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Encyclopedia > Apollo program

The Apollo program was a human spaceflight program undertaken by NASA during the years 1961 – 1975 with the goal of conducting manned moon landing missions. President John F. Kennedy announced this goal in 1961, and it was accomplished on July 20, 1969 by Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin during the Apollo 11 mission. Five other Apollo missions also landed astronauts on the Moon, the last one in 1972. These six Apollo spaceflights are the only times humans have landed on another celestial body. The Apollo program, specifically the lunar landings, are often cited as the greatest achievement in human history.[1][2] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (606x608, 438 KB)Apollo program insignia, cropped white spaces around image. ... Edward White on a spacewalk during the Gemini 4 mission. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Still frame from the video transmission of Neil Armstrong stepping onto the surface of the Moon on 20 July 1969. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... This article is about the former American astronaut. ... Colonel Buzz Aldrin, Sc. ... This article covers the Apollo 11 mission itself. ... For other uses, see Astronaut (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earths moon. ... See lists of astronomical objects for a list of the various lists of astronomical objects in Wikipedia. ... Still frame from July 20, 1969 video transmission of Neil Armstrong stepping onto the surface of the Moon. ...


Apollo was the third human spaceflight program undertaken by NASA, the space agency of the United States. It used Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicles, which were later used for the Skylab program and the joint American-Soviet Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. These later programs are thus often considered to be part of the overall Apollo program. Space agency can refer to: NASA, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Canadian Space Agency China National Space Administration Korea Aerospace Research Institute European Space Agency Iranian Space Agency Italian Space Agency Indian Space Research Organisation Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Russian Aviation and Space Agency Soviet space program (historical) National... Apollo Spacecraft: Command Module, Service Module, Lunar Module. ... The SA-9 (Saturn I Block II), the eighth Saturn I flight, lifted off on February 16, 1965. ... For other uses, see Skylab (disambiguation). ... The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was the first joint flight of the U.S. and Soviet space programs. ...


The goal of the program as articulated by President Kennedy, was accomplished with only two major failures. The first failure resulted in the deaths of three astronauts, Gus Grissom, Ed White and Roger Chaffee, in the Apollo 1 launchpad fire. The second was an in-space explosion on Apollo 13, which badly damaged the spacecraft on the moonward leg of its journey. The three astronauts aboard narrowly escaped with their lives, thanks to the efforts of flight controllers, project engineers, backup crew members and the skills of the astronauts themselves. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Virgil Ivan Gus Grissom (April 3, 1926 – January 27, 1967) was a United States Air Force pilot who became the second American astronaut and one of the first to die in the U.S. space program. ... Edward Higgins White, II (Lt. ... Roger Chaffee Roger Bruce Chaffee (February 15, 1935 - January 27, 1967) was a U.S. Navy pilot who became an American astronaut in the Apollo program. ... Italics indicate parameters for the planned mission canceled following the Jan 27 fire. ... This article is about the Apollo mission. ...


The program set major milestones in the history of human spaceflight. This program remains alone in sending manned missions beyond low Earth orbit. Apollo 8 was the first manned spacecraft to orbit another celestial body, while Apollo 17 marks the time of the last moonwalk and also the last manned mission beyond low Earth orbit. A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit in which objects such as satellites are below intermediate circular orbit (ICO) and far below geostationary orbit, but typically around 350 - 1400 km above the Earths surface. ... Apollo 8 was the Apollo space programs second successful manned mission. ... Apollo 17 was the eleventh manned space mission in the NASA Apollo program. ... A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit in which objects such as satellites are below intermediate circular orbit (ICO) and far below geostationary orbit, but typically around 350 - 1400 km above the Earths surface. ...


The program spurred advances in many areas of technology peripheral to rocketry and manned spaceflight. These include major contributions in the fields of avionics, telecommunications, and computers. The program sparked interest in many fields of engineering, including pioneering work using statistical methods to study the reliability of complex systems made from component parts. The physical facilities and machines which were necessary components of the manned spaceflight program remain as landmarks of civil, mechanical, and electrical engineering. Avionics is a portmanteau which literally means aviation electronics. ... Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... The tower of a personal computer. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... For Wikipedia statistics, see m:Statistics Statistics is the science and practice of developing human knowledge through the use of empirical data expressed in quantitative form. ... In engineering and telecommunication, the mean time between failures (MTBF) is the average time a system will operate without a failure. ... The Petronas Twin Towers, designed by Thornton-Tomasetti and Ranhill Bersekutu Sdn Bhd engineers, and Cesar Pelli, were the worlds tallest buildings from 1998 to 2004. ... Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems. ...


Many objects and artifacts from the program are on display at various locations throughout the world, notably at the Smithsonian's Air and Space Museums. National Air and Space Museum exterior The National Air and Space Museum (NASM) of the Smithsonian Institution is a museum in Washington, D.C., United States, and is the most popular of the Smithsonian museums. ...

Contents

Background

Main article: Space race

The Apollo program was originally conceived early in 1960, during the Eisenhower administration, as a follow-up to America's Mercury program. While the Mercury capsule could only support one astronaut on a limited earth orbital mission, the Apollo spacecraft was intended to be able to carry three astronauts on a circumlunar flight and perhaps even on a lunar landing. The program was named after the Greek god of light and archery by NASA manager Abe Silverstein, who later said that "I was naming the spacecraft like I'd name my baby."[3] While NASA went ahead with planning for Apollo, funding for the program was far from certain, particularly given Eisenhower's equivocal attitude to manned spaceflight.[4] In November 1960, John F. Kennedy was elected President after a campaign that promised American superiority over the Soviet Union in the fields of space exploration and missile defense. Using space exploration as a symbol of national prestige, he warned of a "missile gap" between the two nations, pledging to make the U.S. not "first but, first and, first if, but first period."[5] Despite Kennedy's rhetoric, he did not immediately come to a decision on the status of the Apollo program once he was elected President. He knew little about the technical details of the space program, and was put off by the massive financial commitment required by a manned moon landing.[6] When NASA Administrator James Webb requested a thirty percent budget increase for his agency, Kennedy supported an acceleration of NASA's large booster program but deferred a decision on the broader issue.[7] For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... Abe Silverstein (1908 - 2001 ) was an American engineer who played an important part in the United States space program. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... James E. Webb James Edwin Webb (October 7, 1906 - March 27, 1992) was the second administrator of NASA, serving from February 14, 1961 to October 7, 1968. ...


On April 12, 1961, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first man to fly in space, reinforcing American fears about being left behind in a technological competition with the Soviet Union. At a meeting of the U.S. House Committee on Science and Astronautics held only one day after Gagarin's flight, many congressmen pledged their support for a crash program aimed at ensuring that America would catch up.[8] Kennedy, however, was circumspect in his response to the news, refusing to make a commitment on America's response to the Soviets.[9] On April 20 Kennedy sent a memo to Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, asking Johnson to look into the status of America's space program, and into programs that could offer NASA the opportunity to catch up.[10] Johnson responded on the following day, concluding that "we are neither making maximum effort nor achieving results necessary if this country is to reach a position of leadership."[11] His memo concluded that a manned moon landing was far enough in the future to make it possible that the United States could achieve it first.[11] is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Gagarin” redirects here. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... LBJ redirects here. ...

The Decision to Go to the Moon: President John F. Kennedy's May 25, 1961 speech before a Joint Session of Congress
The Decision to Go to the Moon: President John F. Kennedy's May 25, 1961 speech before a Joint Session of Congress

On May 25, 1961, Kennedy announced his support for the Apollo program as part of a special address to a joint session of Congress: is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

First, I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth. No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind, or more important in the long-range exploration of space; and none will be so difficult or expensive to accomplish.

John F. Kennedy[12] John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ...

At the time of Kennedy's speech, only one American had flown in space — less than a month earlier — and NASA had not yet sent a man into orbit. Some NASA employees doubted whether Kennedy's ambitious goal could be met.[13]

President John F. Kennedy delivers a speech at Rice University on the subject of the American space program, September 12, 1962.

Answering President Kennedy's challenge and landing men on the moon by the end of 1969 required the most sudden burst of technological creativity, and the largest commitment of resources ($25 billion), ever made by any nation in peacetime. At its peak, the Apollo program employed 400,000 Americans and required the support of over 20,000 industrial firms and universities.[14] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 200 × 290 pixelsFull resolution (200 × 290 pixel, file size: 23 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 200 × 290 pixelsFull resolution (200 × 290 pixel, file size: 23 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Lovett Hall William Marsh Rice University (commonly called Rice University and opened in 1912 as The William Marsh Rice Institute for the Advancement of Letters, Science and Art) is a private, comprehensive research university located in Houston, Texas, United States, near the Museum District and adjacent to the Texas Medical... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win, and the others, too.

John F. Kennedy[15] John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ...

Choosing a mission mode

See also: Moon landing

Once Kennedy had defined a goal, the Apollo mission planners were faced with the challenge of designing a set of flights that could meet this stated goal while minimizing risk to human life, cost, and demands on technology and astronaut skill. Four possible mission modes were considered: Still frame from the video transmission of Neil Armstrong stepping onto the surface of the Moon on 20 July 1969. ...

Early Apollo configuration for Direct Ascent and Earth Orbit Rendezvous - 1961 (NASA)
Early Apollo configuration for
Direct Ascent and
Earth Orbit Rendezvous - 1961 (NASA)
  • Direct Ascent: A spacecraft would travel directly to the Moon, landing and returning as a unit. This plan would have required a very powerful booster, the planned Nova rocket.
  • Earth Orbit Rendezvous (EOR): Two Saturn V rockets would be launched, one carrying the spacecraft and one carrying a propulsion unit that would have enabled the spacecraft to escape earth orbit. After a docking in earth orbit, the spacecraft would have landed on the Moon as a unit.
  • Lunar Surface Rendezvous: Two spacecraft would be launched in succession. The first, an automated vehicle carrying propellants, would land on the Moon and would be followed some time later by the manned vehicle. Propellant would be transferred from the automated vehicle to the manned vehicle before the manned vehicle could return to Earth.
  • Lunar Orbit Rendezvous (LOR): One Saturn V would launch a spacecraft that was composed of modular parts. A command module would remain in orbit around the moon, while a lunar module would descend to the moon and then return to dock with the command module while still in lunar orbit. In contrast with the other plans, LOR required only a small part of the spacecraft to land on the Moon, thereby minimizing the mass to be launched from the Moon's surface for the return trip.

In early 1961, direct ascent was generally the mission mode in favor at NASA. Many engineers feared that a rendezvous, which had never been attempted in space, would be impossible in lunar orbit. However, dissenters including John Houbolt at Langley Research Center emphasized the important weight reductions that were offered by the LOR approach. Throughout 1960 and 1961, Houbolt campaigned for the recognition of LOR as a valid and practical option. Bypassing the NASA hierarchy, he sent a series of memos and reports on the issue to Associate Administrator Robert Seamans; while acknowledging that he spoke "somewhat as a voice in the wilderness," Houbolt pleaded that LOR should not be discounted in studies of the question.[16] Apollo direct ascent or earth orbit rendezvous design - 1961 Downloaded from NASA Headquarters History Website. ... Apollo direct ascent or earth orbit rendezvous design - 1961 Downloaded from NASA Headquarters History Website. ... Direct ascent was a proposed method for an American mission to the moon. ... Diagram of Saturn I, Saturn V and Nova 8L rockets. ... Earth Orbit Rendezvous was a proposed method for American space missions to the moon. ... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ... Lunar Orbit Rendezvous was the method of flying to the moon used in the Apollo Missions, where a Main ship would carry a ferry to the moon which would carry astronauts down to the surface. ... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ... Description Role: Lunar landing Crew: 2; CDR, LM pilot Dimensions Height: 20. ... Category: ... Langley Research Center NASA Langley 14 x 22 foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel. ... Robert C. Seamans, Jr. ...


Seamans' establishment of the Golovin committee in July 1961 represented a turning point in NASA's mission mode decision.[17] While the ad-hoc committee was intended to provide a recommendation on the boosters to be used in the Apollo program, it recognized that the mode decision was an important part of this question. The committee recommended in favor of a hybrid EOR-LOR mode, but its consideration of LOR — as well as Houbolt's ceaseless work — played an important role in publicizing the workability of the approach. In late 1961 and early 1962, members of NASA's Space Task Group at the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston began to come around to support for LOR.[17] The engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center took longer to become convinced of its merits, but their conversion was announced by Wernher von Braun at a briefing in June 1962. NASA's formal decision in favor of LOR was announced on July 11, 1962. Space historian James Hansen concludes that: The Space Task Group was a working group of engineers based at Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. ... An aerial view of the complete Johnson Space Center facility in Houston, Texas in 1989. ... Aerial view of the test area at Marshall Space Flight Center The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is a lead NASA center for propulsion, Space Shuttle propulsion, external fuel tank, crew training and payloads, International Space Station (ISS) design and construction, for computers, networks, and information management. ... For other uses of von Braun, see von Braun (disambiguation). ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Without NASA's adoption of this stubbornly held minority opinion in 1962, the United States may still have reached the Moon, but almost certainly it would not have been accomplished by the end of the 1960s, President Kennedy's target date.[18]

Spacecraft

Main article: Apollo spacecraft

The decision in favor of lunar orbit rendezvous dictated the basic design of the Apollo spacecraft. It would consist of two main sections: the Command/Service Module (CSM), in which the crew would spend most of the mission, and the Lunar Module (LM), which would descend to and return from the lunar surface. Apollo Spacecraft: Command Module, Service Module, Lunar Module. ... Apollo Spacecraft: Command Module, Service Module, Lunar Module. ... The Command/Service Module (CSM) was a spacecraft built for NASA by North American Aviation. ... The LEM flight instrumentation panel and front windows. ...


Command/service module

Apollo CSM in lunar orbit.
Apollo CSM in lunar orbit.

The command module (CM) was conical in shape, and was designed to carry three astronauts from launch into lunar orbit and back from the moon to splashdown. Equipment carried by the command module included reaction control engines, a docking tunnel, guidance and navigation systems and the Apollo Guidance Computer. Attached to the command module was the service module (SM), which housed the service propulsion system and its propellants, the fuel cell power system, four maneuvering thruster quads, the S-band antenna for communication with Mission Control, and storage tanks for water and air. On Apollo 15, 16 and 17 it also carried a scientific instrument package. The two sections of the spacecraft would remain attached until just prior to re-entry, at which point the service module would be discarded. Only the command module was provided with a heat shield that would allow it and its passengers to survive the intense heat of re-entry. After re-entry it would deploy parachutes that would slow its descent through the atmosphere, allowing a smooth splashdown in the ocean. Apollo 17 CSM in lunar orbit (NASA) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Apollo 17 CSM in lunar orbit (NASA) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Command/Service Module (CSM) was a spacecraft built for NASA by North American Aviation. ... A thruster is a small propulsive device used by spacecraft and watercraft for station keeping, attitude control, or long duration low thrust acceleration. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... The Command/Service Module (CSM) was a spacecraft built for NASA by North American Aviation. ...


Under the leadership of Harrison Storms, North American Aviation won the contract to build the CSM for NASA. Relations between North American and NASA were strained during the Apollo program, particularly after the Apollo 1 fire during which three astronauts died. The cause of the accident was determined to be an electrical short in the wiring of the command module; while determination of responsibility for the accident was complex, the review board concluded that "deficiencies existed in Command Module design, workmanship and quality control."[19] Harrison Stormy Storms is an aeronautical engineer best known for his role in managing the design and construction of the command module for the Apollo program. ... North American Aviation was a major US aircraft manufacturer. ... Italics indicate parameters for the planned mission canceled following the Jan 27 fire. ...


Lunar module

Apollo LM on lunar surface.
Apollo LM on lunar surface.

The Lunar Module (LM) (also known as Lunar Excursion Module, or LEM), was designed solely in order to land on the moon, and to ascend from the lunar surface to the command module. It had a limited heat shield and was of a construction so lightweight that it would not have been able to fly in Earth gravity. It carried two crewmembers and consisted of two stages, a descent and an ascent stage. The descent stage incorporated compartments in which cargo such as the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package and Lunar Rover could be carried. Apollo 16 LM on lunar surface (NASA) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Apollo 16 LM on lunar surface (NASA) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The LEM flight instrumentation panel and front windows. ... MyTravel Airways Airbus A320 landing Landing is the last part of a flight, where a flying animal or aircraft returns to the ground. ... The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package, or ALSEP, was a set of connected scientific instruments left on the Moon when the Apollo program ended. ... For the Soviet robotic rovers, see Lunokhod programme. ...


The contract for design and construction of the lunar module was awarded to Grumman, and the project was overseen by Tom Kelly. There were also problems with the lunar module; due to delays in the test program, the LM became what was known as a "pacing item," meaning that it was in danger of delaying the schedule of the whole Apollo program.[20] Due to these issues, the Apollo missions were rescheduled so that the first manned mission with the lunar module would be Apollo 9, rather than Apollo 8 as was originally planned.
The Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation, later Grumman Aerospace Corporation, was a leading producer of military and civilian aircraft of the 20th century. ... See Tom Kelly (baseball) for the 15-year manager of the Minnesota Twins. ... Apollo 9 was the third manned mission in the Apollo program, a ten day Earth-orbital mission launched 3 March 1969. ... Apollo 8 was the Apollo space programs second successful manned mission. ...


Boosters

When the team of engineers led by Wernher von Braun began planning for the Apollo program, it was not yet clear what sort of mission their rocket boosters would have to support. Direct ascent would require a booster, the planned Nova rocket, which could lift a very large payload. NASA's decision in favor of lunar orbit rendezvous re-oriented the work of Marshall Spaceflight Center towards the development of the Saturn 1B and Saturn V. While these were less powerful than the Nova would have been, the Saturn V was still much more powerful than any booster developed before—or since. For other uses of von Braun, see von Braun (disambiguation). ... Diagram of Saturn I, Saturn V and Nova 8L rockets. ... Aerial view of the test area at Marshall Space Flight Center The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is a lead NASA center for propulsion, Space Shuttle propulsion, external fuel tank, crew training and payloads, International Space Station (ISS) design and construction, for computers, networks, and information management. ... The Saturn IB was an uprated version of the Saturn I, which featured a much more powerful second stage, the S-IVB. Unlike the earlier Saturn I, the IB had enough throw weight to launch the Apollo Command/Service Module or Lunar Module into Earth orbit, which made it invaluable... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ...


Saturn V

The Saturn V rocket launched Apollo 11 and her crew on its journey to the Moon, 16 July 1969.
The Saturn V rocket launched Apollo 11 and her crew on its journey to the Moon, 16 July 1969.
Saturn V diagram from the Apollo 6 press kit
Saturn V diagram from the Apollo 6 press kit

The Saturn V consisted of three stages and an Instrument Unit which contained the booster's guidance system. The first stage, the S-IC, consisted of five F-1 engines arranged in a cross pattern, which produced a total of 7.5 million pounds of thrust. They burned for only 2.5 minutes, accelerating the spacecraft to a speed of approximately 6000 miles per hour (2.68 km/sec).[21] During development, the F-1 engines were plagued by combustion instability—if the combustion of propellants was not uniform across the flame front of an engine, pressure waves could build which would cause the engine to destroy itself. The problem was solved in the end through trial and error, fine-tuning the engines through numerous tests so that even small charges set off inside the engine would not induce instability.[22] For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ... The SA-9 (Saturn I Block II), the eighth Saturn I flight, lifted off on February 16, 1965. ... This article covers the Apollo 11 mission itself. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 337 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2093 × 3724 pixel, file size: 548 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Project Apollo ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 337 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2093 × 3724 pixel, file size: 548 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Project Apollo ... Diagram of Saturn V Instrument Unit. ... The S-IC was the first stage of the Saturn V rocket. ...


The second stage, the S-II, used five J-2 engines. They burned for approximately six minutes, taking the spacecraft to a speed of 15,300 miles per hour (6.84 km/sec) and an altitude of about 115 miles (185 km).[23] At this point the S-IVB third stage took over, putting the spacecraft into orbit. Its one J-2 engine was designed to be restarted in order to make the translunar injection burn.[24] The S-II was the second stage of the Saturn V rocket. ... J-2 Rocket Engine Specifications. ... The S-IVB (sometimes S4b) was built by the Douglas Aircraft Company and served as the third stage on the Saturn V and second stage on the Saturn IB. It had one J-2 engine. ... Trans Lunar Injection (TLI) is a term describing the propulsion maneuver used to set a spacecraft on a trajectory which will intersect the Moon. ...


Saturn IB

The Saturn IB was an upgraded version of the earlier Saturn I. It consisted of a first stage made up of eight H-1 engines and a second S-IVB stage which was identical to the Saturn V's third stage. The Saturn IB had only 1.6 million pounds of thrust in its first stage—compared to 7.5 million pounds for the Saturn V—but was capable of putting a command and lunar module into earth orbit.[25] It was used in Apollo test missions and in both the Skylab program and the Apollo-Soyuz Test Program. In 1973 a refitted S-IVB stage, launched by a Saturn V, became the Skylab space station. The Saturn IB was an uprated version of the Saturn I, which featured a much more powerful second stage, the S-IVB. Unlike the earlier Saturn I, the IB had enough throw weight to launch the Apollo Command/Service Module or Lunar Module into Earth orbit, which made it invaluable... The Saturn I was Americas first large clustered rocket. ... A cluster of 8 H-1 rocket engines lifted the Saturn I from the launch pad. ... For other uses, see Skylab (disambiguation). ...


Missions

See also: List of Apollo missions

Green dots indicate locations of Apollo missions on the moon The Apollo missions were a series of space missions, both manned and unmanned, flown by NASA between 1961 and 1975. ...

Mission types

In September 1967, the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, proposed a series of missions that would lead up to a manned lunar landing. Seven mission types were outlined, each testing a specific set of components and tasks; each previous step needed to be completed successfully before the next mission type could be undertaken. These were: An aerial view of the Johnson Space Center facility of Houston in 1989 The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations center for human spaceflight activities. ... Houston redirects here. ...

  • A - Unmanned Command/Service Module (CSM) test
  • B - Unmanned Lunar Module (LM) test
  • C - Manned CSM in low Earth orbit
  • D - Manned CSM and LM in low Earth orbit
  • E - Manned CSM and LM in an elliptical Earth orbit with an apogee of 4600 mi (7400 km)
  • F - Manned CSM and LM in lunar orbit
  • G - Manned lunar landing

Later added to this were H missions, which were short duration stays on the Moon with two LEVAs ("moonwalks"). These were followed by the J missions, which were longer three day stays, with three LEVAs and the use of the lunar rover. Apollo 18 to 20 would have been J missions. In addition, a further group of flights — the I missions — were planned, which would have been long duration orbital missions using a Service Module bay loaded with scientific equipment. When it became obvious that later flights were being canceled, such mission plans were brought into the J missions that were actually flown. The Command/Service Module (CSM) was a spacecraft built for NASA by North American Aviation. ... The LEM flight instrumentation panel and front windows. ... A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit in which objects such as satellites are below intermediate circular orbit (ICO) and far below geostationary orbit, but typically around 350 - 1400 km above the Earths surface. ... For other uses, see Ellipse (disambiguation). ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... For the Soviet robotic rovers, see Lunokhod programme. ...


Unmanned missions

Preparations for the Apollo program began long before the manned Apollo missions were flown. Test flights of the Saturn I booster began in October of 1961 and lasted until September 1964. Three further Saturn I launches carried boilerplate models of the Apollo command/service module. Two pad abort tests of the launch escape system took place in 1963 and 1965 at the White Sands Missile Range. The Saturn I was Americas first large clustered rocket. ... Boilerplate version of Gemini spacecraft on display at Air Force Space and Missile Museum, Cape Canaveral, Florida October 15, 2004. ... A Pad abort test is a test of a launch escape system to determine how well the system could get the crew of a spacecraft to safety in an emergency on the launch pad. ... Apollo LES Pad Abort test A Launch Escape System (LES) is a top-mounted rocket connected to the crew module of a crewed spacecraft and used to quickly separate and launch the crew module away from the rest of the rocket in the case of an emergency. ... White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), formerly known as the White Sands Proving Grounds, is located in Otero County, New Mexico, mostly in the Tularosa Basin, a valley between the Organ Mountains, San Andres Mountains and the Sacramento Mountains of the U.S. state of New Mexico, it includes the northern...


The only unmanned missions to officially include Apollo as part of their name rather than serial number were Apollo 4, Apollo 5 and Apollo 6.[26] Apollo 4 was the first test flight of the Saturn V booster. Launched on November 9, 1967, Apollo 4 exemplified George Mueller's strategy of "all up" testing. Rather than being tested stage by stage, as most rockets were, the Saturn V would be flown for the first time as one unit. The mission was a highly successful one. Walter Cronkite covered the launch from a broadcast booth about 4 miles (6 km) from the launch site. The extreme noise and vibrations from the launch nearly shook the broadcast booth apart- ceiling tiles fell and windows shook. At one point, Cronkite was forced to dampen the vibrations in the booth's plate glass window to prevent it from shattering.[27] This launch showed that additional protective measures against the shock wave were necessary to protect structures in the immediate vicinity. Future launches used a damping mechanism directly at the launchpad which proved effective in confining the main effects of the shock wave to the blast area.[28]. Apollo 4 was the first unmanned flight of the Saturn V launch vehicle. ... Apollo 5 was the first unmanned flight of the Apollo Lunar Module, which would later carry astronauts to the lunar surface. ... Apollo 6, launched in April 1968, was the Apollo programs second and last unmanned test flight of its Saturn V launch vehicle. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... George Mueller may refer to the following people: George Mueller, the former NASA deputy administrator George Müller, the Christian evangelist and coordinator of orphanages in England This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Walter Leland Cronkite, Jr. ... Vibrations are massage movements carried out using the fingertips and palmar surface of the hands. ... Introduction The shock wave is one of several different ways in which a gas in a supersonic flow can be compressed. ...


Apollo 6 was the last in the series of unmanned Apollo missions. It launched on April 4, 1968, and landed back on Earth almost ten hours later at 21:57:21 UTC. is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... UTC redirects here. ...


Manned missions

By the summer of 1968 it became clear to program managers that a fully functional LM would not be available for the Apollo 8 mission. Rather than perform a simple earth orbiting mission, they chose to send Apollo 8 around the moon during Christmas. The original idea for this switch was the brainchild of George Low. Although it has often been claimed that this change was made as a direct response to Soviet attempts to fly a piloted Zond spacecraft around the moon, there is no evidence that this was actually the case. NASA officials were aware of the Soviet Zond flights, but the timing of the Zond missions does not correspond well with the extensive written record from NASA about the Apollo 8 decision. It is relatively certain that the Apollo 8 decision was primarily based upon the LM schedule, rather than fear of the Soviets beating the Americans to the moon. The LEM flight instrumentation panel and front windows. ... Apollo 8 was the Apollo space programs second successful manned mission. ... George Michael Low George Michael Low, born George Wilhelm Low (June 10, 1926 – July 17, 1984) was a NASA administrator. ... The name Zond (meaning probe in Russian) is the name given to two series of Soviet unmanned space missions from 1964 to 1970 to gather information about nearby planets and test spacecraft. ...


Between December 21, 1968 and May 18, 1969, NASA launched three Apollo missions (8, 9, and 10) using the Saturn V launch vehicle. Each mission had a crew of three astronauts, and the last two included Lunar Modules, but none of these were intended as Moon landing missions. is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ...

A mounted camera captures Neil Armstrong as he becomes the first human to step on the moon.
A mounted camera captures Neil Armstrong as he becomes the first human to step on the moon.
This image shows Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin with the U.S. flag. The illusion of a breeze was caused by the horizontal rod intended to hold the flag flat failing to telescope out completely, thus leaving ripples in the fabric like those seen in a flag in the wind.
This image shows Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin with the U.S. flag. The illusion of a breeze was caused by the horizontal rod intended to hold the flag flat failing to telescope out completely, thus leaving ripples in the fabric like those seen in a flag in the wind.
That's one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind.

Neil Armstrong[29] Image File history File links Apollo_11_first_step. ... Image File history File links Apollo_11_first_step. ... Apollo Lunar Television Camera TV cameras used on the Apollo (and later ASTP and Skylab) missions varied in design, with image quality improving significantly with each design. ... This article is about the former American astronaut. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2700x2700, 1177 KB) Buzz Aldrin with U.S. flag on the moon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2700x2700, 1177 KB) Buzz Aldrin with U.S. flag on the moon. ... Union Jack. ... This article is about the former American astronaut. ...

The next two flights (11 and 12) included successful Moon landings. The Apollo 13 mission was aborted before the landing attempt, but the crew returned safely to Earth. The four subsequent Apollo missions (14 through 17) included successful Moon landings. The last three of these were J-class missions that included the use of Lunar Rovers. It appears that much of the original film and telemetry data for the Apollo 11 mission is missing. For more information see Apollo program missing tapes. This article covers the Apollo 11 mission itself. ... The Apollo missing tapes are the missing original recordings of the transmissions (Slow-scan television and telemetry data) broadcast during the Apollo 11 moonwalk[1]. // The video of the Apollo 11 moonwalk was transmitted in Slow-Scan TV (SSTV) format (see Apollo TV camera). ...

On the last of the Apollo missions, the crew of Apollo 17 left this plaque as was done on all the previous landings.
On the last of the Apollo missions, the crew of Apollo 17 left this plaque as was done on all the previous landings.

Apollo 17 launched December 7, 1972 and was the last Apollo mission to the moon. Mission commander Eugene Cernan was the last person to leave the Moon's surface. The crew returned safely to Earth on December 19, 1972. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Green dots indicate locations of Apollo missions on the moon The Apollo missions were a series of space missions, both manned and unmanned, flown by NASA between 1961 and 1975. ... Apollo 17 was the eleventh manned space mission in the NASA Apollo program. ... Apollo 17 was the eleventh manned space mission in the NASA Apollo program. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Eugene Andrew Cernan (born March 14, 1934) is a retired United States Navy officer and a former NASA astronaut of Czech and Slovak ancestry. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Apollo applications program

Following the success of the Apollo program, both NASA and its major contractors investigated several post-lunar applications for the Apollo hardware. The "Apollo Extension Series", later called the "Apollo Applications Program", proposed up to thirty flights to earth orbit. Many of these would use the space that the lunar module took up in the Saturn rocket to carry scientific equipment. The Apollo Applications Program (AAP) was established by NASA headquarters in 1968 to develop science based manned space missions using surplus material from the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. ... The Apollo Applications Program (AAP) was established by NASA headquarters in 1968 to develop science based manned space missions using surplus material from the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. ...


Of all the plans, only two were implemented: the Skylab space station (May 1973 – February 1974), and the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (July 1975). Skylab's fuselage was constructed from the second stage of a Saturn IB, and the station was equipped with the Apollo Telescope Mount, itself based on a lunar module. The station's three crews were ferried into orbit atop Saturn IBs, riding in CSMs; the station itself had been launched with a modified Saturn V. Skylab's last crew departed the station on February 8, 1974, whilst the station itself returned prematurely to Earth in 1979, by which time it had become the oldest operational Apollo component. For other uses, see Skylab (disambiguation). ... The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was the first joint flight of the U.S. and Soviet space programs. ... For other uses, see Skylab (disambiguation). ... The Saturn IB was an uprated version of the Saturn I, which featured a much more powerful second stage, the S-IVB. Unlike the earlier Saturn I, the IB had enough throw weight to launch the Apollo Command/Service Module or Lunar Module into Earth orbit, which made it invaluable... The Apollo Telescope Mount, or ATM, is the name of a solar observatory that was attached to Skylab, the first US space station. ... Description Role: Lunar landing Crew: 2; CDR, LM pilot Dimensions Height: 20. ... The Saturn IB was an uprated version of the Saturn I, which featured a much more powerful second stage, the S-IVB. Unlike the earlier Saturn I, the IB had enough throw weight to launch the Apollo Command/Service Module or Lunar Module into Earth orbit, which made it invaluable... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...


The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project involved a docking in Earth orbit between a CSM and a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft. The mission lasted from July 15 to July 24, 1975. Although the Soviet Union continued to operate the Soyuz and Salyut space vehicles, NASA's next manned mission would not be until STS-1 on April 12, 1981. Soyuz (Russian: Союз, pronounced sah-YOUS, meaning union) is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolyov for the Soviet Unions space program. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Salyut (Russian: Салют, Salute or Firework) program was a series of space stations launched by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. ... STS-1 is also an abbreviation for Synchronous Transport Signal (level)-1 in the SONET hierarchy. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...


Samples returned

Main article: Moon rock
Lunar
Mission
Sample
Returned
Representative
Sample
Apollo 11 22 kg
Apollo 12 34 kg
Apollo 14 43 kg
Apollo 15 77 kg
The most famous of the Moon rocks recovered, the Genesis Rock, was discovered and returned from the Apollo 15 mission.
The most famous of the Moon rocks recovered, the Genesis Rock, was discovered and returned from the Apollo 15 mission.
Apollo 16 95 kg
Ferroan Anorthosite moon rock, collected by Apollo 16. The only sources of moon rocks on Earth are those collected from the Apollo program, the former Soviet Union's Luna missions, and lunar meteorites. Future missions manned or unmanned would provide the opportunity to collect more.
Ferroan Anorthosite moon rock, collected by Apollo 16. The only sources of moon rocks on Earth are those collected from the Apollo program, the former Soviet Union's Luna missions, and lunar meteorites. Future missions manned or unmanned would provide the opportunity to collect more.
Apollo 17 111 kg

The Apollo program returned 381.7 kg (841.5 lb) of rocks and other material from the Moon, much of which is stored at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston. Lunar Ferroan Anorthosite #60025 (Plagioclase Feldspar). ... This article covers the Apollo 11 mission itself. ... Apollo 12 was the sixth manned mission in the Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon. ... Apollo 14 was the eighth manned mission in the Apollo program and the third mission to land on the Moon. ... Apollo 15 was the ninth manned mission in the Apollo program and the fourth mission to land on the Moon. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (670x696, 51 KB) The Apollo 15 Genesis Rock. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (670x696, 51 KB) The Apollo 15 Genesis Rock. ... The Genesis Rock The Genesis Rock is a sample of lunar crust retrieved from the Moon by Apollo 15 astronauts James Irwin and David Scott, and it is anorthosite. ... Apollo 15 was the ninth manned mission in the Apollo program and the fourth mission to land on the Moon. ... Apollo 16 was the tenth manned mission in the Apollo program and the fifth mission to land on the Moon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1375, 270 KB) Summary Lunar Ferroan Anorthosite #60025 (Plagioclase Feldspar). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1375, 270 KB) Summary Lunar Ferroan Anorthosite #60025 (Plagioclase Feldspar). ... Anorthosite is a phaneritic, intrusive igneous rock characterized by a predominance of plagioclase feldspar (90-100%), and a minimal mafic component (0-10%). Pyroxene, ilmenite, magnetite, and olivine are the mafic minerals most commonly present. ... Lunar Ferroan Anorthosite #60025 (Plagioclase Feldspar). ... Apollo 16 was the tenth manned mission in the Apollo program and the fifth mission to land on the Moon. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... The Luna programme (occasionally called Lunik) was a series of unmanned space missions sent to the Moon by the Soviet Union between 1959 and 1976. ... Apollo 17 was the eleventh manned space mission in the NASA Apollo program. ... Genesis Rock returned by the Apollo 15 mission. ... First samples from the Moon being delivered to LRL in 1969 The Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) is a facility at NASAs Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (Building 37) that was constructed to quarantine astronauts and material brought back from the Moon during the Apollo program. ...


In general the rocks collected from the Moon are extremely old compared to rocks found on Earth, as measured by radiometric dating techniques. They range in age from about 3.2 billion years old for the basaltic samples derived from the lunar mare, to about 4.6 billion years for samples derived from the highlands crust.[30] As such, they represent samples from a very early period in the development of the Solar System that is largely missing from Earth. One important rock found during the Apollo Program was the Genesis Rock, retrieved by astronauts James Irwin and David Scott during the Apollo 15 mission. This rock, called anorthosite, is composed almost exclusively of the calcium-rich feldspar mineral anorthite, and is believed to be representative of the highland crust. A geochemical component called KREEP was discovered that has no known terrestrial counterpart. Together, KREEP and the anorthositic samples have been used to infer that the outer portion of the Moon was once completely molten (see lunar magma ocean). Radiometric dating (often called radioactive dating) is a technique used to date materials, based on a comparison between the observed abundance of particular naturally occurring radioactive isotopes and their known decay rates. ... For the cities, see Basalt, Colorado and Basalt, Idaho. ... Lunar nearside with major maria and craters labeled A global albedo map of the Moon obtained from the Clementine missionThe dark regions are the lunar maria, whereas the lighter regions are the highlands. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... The Genesis Rock The Genesis Rock is a sample of lunar crust retrieved from the Moon by Apollo 15 astronauts James Irwin and David Scott, and it is anorthosite. ... James Benson Irwin (March 17, 1930 – August 8, 1991) was a member of the Apollo 15 mission in 1971 and the eighth man to walk on the Moon. ... David Scotts Apollo 15 training space suit on display in the Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC. Colonel David Randolph Scott (born June 6, 1932), a former NASA astronaut, was one of the third group of astronauts named by NASA in October 1963 and is one of only twelve... Anorthosite is a phaneritic, intrusive igneous rock characterized by a predominance of plagioclase feldspar (90-100%), and a minimal mafic component (0-10%). Pyroxene, ilmenite, magnetite, and olivine are the mafic minerals most commonly present. ... Anorthite is one of the plagioclase feldspars, an important group of minerals abundant in the Earths crust. ... KREEP stands for potassium (atomic symbol K), rare earth elements (REE), and phosphorus (P). ... This article, which relates to the Moon, is a stub. ...


Almost all of the rocks show evidence for having been affected by impact processes. For instance, many samples appear to be pitted with micrometeoroid impact craters, something which is never seen on earth due to its thick atmosphere. Additionally, many show signs of being subjected to high pressure shock waves that are generated during impact events. Some of the returned samples are of impact melt, referring to materials that are melted in the vicinity of an impact crater. Finally, all samples returned from the Moon are highly brecciated as a result of being subjected to multiple impact events. A Micrometeoroid (also micrometeorite, micrometeor) is a tiny meteoroid; a small particle of rock from space, usually weighing less than a gram, that poses a threat to space exploration. ... Breccia, derived from the Latin word for broken, is a sedimentary rock composed of angular fragments in a matrix that may be of a similar or a different material. ...


Analysis of composition of the lunar samples led to the conclusion, reached in 1984, that the Moon was created through a "giant impact" of a large astronomical body with the Earth.[31]


Program costs and cancellation

In March of 1966, NASA told Congress the "run-out cost" of the Apollo program to put men on the moon would be an estimated $22.718 Billion for the 13-year program which eventually accomplished six successful missions between July 1969 and December 1972.


According to Steve Garber, the NASA History website curator, the final cost of project Apollo was between $20 and $25.4 Billion in 1969 Dollars (or approximately $135 Billion in 2005 Dollars).


The costs associated with the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn rockets amounted to about $83 Billion [Apollo spacecraft: $28 Billion (Command/Service Module: $17 Billion; Lunar Module: $11-billion), Saturn I, Saturn IB, Saturn V launch vehicles: about $46 Billion] in 2005 dollars. Apollo Spacecraft: Command Module, Service Module, Lunar Module. ... Description Role: Earth and Lunar Orbit Crew: 3; CDR, CM pilot, LM pilot Dimensions Height: 36. ... Description Role: Lunar landing Crew: 2; CDR, LM pilot Dimensions Height: 20. ... The Saturn I was Americas first large clustered rocket. ... The Saturn IB was an uprated version of the Saturn I, which featured a much more powerful second stage, the S-IVB. Unlike the earlier Saturn I, the IB had enough throw weight to launch the Apollo Command/Service Module or Lunar Module into Earth orbit, which made it invaluable... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ...


Canceled missions

Originally three additional lunar landing missions had been planned, as Apollo 18 through Apollo 20. In light of the drastically shrinking NASA budget and the decision not to produce a second batch of Saturn Vs, these missions were canceled to make funds available for the development of the Space Shuttle, and to make their Apollo spacecraft and Saturn V launch vehicles available to the Skylab program. Only one of the remaining Saturn Vs was actually used to launch the Skylab orbital laboratory in 1973; the others became museum exhibits at the John F. Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida, George C. Marshall Space Center in Huntsville, Alabama and Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. Due to budget constraints there were many canceled Apollo missions during Project Apollo. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... For other uses, see Skylab (disambiguation). ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... This article is about the area of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Aerial view of the test area at Marshall Space Flight Center The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is a lead NASA center for propulsion, Space Shuttle propulsion, external fuel tank, crew training and payloads, International Space Station (ISS) design and construction, for computers, networks, and information management. ... Huntsville is the name of some places in the United States of America: Huntsville, Alabama Huntsville, Arkansas Huntsville, Missouri Huntsville, Ohio Huntsville, Tennessee Huntsville, Texas Huntsville, Utah Huntsville, Pennsylvania Huntsville, Ontario is also a town in Canada. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... An aerial view of the Johnson Space Center facility of Houston in 1989 The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations center for human spaceflight activities. ... Houston redirects here. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...


Scientific and engineering legacy

Unflown command module CM-007 at the Museum of Flight in Seattle
Unflown command module CM-007 at the Museum of Flight in Seattle

The Apollo program stimulated many areas of technology. The flight computer design used in both the lunar and command modules was, along with the Minuteman Missile System, the driving force behind early research into integrated circuits. The fuel cell developed for this program was the first practical fuel cell. Computer-controlled machining (CNC) was pioneered in fabricating Apollo structural components. The Apollo 11 CM, Columbia, in the National Air & Space Museum, Washington DC. Taken in April 2004. ... The Apollo 11 CM, Columbia, in the National Air & Space Museum, Washington DC. Taken in April 2004. ... For the Museum of Flight in East Lothian, Scotland, see Museum of Flight (Scotland). ... City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... The LGM-30 Minuteman is a United States nuclear missile, a land-based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips (EPROM memory) with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... For other uses, see CNC (disambiguation). ...


Influence on future human space exploration

Further information: List of future lunar missions

Several nations have planned future human lunar missions, and several space agencies also intend to build lunar bases. Currently, there are several future lunar missions scheduled by various nations: Japan - Selene - Launch: August 16th 2007 China - Change 1 - Launch: September 2007 India - Chandrayaan - Launch: April 2008 USA - Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter - Launch: October 2008 United Kingdom - Moonlight[1] - 2010 India - Chandrayaan II: 2010 or 2011 Russia - Luna-Glob... Currently, there are several future lunar missions scheduled by various nations: Japan - Selene - Launch: August 16th 2007 China - Change 1 - Launch: September 2007 India - Chandrayaan - Launch: April 2008 USA - Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter - Launch: October 2008 United Kingdom - Moonlight[1] - 2010 India - Chandrayaan II: 2010 or 2011 Russia - Luna-Glob... On December 4, 2006, NASA announced [1] that its global architecture studies had concluded on the construction of a solar-powered Lunar outpost at one of the poles of the Moon. ...


Neil Armstrong, the commander of the first successful landing Apollo 11, is often asked by the press for his views on the future of spaceflight. In 2005, he said that a human voyage to Mars will be easier than the lunar challenge of the 1960s: "I suspect that even though the various questions are difficult and many, they are not as difficult and many as those we faced when we started the Apollo (space program) in 1961."
This article is about the former American astronaut. ... This article covers the Apollo 11 mission itself. ... Edward White on a spacewalk during the Gemini 4 mission. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ...


Constellation program

Main article: Project Constellation

In a speech on January 14, 2004, President Bush announced a new Vision for Space Exploration, which included plans for the United States to return astronauts to the Moon no later than 2020 (with the first human landing -- Orion 17 -- currently planned for 2019). This mission would be a part of Project Constellation, NASA's program to create a new generation of spacecraft for human spaceflight. Project Constellation is NASAs current plan for space exploration. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Image from NASA site Two planned configurations for a return to the moon, heavy lift (left) and crew (right) The Vision for Space Exploration is the United States space policy announced on January 14, 2004 by President George W. Bush. ... Orion 17 is the current name of a NASA mission, the first Constellation lunar landing in conjunction with the Lunar Surface Access Module 3 (LSAM 3). ... Project Constellation is NASAs current plan for space exploration. ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... Edward White on a spacewalk during the Gemini 4 mission. ...


Replacing the Space Shuttle following its retirement in 2010 will be the Orion crew capsule, which closely resembles the Apollo command module in its aerodynamic shape. NASA administrator Michael Griffin has described the capsule as "Apollo on steroids," and the New Scientist magazine reports that "some critics... say the whole Orion program is little more than a throwback to Apollo-era technology."[32] In other respects, however—including its cockpit displays and its heatshield—Orion will be employing new technology.[33] More closely based on Apollo designs is the upper stage of the Ares I, the launch vehicle designed to take Orion into orbit. It will be based on a J-2X engine, a redesigned version of the J-2 engine used in the Saturn family of boosters. In working on the J-2X, NASA engineers have visited museums, searched for Apollo-era documentation and consulted with engineers who worked on the Apollo program. "The mechanics of landing on the moon and getting off the moon to a large extent have been solved," said Constellation program manager Jeff Hanley. "That is the legacy that Apollo gave us."[34] This article is about the space vehicle. ... Orion is a spacecraft currently under development by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ... Michael Griffin can refer to: Michael A. W. Griffin, links to Griffin Genealogy pre Norman Conquest. ... Ares I is the crew launch vehicle being developed by NASA as a component of Project Constellation. ... J-2 Rocket Engine Specifications. ...


Like Apollo, Orion will fly a lunar orbit rendezvous mission profile, but unlike Apollo, the lander, known as Altair, will be launched separately on the Ares V rocket, a rocket based on both Space Shuttle and Apollo technologies. Orion will be launched separately and will link up with Altair in low earth orbit like that of the Skylab program. Also, Orion, unlike Apollo, will remain unmanned in lunar orbit while the entire crew lands on the lunar surface, with the lunar polar regions in mind instead of the equatorial regions explored by Apollo. Lunar Orbit Rendezvous was the method of flying to the moon used in the Apollo Missions, where a Main ship would carry a ferry to the moon which would carry astronauts down to the surface. ... The Ares V (formerly known as the Cargo Launch Vehicle or CaLV) is the cargo launch component of Project Constellation. ...


Cultural legacy

A world wide audience

The Apollo 8 crew's 1968 Christmas eve broadcast was the most widely watched television broadcast up until that time. The broadcast's historic significance and worldwide impact is discussed here. Apollo 8 was the Apollo space programs second successful manned mission. ... Apollo 8 was the Apollo space programs second successful manned mission. ...


Approximately one fifth of the population of the world watched the live transmission of the first Apollo moonwalk.[35] This article covers the Apollo 11 mission itself. ...


Psychological impact on the astronauts

"We went to explore the Moon, and in fact discovered the Earth." -Eugene Cernan
"We went to explore the Moon, and in fact discovered the Earth." -Eugene Cernan
"Everything that I ever knew - my life, my loved ones, the Navy - everything, the whole world was behind my thumb." -James Lovell
"Everything that I ever knew - my life, my loved ones, the Navy - everything, the whole world was behind my thumb." -James Lovell

Many astronauts and cosmonauts have commented on the profound effects that seeing Earth from space has had on them. One of the most important legacies of the Apollo program was the now-common, but not universal, view of Earth as a fragile, small planet, captured in the photographs taken by the astronauts during the lunar missions. The most famous of these photographs, taken by the Apollo 17 astronauts, is "The Blue Marble" (see image at right). These photographs have also motivated many people toward environmentalism[36] . Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 599 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 3002 pixel, file size: 6. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 599 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 3002 pixel, file size: 6. ... Eugene Andrew Cernan (born March 14, 1934) is a retired United States Navy officer and a former NASA astronaut of Czech and Slovak ancestry. ... Download high resolution version (2400x2400, 303 KB) Description Taken by Apollo 8 crewmember Bill Anders on December 24, 1968, showing the Earth rising above the lunar surface. ... Download high resolution version (2400x2400, 303 KB) Description Taken by Apollo 8 crewmember Bill Anders on December 24, 1968, showing the Earth rising above the lunar surface. ... Captain James Jim Arthur Lovell, Jr. ... For other uses, see Astronaut (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Astronaut (disambiguation). ... Apollo 17 was the eleventh manned space mission in the NASA Apollo program. ... Original caption: View of the Earth as seen by the Apollo 17 crew traveling toward the moon. ... The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ...


Documentaries

There have been numerous documentary films covering the Apollo project and the space race.

For All Mankind is a 1989 documentary film documenting the Apollo missions of NASA. It was directed by Al Reinert. ... In the Shadow of the Moon is a 2006[1] British documentary film about the United States manned missions to the moon. ...

See also

Spaceflight Portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong in NASAs training mockup of the Moon and lander module. ... Apollo Lunar Television Camera TV cameras used on the Apollo (and later ASTP and Skylab) missions varied in design, with image quality improving significantly with each design. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... Map of the moon showing some landing sites. ... Pad Abort Test 1 was the first abort test of the Apollo spacecraft. ... Details of the Soviet Moonshot were kept intensely secret until the arrival of glasnost. ...

Notes

  1. ^ NASA: 30th Anniversary of Apollo 11
  2. ^ BBC: 30th Anniversary of Apollo 11
  3. ^ Murray and Cox, Apollo, p. 55.
  4. ^ Murray and Cox, Apollo, p. 60.
  5. ^ Beschloss, 'Kennedy and the Decision to Go to the Moon,' in Launius and McCurdy, eds., Spaceflight and the Myth of Presidential Leadership.
  6. ^ Sidey, John F. Kennedy, pp. 117-118.
  7. ^ Beschloss, 'Kennedy and the Decision to Go to the Moon,' p. 55.
  8. ^ "Discussion of Soviet Man-in-Space Shot," Hearing before the Committee on Science and Astronautics, U.S. House of Representatives, 87th Congress, First Session, April 13, 1961.
  9. ^ Sidey, John F. Kennedy, p. 114
  10. ^ Kennedy to Johnson, "Memorandum for Vice President," April 20, 1961.
  11. ^ a b Johnson to Kennedy, "Evaluation of Space Program," April 21, 1961.
  12. ^ John F. Kennedy, "Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs", May 25, 1961
  13. ^ Murray and Cox, Apollo, pp. 16-17.
  14. ^ Langley Research Center's Contributions to the Apollo Program
  15. ^ John F. Kennedy,"Address at Rice University on the Nation's Space Effort"
  16. ^ Brooks, Grimwood and Swenson, Chariots for Apollo, p. 71.
  17. ^ a b Hansen, Enchanted Rendezvous, p 21
  18. ^ Hansen, Enchanted Rendezvous, p. 27.
  19. ^ Report of the Apollo 204 Review Board, Findings and Recommendations
  20. ^ Chariots for Apollo, Ch 7-4
  21. ^ Saturn V News Reference: First Stage Fact Sheet
  22. ^ Murray and Cox, Apollo, pp. 145-51, 179-81.
  23. ^ Saturn V News Reference: Second Stage Fact Sheet
  24. ^ Saturn V News Reference: Third Stage Fact Sheet
  25. ^ Saturn IB News Reference: Saturn IB Design Features
  26. ^ Murray and Cox, Apollo, p. 238.
  27. ^ Murray and Cox, Apollo, p. 248.
  28. ^ Apollo_4#Flight
  29. ^ Neil Armstrong#First_Moon_walk
  30. ^ James Papike, Grahm Ryder, and Charles Shearer (1998). "Lunar Samples". Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 36: 5.1-5.234. 
  31. ^ Burrows, William E. (1999). This New Ocean: The Story of the First Space Age. Modern Library, p. 431. ISBN 0375754857. 
  32. ^ NASA to boldly go... with Lockheed Martin - space - 01 September 2006 - New Scientist Space
  33. ^ Technology Review: Part Apollo, Part Boeing 787
  34. ^ NASA is borrowing ideas from the Apollo - USATODAY.com
  35. ^ Burrows, William E. (1999). This New Ocean: The Story of the First Space Age. Modern Library, p. 429. ISBN 0375754857. 
  36. ^ Al Gore (2007-03-17). An Inconvenient Truth Transcript. Politics Blog -- a reproduction of the film's transcript. Retrieved on 2007-07-29.

is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Apollo 4 was the first unmanned flight of the Saturn V launch vehicle. ... This article is about the former American astronaut. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • "Discussion of Soviet Man-in-Space Shot," Hearing before the Committee on Science and Astronautics, U.S. House of Representatives, 87th Congress, First Session, April 13, 1961.
  • Hansen, James R. (1995). Enchanted Rendezvous: John C. Houbolt and the Genesis of the Lunar-Orbit Rendezvous Concept. NASA. 
  • Launius, Roger; Howard McCurdy (1997). Spaceflight and the Myth of Presidential Leadership. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. 
  • Murray, Charles; Catherine Bly Cox (1989). Apollo: The Race to the Moon. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-671-61101-1. 
  • Papike, James; Graham Ryder and Charles Shearer (1998). "Lunar Samples". Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 36: 5.1-5.234. 
  • Sidey, Hugh (1963). John F. Kennedy, President. New York: Atheneum. 
  • Swenson, Jr., Loyd S.; Courtney G Brooks and James M. Grimwood (1979). Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft. NASA. 

Further reading

  • Kranz, Gene, Failure is Not an Option. Factual, from the standpoint of a chief flight controller during the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo space programs. ISBN 0-7432-0079-9
  • Chaikin, Andrew. A Man on the Moon. ISBN 0-14-027201-1. Chaikin has interviewed all the surviving astronauts, plus many others who worked with the program.
  • Cooper, Henry S. F. Jr. Thirteen: The Flight That Failed. ISBN 0-8018-5097-5. Although this book focuses on Apollo 13, it is extremely well-researched and provides a wealth of background information on Apollo technology and procedures.
  • Wilhelms, Don E. To a Rocky Moon. ISBN 0-8165-1065-2. Tells the history of Lunar exploration from a geologist's point of view.
  • Pellegrino, Charles R.; Stoff, Joshua. Chariots for Apollo: The Untold Story Behind the Race to the Moon. ISBN 0-380-80261-9. Tells Grumman's story of building the Lunar Modules.
  • Lovell, Jim; Kluger, Jeffrey. Lost Moon: The perilous voyage of Apollo 13 aka Apollo 13: Lost Moon. ISBN 0-618-05665-3. Details the flight of Apollo 13.
  • Collins, Michael. Carrying the Fire; an Astronaut's journeys. Astronaut Mike Collins autobiography of his experiences as an astronaut, including his flight aboard Apollo 11, the first landing on the Moon
  • Orloff, Richard W. SP-4029 Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference
  • Slayton, Donald K.; Cassutt, Michael. Deke! An Autobiograpy. ISBN 0-312-85918-X. This is an excellent account of Deke Slayton's life as an astronaut and of his work as chief of the astronaut office, including selection of the crews which flew Apollo to the Moon.
  • The Apollo spacecraft. Volume 1 - A chronology:PDF (13.2 MiB) From origin to 7 November 1962
  • The Apollo spacecraft: Volume 2 - A chronology:PDF (13.4 MiB) 8 November 1962 - 30 September 1964
  • The Apollo spacecraft: Volume 3 - A chronology:PDF (57.7 MiB) 1 October 1964 - 20 January 1966
  • The Apollo spacecraft: Volume 4 - A chronology:PDF (24.2 MiB) 21 January 1966 - 13 July 1974
  • Apollo program summary report: Synopsis of the Apollo program - NASA reportPDF (26.5 MiB)

Gene Kranz in a more recent photo. ... Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States. ... Project Gemini was the second human spaceflight program of the United States of America. ... For other uses, see Astronaut (disambiguation). ... The Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation, later Grumman Aerospace Corporation, was a leading producer of military and civilian aircraft of the 20th century. ... Captain James Jim Arthur Lovell, Jr. ... Michael Collins (born October 31, 1930) is a former American astronaut and test pilot. ... Donald Kent Deke Slayton (March 1, 1924 – June 13, 1993) was one of the original Mercury Seven NASA astronauts. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... “PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ...

External links

Adobe Flash (previously called Shockwave Flash and Macromedia Flash) is a set of multimedia technologies developed and distributed by Adobe Systems and earlier by Macromedia. ...

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