published the first English translation of the first two books of Philostratus’ Life with an anti-Church introduction. Voltaire praised Apollonius. As in Late Antiquity, comparisons between Apollonius and Christ became commonplace in the 17th and 18th centuries in the context of polemic about Christianity.[30] 18th century philosophy redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... Charles Blount (April 27, 1654 - August 1693) was a British deist and controversialist. ... For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ...


Ezra Pound evokes Apollonius in his later Cantos as a figure associated with sun-worship and a messianic rival to Christ. Pound identifies him as Aryan as a figure within an anti-semitic mythology, and celebrates his solar worship and aversion to ancient Jewish animal sacrifice.


Theosophy and anthroposophy

Modern esoteric portrait of Apollonius by N.M. Starr, Medium

Helena Blavatsky, a founder of the Theosophical Society, wrote in 1877: "Apollonius, a contemporary of Jesus of Nazareth, was, like him, an enthusiastic founder of a new spiritual school. Perhaps less metaphysical and more practical than Jesus, less tender and perfect in his nature, he nevertheless inculcated the same quintessence of spirituality, and the same high moral truths." [31] Subsequently some theosophists and other followers of esoteric doctrines placed Apollonius among the Ascended Masters. Image File history File links Appolonius of Tyana Engraving is taken from the book Antiquity Unveiled written by Jonathan M. Roberts and published in 1892. ... Image File history File links Appolonius of Tyana Engraving is taken from the book Antiquity Unveiled written by Jonathan M. Roberts and published in 1892. ... Helena Blavatsky Helena Petrovna Hahn (also Hélène) (July 31, 1831 (O.S.) (August 12, 1831 (N.S.)) - May 8, 1891 London, England), better known as Helena Blavatsky or Madame Blavatsky was the founder of Theosophy. ... The Theosophical Society was the organization formed to advance the spiritual doctrines and altruistic living known as Theosophy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Rudolf Steiner, the founder of anthroposophy, described Apollonius as a high adept who practised a kind of traditional or “earthly” spirituality as opposed to Christ’s cosmic spirituality. [32] Rudolf Steiner. ... Anthroposophy, also called spiritual science, is a spiritual philosophy based on the teachings of Rudolf Steiner,[1] which states that anyone who conscientiously cultivates sense-free thinking can attain experience of and insights into the spiritual world. ...


Modern culture

  • Apollonius is mentioned in Penn and Teller: Bullshit! during an episode focusing on the Bible.[33]
  • Apollonius appears as a fictional character in the 1935 novel The Circus of Dr. Lao, as well as the 1964 film adaptation 7 Faces of Dr. Lao. In these works, Apollonius works in the circus as a fortune-teller, who is under a curse — he sees the future, but can only speak the exact truth, thus seems to be cruel and hateful. He is portrayed as being blind, and apparently weary of many years of predicting disappointment for his listeners.
  • Apollonius appears as a fictional character in the 1977 television series The Fantastic Journey in the seventh episode named Funhouse. In this episode, Apollonius attempts to take possession of the scientist Willaway in a funhouse but is thwarted by Varian, "a man from the future possessing awesome powers".

Penn & Teller: Bullshit! (2003-) is a Showtime Channel TV program shown in the United States, hosted by professional magicians Penn Jillette and Teller. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... The Circus of Dr. Lao is a 1935 novel written by Arizona newspaperman Charles G. Finney, and illustrated by Boris Artzybasheff. ... In 1935, Charles G. Finney, a newspaperman of Arizona, published his novel, The Circus of Dr. Lao. ... The Fantastic Journey was a short-lived 1970s American science fiction television series in 10 episodes that was originally aired on NBC between February 3 and June 17, 1977. ...

Editions

  • Philostratus: Apollonius of Tyana. Letters of Apollonius, Ancient Testimonia, Eusebius’s Reply to Hierocles, ed. Christopher P. Jones, Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) 2006 (Loeb Classical Library no. 458), ISBN 0-674-99617-8 (Greek texts and English translations)
  • Philostratus: The Life of Apollonius of Tyana, ed. Christopher P. Jones, vol. 1 (Books I-IV) and 2 (Books V-VIII), Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) 2005 (Loeb Classical Library no. 16 and no. 17), ISBN 0-674-99613-5 and ISBN 0-674-99614-3 (Greek text and English translation)

Literature

  • Jaap-Jan Flinterman: Power, Paideia and Pythagoreanism, Amsterdam 1995, ISBN 90-5063-236-X
  • Maria Dzielska: Apollonius of Tyana in Legend and History, Rome 1986, ISBN 88-7062-599-0
  • Graham Anderson: Philostratus. Biography and Belles Lettres in the Third Century A.D., London 1986, ISBN 0-7099-0575-0
  • James A. Francis: Subversive Virtue. Asceticism and Authority in the Second-Century Pagan World, University Park (PA) 1995, ISBN 0-271-01304-4

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

See also

Bust of Pythagoras Pythagoreanism is a term used for the esoteric and metaphysical beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans, who were much influenced by mathematics and probably a main inspirational source for Plato and platonism. ...

Notes

  1. ^ For the chronology see Maria Dzielska: Apollonius of Tyana in Legend and History, Rome 1986, p. 30-38.
  2. ^ Ewen L. Bowie, Apollonius of Tyana: Tradition and Reality, in: Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.16.2, Berlin 1978, p. 1652-99.
  3. ^ Dzielska p. 30-38.
  4. ^ Jaap-Jan Flinterman: Power, Paideia and Pythagoreanism, Amsterdam 1995, p. 79-88; Dzielska p. 12-13, 19-49, 141; Bowie p. 1653-1671.
  5. ^ Dzielska p. 83-85, 186-192.
  6. ^ Cassius Dio 77.18.4; see on this Dzielska p. 56, 59-60.
  7. ^ Historia Augusta, Vita Alexandri 29.2; the credibility of this information is doubted by Dzielska p. 174.
  8. ^ James A. Francis: Truthful Fiction: New Questions to Old Answers on Philostratus' Life of Apollonius, in: American Journal of Philology 119 (1998) p. 419.
  9. ^ Johannes Haussleiter: Der Vegetarismus in der Antike, Berlin 1935, p. 299-312.
  10. ^ Dzielska p. 51-79.
  11. ^ Dzielska p. 139-141.
  12. ^ Cassius Dio 67.18; Philostratus, Vita Apollonii 8.26-27. See also Dzielska p. 30-32, 41.
  13. ^ Graham Anderson: Philostratus, London 1986, p. 199-215; Flinterman p. 86-87, 101-106.
  14. ^ Vidhushekhara Bhattacharya: The Āgamaśāstra of Gaudapāda, Calcutta 1943 (reprint Delhi 1989), p. LXXII-LXXV.
  15. ^ The Cambridge History of Classical Literature, vol. 1, ed. P.E. Easterling/B.M.W. Knox, Cambridge 1985, p. 657; Dzielska p. 29; Anderson p. 173; Flinterman p. 80 n. 113.
  16. ^ Simon Swain: Apollonius in Wonderland, in: Ethics and Rhetoric, ed. Doreen Innes, Oxford 1995, p. 251-254.
  17. ^ Flinterman p. 76-79; Dzielska p. 130-134.
  18. ^ Dzielska p. 129-130, 136-141, 145-149.
  19. ^ Flinterman p. 70-72; Dzielska p. 38-44, 54, 80-81, 134-135.
  20. ^ Lucian of Samosata: Alexander, or The False Prophet, in: Lucian, vol. 4, ed. A.M. Harmon, Cambridge (Mass.) 1992 (Loeb Classical Library no. 162), p. 173-253 (Apollonius is mentioned on p. 182).
  21. ^ Flinterman p. 60-66, 89-106.
  22. ^ Historia Augusta, Vita Aureliani 24.2-9; 25.1.
  23. ^ Dzielska p. 15, 98-103, 153-157, 162.
  24. ^ Dzielska p. 99-127, 163-165.
  25. ^ Sidonius Apollinaris, Epist. 8.3; for the interpretation of this passage see André Loyen (ed.), Sidoine Apollinaire, vol. 3: Lettres (Livres VI-IX), Paris 1970, p. 196-197.
  26. ^ Martin Plessner: Balinus, in: The Encyclopaedia of Islam, vol. 1, Leiden 1960, p. 994-995; Ursula Weisser: Das „Buch über das Geheimnis der Schöpfung“ von Pseudo-Apollonios von Tyana, Berlin 1980, p. 23-39; Dzielska p. 112-123.
  27. ^ Plessner p. 995.
  28. ^ Bahá'u'lláh, LAWH-I-HIKMAT (Tablet of Wisdom) in: Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh revealed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Wilmette 1988, p. 135-152, §31; Keven Brown, Hermes Trismegistus and Apollonius of Tyana in the Writings of Bahá’u’lláh, in: Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá’í Theology, ed. Jack McLean, Los Angeles 1997, p. 153-187.
  29. ^ Dzielska p. 193-204.
  30. ^ Dzielska p. 204-209.
  31. ^ Helena P. Blavatsky: Isis Unveiled, vol. 2, New York 1877 (reprinted 1999), p. 341.
  32. ^ Rudolf Steiner, Die Verantwortung des Menschen für die Weltentwickelung durch seinen geistigen Zusammenhang mit dem Erdplaneten und der Sternenwelt, Dornach 1989, p. 291 ff. (a lecture of 1921).
  33. ^ http://video.google.de/videoplay?docid=8375842600263024716&q=penn+teller&total=657&start=90&num=10&so=0&type=search&plindex=7

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