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Encyclopedia > Apollo Moon Landing hoax accusations
Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong in NASA's training mockup of the Moon and lander module. Hoax proponents say the entire mission was filmed on sets like this training mockup.

Apollo Moon Landing hoax accusations are claims that some or all elements of the Apollo Moon landings were faked by NASA and possibly members of other involved organizations. Some groups and individuals have advanced alternate historical narratives which tend, to varying degrees, to include the following common elements: Image File history File links GPN-2002-000032. ... Image File history File links GPN-2002-000032. ... Colonel Buzz Aldrin, Sc. ... This article is about the former American astronaut. ... A hoax is an attempt to trick an audience into believing that something false is real. ... Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by the United States of America (NASA) using the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, conducted during the years 1961 – 1975. ... Still frame from the video transmission of Neil Armstrong stepping onto the surface of the Moon on 20 July 1969. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (IPA [ˈnæsə]) is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nations public space program. ...

  • The Apollo Astronauts did not land on the Moon;
  • NASA and possibly others intentionally deceived the public into believing the landing(s) did occur by manufacturing, destroying, or tampering with evidence, including photos, telemetry tapes, transmissions, and rock samples;
  • NASA and possibly others continue to actively participate in the conspiracy to this day.

Many commentators have published detailed rebuttals to the hoax claims. According to a 1999 poll conducted by the The Gallup Organization, what Gallup termed an "overwhelming majority" of the US public, some 89 percent, did not believe the landing was faked, while 6 percent did, while 5 percent were undecided.[1] For other uses, see Astronaut (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earths moon. ... Telemetry is a technology that allows the remote measurement and reporting of information of interest to the system designer or operator. ... The Gallup Organization provides a variety of management consulting, human resources and statistical research services. ...

Contents

Origins and history

Folklorist Linda Degh pointed out that the film Capricorn One may have given a "boost" to the hoax theory's popularity in the post-Vietnam War, post-Watergate era when segments of the American public were disinclined to trust official accounts. Degh writes that "The mass media catapult these half-truths into a kind of twilight zone where people can make their guesses sound as truths. Mass media have a terrible impact on people who lack guidance."[2] Capricorn One is a horror/thriller/science fiction movie about a Mars landing hoax. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Watergate redirects here. ...


In his book A Man on the Moon, published in 1994, Andrew Chaikin mentions that at the time of Apollo 8's lunar-orbit mission in December 1968 such conspiratorial stories were already in circulation. A Man on the Moon (ISBN 0140272011) is a 688-page book by Andrew Chaikin, first published in 1994. ... Andrew Chaikin is an author, speaker and space journalist. ... Apollo 8 was the second successful manned mission of the Apollo space program, in which Commander Frank Borman, Command Module Pilot James Lovell and Lunar Module Pilot William Anders became the first humans to orbit around the Moon. ...


The first book dedicated to the subject, Bill Kaysing's self-published We Never Went to the Moon: America's Thirty Billion Dollar Swindle was released in 1974, two years after the Apollo Moon flights had ceased. William Charles Kaysing (July 31, 1922 – April 21, 2005) was a writer who is best known for claiming that the six Apollo moon landings that took place between July 1969 and December 1972 were hoaxes. ...


Predominant hoax claims

A number of different versions of the alleged hoax have been advanced. No one has proposed a complete narrative of how the alleged hoax could have been perpetrated, but instead believers focus on perceived gaps or inconsistencies in the historical record of the missions. Several of these ideas and their most readily identifiable proponents are described below:

  1. Complete hoax — The idea that the entire human landing program was faked. Some claim that the technology to send men to the Moon was insufficient or that the Van Allen radiation belts, solar flares, solar wind, Coronal Mass Ejections and cosmic rays made such a trip impossible.[3]
  2. Partial hoax / unmanned landingsBart Sibrel has stated that the crew of Apollo 11 and subsequent astronauts had faked their orbit around the Moon and their walk on its surface by trick photography, and that they never got more than halfway to the Moon. A subset of this proposal is advocated by those who concede the existence of laser mirrors and other observable human-made objects on the Moon. British publisher Marcus Allen represented this argument when he said "I would be the first to accept what [telescope images of the landing site] find as powerful evidence that something was placed on the Moon by man." He goes on to say that photographs of the lander would not prove that America put men on the Moon. "Getting to the Moon really isn't much of a problem – the Russians did that in 1959, the big problem is getting people there." His argument focuses around NASA sending robot missions because radiation levels in space were lethal to humans. Another variant on this is the idea that NASA and its contractors did not recover quickly enough from the Apollo 1 fire, and so all the early Apollo missions were faked, with Apollo 14 or 15 being the first authentic mission.[4] Yet, some believe the first and only landing occurred on December 11, 1972 with Apollo 17, as this was the first and final mission with a civilian scientist.[citation needed]
  3. Manned landings, with cover-ups
    • William Brian believes that the astronauts may have used "a secret zero gravity device" derived from technology found on a "captured extraterrestrial spaceship," but that NASA was compelled to cover up these facts and others relating to the gravity and the presence of atmosphere on the moon in order to maintain secrecy surrounding the alien space ship.[5]
    • Others believe that, while astronauts did land on the Moon, they covered up what they found, whether it was gravitational anomalies, alien artifacts, or alien encounters. [6] Philippe Lheureux, in Lumières sur la Lune (Lights on the Moon), said that astronauts did land on the Moon, but that, in order to prevent other nations from benefiting from scientific information in the real photos, NASA published fake images.[7]
    • Still, others believe that men did land on the moon, but that the photography was of very low media quality and in most cases unsuitable or even unusable that the U.S. government (NASA), since it had to present proof of the space program's success to justify taxpayers money in order to keep the program alive and not risk cancellation from U.S. Congress, altered, modified and even faked many of the pictures and video, launching a subsequent media campaign with great success. Advocates of this theory state that the equipment used to photograph (Hasselblad cameras privately modified by NASA) had no protection for the film against radiation nor intense lighting conditions present on the moon and in space.[citation needed]

Van Allen belts The Van Allen radiation belt is a torus of energetic charged particles around Earth, trapped by Earths magnetic field. ... A solar flare is a violent explosion in the Suns atmosphere with an energy equivalent to tens of millions of hydrogen bombs. ... The plasma in the solar wind meeting the heliopause The solar wind is a stream of charged particles (i. ... A composite image showing two CMEs (at 2 oclock and 8 oclock), with the sun at center. ... Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth. ... Bartholomew Winfield Sibrel is a Nashville, Tennessee-based amateur filmmaker who claims that the six Apollo moon landings between 1969 and 1972 were hoaxes. ... Marcus Allen is the British distributer and publisher of Nexus magazine, and a well known proponent of, as he puts it, news and information that is overlooked, unreported or ignored by the mainstream media. He worked as a photographer in the 1960s, and is a proponent of the idea that... Apollo 1 is the official name given to the never-flown Apollo/Saturn 204 (AS-204) mission. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Apollo 17 was the eleventh manned space mission in the NASA Apollo program. ... Philippe Lheureux has written two books on the subject of Apollo moon landing hoax accusations: Moon Landings: Did NASA Lie?, and Lumières sur la Lune : La NASA a t-elle menti!. External links English copy of his book . ...

Suggested motives for a hoax

Several motives are given by hoax proponents for the U.S. government to fake the Moon landings. The government of the United States, established by the United States Constitution, is a federal republic of 50 states, a few territories and some protectorates. ...

  1. Cold-War prestige — The U.S. government considered it vital that the U.S. win the space race against the Soviet Union. Going to the Moon was risky and expensive (John F. Kennedy famously said that the U.S. chose to go because it was difficult.) Despite close monitoring by the Soviet Union, Bill Kaysing believes that it would have been easier for the U.S. to fake it, and consequently guarantee success, than for the U.S. actually to go.[3] p. 29
  2. Money — NASA raised approximately $30 billion to go to the Moon. Bill Kaysing thinks that this amount could have been used to pay off a large number of people, providing significant motivation for complicity.[3] p. 71
  3. Risk — This argument assumes that the problems early in the space program were insurmountable, even by a technology team fully motivated and funded to fix the problems. Kaysing claimed that the chance of a successful landing on the moon was calculated to be 0.017%.[3] pp. 26–40
  4. Distraction — According to hoax proponents the U.S. government benefited from a popular distraction from the Vietnam war. Lunar activities suddenly stopped, with planned missions canceled, around the same time that the U.S. ceased its involvement in the Vietnam War.[8] (However, the Apollo program was cancelled several years before the Vietnam War ended.[9])
  5. Saving face — To seemingly fulfil president Kennedy's 1961 promise "to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth."

For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Space Race (disambiguation). ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ...

Public opinions

Opinion polls

A year after the first moon landing, Knight Newspapers conducted a poll of 1721 U.S. citizens and found that more than 30 percent of all of the poll's respondents were "suspicious of NASA's trips to the Moon" with the number rising to over half in some demographic areas. The Newsweek article that published the poll results noted that among the respondents were "an elderly Philadelphia woman who thought the moon landing had been staged in an Arizona desert" and a "housewife" whose suspicions were based on her belief that her television could not "receive signals from the moon." Another respondent said, "It's all a deliberate effort to mask problems at home . . . the people are unhappy - and this takes their minds off their problems."[10] The Knight Ridder building in downtown San José. Knight Ridder (IPA: ) NYSE: KRI is an American media company, specializing in newspaper and Internet publishing. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ...


According to a 1999 Gallup poll, about 6 percent of the population of the United States has doubts that the Apollo astronauts walked on the Moon. (Five percent had no opinion, while 89 percent believed the landings took place.)[1] It asked, "thinking about the space exploration, do you think the government staged or faked the Apollo Moon landing, or don't you feel that way?" Six percent of respondents answered "yes, staged."[11] [12], p. 156 "Although, if taken literally, 6 percent translates into millions of individuals," Gallup said of this, "it is not unusual to find about that many people in the typical poll agreeing with almost any question that is asked of them; so the best interpretation is that this particular conspiracy theory is not widespread." A 1995 Time/CNN poll also found that 6 percent of the people believe in a hoax[12], p. 156. Fox television's 2001 TV special " Conspiracy Theory: Did We Really Land on the Moon?"[13] may have given a boost to the idea, despite the allegation of many errors of fact and presentation in the program by the Web site called "Who mourns for Apollo?".[14] Fox said roughly 20 percent of the public had doubts about the authenticity of the Apollo program after the show. A Gallup poll is an opinion poll frequently used by the mass media for representing public opinion. ... This article is about the series of human spaceflight missions. ... For other uses, see Astronaut (disambiguation). ... “TIME” redirects here. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... The Fox Broadcasting Company is a television network in the United States. ...


A Dittmar Associates poll in 2006 showed that among 18-26 year old college-educated students “27 percent expressed some doubt that NASA went to the Moon, with 10 percent indicating that it was ‘highly unlikely’ that a Moon landing had ever taken place.[15]


James Oberg, an American journalist who writes about space (and has worked for NASA's space shuttle program), estimates that "perhaps 10 percent of the population, and up to twice as large in specific demographic groups" believe in the hoax or have some doubts about the Apollo program.[16] "It’s not just a few crackpots and their new books and Internet conspiracy sites," Oberg said in 1999. "There are entire subcultures within the U.S., and substantial cultures around the world, that strongly believe the landing was faked. I’m told that this is official dogma still taught in schools in Cuba, plus wherever else Cuban teachers have been sent (such as Sandinista [sic] Nicaragua and Angola)."[17] In other sources Oberg has tied these beliefs to larger social phenomena: "Myths have a way of blossoming in the fertile soil of scientific discovery . . . from the time of the Phoenicians...to Marco Polo, and including mermaids and unipeds and all these mythological creatures that lurk at the edge of our exploration."[10] James Edward Oberg (b. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... For other uses, see SIC. Sic is a Latin word, originally sicut [1] meaning thus, so, or just as that. In writing, it is placed within square brackets and usually italicized — [sic] — to indicate that an incorrect or unusual spelling, phrase, punctuation, and/or other preceding quoted material has been...


Other opinions

One of the earthrise photos. The Flat Earth Society used these photos as evidence of a faked landing, since they show a spherical Earth.
One of the earthrise photos. The Flat Earth Society used these photos as evidence of a faked landing, since they show a spherical Earth.

Charles K. Johnson, president of the International Flat Earth Research Society, challenged the idea that men had landed on the Moon, claiming that the landings were "faked in Hollywood studios", with science-fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke writing the script. He was of the opinion that the Apollo program was faked in part to promote what he believed to be the myth of a round Earth.[18][19] Download high resolution version (2457x2411, 646 KB) Description The first photograph taken by humans of Earthrise. ... Download high resolution version (2457x2411, 646 KB) Description The first photograph taken by humans of Earthrise. ... A rendered picture of the Flat Earth model. ... Charles Kenneth Johnson (July 24, 1924, San Angelo, Texas - March 19, 2001, Lancaster, California) was, from 1972 until his death, the president and energetic promoter of the International Flat Earth Society, which he and his wife ran from their home in California. ... A rendered picture of the Flat Earth model. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Arthur C. Clarke Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (born 16 December 1917) is a British science-fiction author and inventor, most famous for his novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, and for collaborating with director Stanley Kubrick on the film of the same...


The International Society for Krishna Consciousness has published articles on its Web site in favor of hoax accusations, in part because it conflicts with their belief that the Moon is farther away from the Earth than the Sun is.[20][21] The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) is a new religious movement based on Bengali, or more specifically Gaudiya, Vaishnavism founded by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, referred to by followers as His Divine Grace, in New York in 1966. ...


The late U.S. Senators Alan Cranston (D-California) and Strom Thurmond (R-South Carolina) were on record as having written to NASA passing on the concerns of their constituents.[10] Alan MacGregor Cranston (June 19, 1914 – December 31, 2000) was a U.S. journalist and politician. ... James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) was an American politician who served as governor of South Carolina and as a United States Senator representing that state. ...


Critiques of hoax accusations

Apollo 12 astronaut Pete Conrad with the unmanned Surveyor 3 lander. ...

Conspiracy theory

Hoax accusations have been characterized as conspiracy theories since believers claim that conspirators in the possession of secret knowledge are misleading or have misled the public in pursuit of a hidden agenda—namely, hiding that the Moon landings were faked. The term "conspiracy" has a perfectly straightforward meaning at law (although the term 'conspiracy theory' does not): any agreement by two or more persons to commit a crime.[citation needed] This is the central argument of the prominent critics of the conventional history of the Apollo program. The 2001 Fox special, which examined the issues on each side used that term in its title (Conspiracy Theory: Did We Land on the Moon?). However, the term "conspiracy theory" is highly charged, and many people consider it to be pejorative.[22] For other uses, see Conspiracy theory (disambiguation). ...


The Apollo Moon landing hoax accusations have been the subject of debunking and, according to the debunkers, have been falsified. An article in the German magazine Der Spiegel places the Moon hoax in the context of other well-known 20th century conspiracy theories which it describes as "the rarefied atmosphere of those myths in which Elvis is alive, John F. Kennedy fell victim to a conspiracy involving the Mafia and secret service agents, the Moon landing was staged in the Nevada desert, and Princess Diana was murdered by the British intelligence services."[23] A Debunker is an individual who strongly believes that certain claims are false, exaggerated, unscientific or pretentious and therefore discredits and exposes them. ... Falsification may mean: The act of disproving a proposition, hypothesis, or theory. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Diana, Princess of Wales (Diana Frances Mountbatten-Windsor, née Spencer) (1 July 1961–31 August 1997), commonly, but incorrectly, known as Princess Diana, was for fifteen years the wife of HRH The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales. ...


Scientific method

Application of the scientific method to this scenario would allow each explanation of an event as a separate hypothesis, like this: Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Real landing hypothesis: NASA's portrayal of the Moon landing is fundamentally accurate, allowing for such common errors as mislabeled photos and imperfect personal recollections.
Hoax hypothesis: NASA's portrayal of the Moon landing is an orchestrated hoax.

In this type of evaluation, any hypothesis that is contradicted by the observable facts may be rejected.[24] The lack of narrative consistency in the hoax hypothesis occurs because hoax accounts vary from proponent to proponent. The 'real landing' hypothesis is a single story, since it comes from a single source, but there are many hoax hypotheses, each of which addresses a specific aspect of the Moon landing. The evidence regarding the Moon landings is met by hoax believers with skepticism, who label the NASA story as unconvincing propaganda made by the establishment to cover up the alleged lie.[citation needed] For other uses, see Establishment. ...


An example of such an exchange is the evidence for the landing of the Apollo 11, Apollo 14, and Apollo 15 retroreflectors on the Moon. Scientists have reflected lasers off these to measure the distance between Earth and the Moon (see Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment).[25] Hoax proponents such as Marcus Allen say that because the Russians placed mirrors on the Moon using robotic missions,[26] the presence of similar mirrors should be explained by, for example, a secret American robotic mission with an express aim to place retroreflectors on the Moon to provide misleading evidence and corroborate that part of the Apollo missions.[23][27] This article covers the Apollo 11 mission itself. ... Apollo 14 was the eighth manned mission in the Apollo program and the third mission to land on the Moon. ... Apollo 15 was the ninth manned mission in the Apollo program and the fourth mission to land on the Moon. ... Retroreflectors are clearly visible in a pair of bicycle shoes. ... The Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment from the Apollo 11 mission The ongoing Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment measures the distance between the Earth and the Moon using laser ranging. ... Marcus Allen is the British distributer and publisher of Nexus magazine, and a well known proponent of, as he puts it, news and information that is overlooked, unreported or ignored by the mainstream media. He worked as a photographer in the 1960s, and is a proponent of the idea that...


Hoax claims examined

As mentioned above, many hoax claims focus on perceived problems with specific portions of the historical record surrounding the moon landings. Below is an overview of these claims as well as their associated debunking from various sources:


Missing data

Photo of the high-quality SSTV image before the scan conversion.
Photo of the degraded image after the SSTV scan conversion.
Photo of the degraded image after the SSTV scan conversion.

1. Blueprints and design and development drawings of the machines involved, telemetry tapes, and the original high quality video of the Apollo 11 Moonwalk are missing.[28] For more information see Apollo program missing tapes. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Blueprint (disambiguation). ... Telemetry is a technology that allows the remote measurement and reporting of information of interest to the system designer or operator. ... The Apollo missing tapes are the missing original recordings of the transmissions (Slow-scan television and telemetry data) broadcast during the Apollo 11 moonwalk[1]. // The video of the Apollo 11 moonwalk was transmitted in Slow-Scan TV (SSTV) format (see Apollo TV camera). ...

a) Dr. David Williams (NASA archivist at Goddard Space Flight Center) and Apollo 11 flight director Gene Kranz both acknowledged that the Apollo 11 telemetry data tapes are missing. Hoax proponents interpret this as support for the case that they never existed.[29]
  • Only the Apollo 11 telemetry tapes made during the moonwalk are missing—and not those of Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17.[30] For technical reasons, the Apollo 11 Lunar Module carried a Slow-scan television (SSTV) camera (see Apollo TV camera). In order to be broadcast to regular television, a scan conversion has to be done. The radio telescope at Parkes Observatory in Australia was in position to receive the telemetry from the Moon at the time of the Apollo 11 Moonwalk.[31] Parkes had a larger antenna than NASA's antenna in Australia at the Honeysuckle Creek Tracking Station, so it got a better picture. It also got a better picture than NASA's antenna at Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex. This direct TV signal, along with telemetry data, was recorded onto one-inch fourteen-track analog tape there. A crude, real-time scan conversion of the SSTV signal was done in Australia before it was broadcast around the world. The original SSTV broadcast had better detail and contrast than the scan-converted pictures.[32] It is this tape made in Australia before the scan conversion which is missing. Tapes or films of the scan-converted pictures exist and are available. Still photographs of the original SSTV image are available (see photos). Also, about fifteen minutes of the SSTV images of the Apollo 11 moonwalk were filmed by an amateur 8 mm film camera, and these are also available. Later Apollo missions did not use SSTV, and their video is also available. At least some of the telemetry tapes from the ALSEP scientific experiments left on the Moon (which ran until 1977) still exist, according to Dr. Williams. Copies of those tapes have been found.[33]
  • Others are looking for the missing telemetry tapes, but for different reasons. The tapes contain the original and highest quality video feed from the Apollo 11 lunar landing which a number of former Apollo personnel want to recover for posterity, while NASA engineers looking towards future Moon missions believe the Apollo telemetry data may be useful for their design studies. Their investigations have determined that the Apollo 11 tapes were sent for storage at the US National Archives in 1970, but by 1984 all the Apollo 11 tapes had been returned to the Goddard Space Flight Center at their request. The tapes are believed to have been stored rather than re-used, and efforts to determine where they were stored are ongoing.[34] Goddard was storing 35,000 new tapes per year in 1967,[35] even before the lunar landings.
  • On November 1, 2006 Cosmos Magazine reported that some one-hundred data tapes recorded in Australia during the Apollo 11 mission had been discovered in a small marine science laboratory in the main physics building at the Curtin University of Technology in Perth, Australia. One of the old tapes has been sent to NASA for analysis. It is not known if the slow-scan television images are on any of the tapes.[36]
b) Hoax proponents say that blueprints for the Apollo Lunar Module, rover, and associated equipment are missing.[37]
  • Four mission-worthy Lunar Rovers were built, but three were carried to the Moon on Apollo 15, 16, and 17, and left there. After Apollo 18 was canceled (see Canceled Apollo missions), the other lunar rover was used for spare parts for the lunar rovers on the upcoming Apollo 15 through 17 missions. The only lunar rovers on display are test vehicles, trainers, and models.[43] The "Moon buggies" were built by Boeing (the New Encyclopædia Britannica Micropedia, 2005, vol 2, p 319).[44] The 221-page operation manual for the Lunar Rover contains some detailed drawings,[45] although not the design blueprints.
c) Bart Sibrel said "In my research at NASA I uncovered, deep in the archives, one mislabeled reel from the Apollo 11, first mission, to the Moon. What is on the reel and on the label are completely different. I suspect an editor put the wrong label on the tape 33 years ago and no reporter ever had the motive to be as thorough as I. It contains an hour of rare, unedited, color television footage that is dated by NASA’s own atomic clock three days into the flight. Identified on camera are Neil Armstrong, Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin, and Michael Collins. They are doing multiple takes of a single shot of the mission, from which only about ten seconds was ever broadcast. Because I have uncovered the original unedited version, mistakenly not destroyed, the photography proves to be a clever forgery. Really! It means they did not walk on the Moon!"

The evidence offered in the reel of footage 'found' by Bart Sibrel is limited and it is important to note that the extracts used have themselves been edited to remove portions that contradict and debunk his theory that the shots of a distant Earth seen by people on T.V. were faked. This portion of the film is never shown by hoax proponents. The NASA atomic clock referred to is not the same clock as that used during the Apollo missions. [46] Aerial view of Goddard Space Flight Center. ... Gene Kranz in a more recent photo. ... SSTV transmissions often include station call signs, RST reception reports, and radio amateur jargon. ... Apollo Lunar Television Camera TV cameras used on the Apollo (and later ASTP and Skylab) missions varied in design, with image quality improving significantly with each design. ... The 64 meter radio telescope at Parkes Observatory A radio telescope is a form of directional radio antenna used in radio astronomy and in tracking and collecting data from satellites and space probes. ... The big dish The Parkes Observatory is a radio telescope observatory, 20 kilometres north of the town of Parkes, New South Wales, Australia. ... Canberra Deep Dish Communications Complex Honeysuckle Creek was a NASA spacecraft-tracking station near Canberra, Australia at 35°35′02″ S 148°58′37″ E from 1967 to 1981. ... The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) —commonly called the Goldstone Observatory— is located in Californias Mojave Desert (USA). ... Scan conversion or scan rate converting is a technique for changing the vertical / horizontal scan frequency of video signal for different purposes and applications. ... This article is about the 8 mm film format. ... The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package, or ALSEP, was a set of connected scientific instruments left on the Moon when the Apollo program ended. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Curtin University of Technology - Building 408, with adjacent 3. ... For other cities named Perth, see Perth. ... For the Soviet robotic rovers, see Lunokhod programme. ... For the Soviet robotic rovers, see Lunokhod programme. ... The Grumman logo The Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation, later Grumman Aerospace Corporation, was a leading producer of military and civilian aircraft of the 20th century. ... The LEM flight instrumentation panel and front windows. ... An aviation museum located in Long Island, NY. Contains full scale models of airplances from various time periods. ... Apollo 18 was a cancelled flight within the Apollo Program, which would have been the eighth attempted lunar landing. ... National Air and Space Museum exterior The National Air and Space Museum (NASM) of the Smithsonian Institution is a museum in Washington, D.C., United States, and is the most popular of the Smithsonian museums. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... A view from the lagoon behind the Museum of Science and Industry, the only in-place surviving building from the 1893 World Columbian Exposition and a National Historic Landmark. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City 234. ... For the Soviet robotic rovers, see Lunokhod programme. ... Due to budget constraints there were many canceled Apollo missions during Project Apollo. ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661) is a major aerospace and defense corporation, originally founded by William Edward Boeing. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Bartholomew Winfield Sibrel is a Nashville, Tennessee-based amateur filmmaker who claims that the six Apollo moon landings between 1969 and 1972 were hoaxes. ...


Technological capability of USA compared with the USSR

At the time of Apollo, the Soviet Union had five times more manned hours in space than the US.[47] They had achieved:

  1. First manmade satellite in orbit (October 1957, Sputnik 1).
  2. First living creature to enter orbit (November 1957, Sputnik 2).
  3. First to safely return living creature from orbit, two dogs Belka and Strelka, 40 mice, 2 rats (August 1960, Sputnik 5).
  4. First man in space (April 1961, Vostok 1).
  5. First man to orbit the Earth (April 1961, Vostok 1).
  6. First to have two spacecraft in orbit at the same time (though it was not a space rendezvous, as frequently described) (August 1962, Vostok 3 and Vostok 4).
  7. First woman in space (June 1963, Vostok 6, as part of a second dual-spacecraft flight including Vostok 5).
  8. First crew of three cosmonauts on board one spacecraft (October 1964, Voskhod 1).
  9. First spacewalk (EVA) (March 1965, Voskhod 2).

On January 27, 1967, the three astronauts aboard Apollo 1 died in a fire on the launch pad during training. The fire was triggered by a spark in the oxygen-rich atmosphere used in the spacecraft test, and fueled by a significant quantity of combustible material within the spacecraft. Two years later all of the problems were declared fixed. Bart Sibrel believes that the accident led NASA to conclude that the only way to 'win' the moon race was to fake the landings.[48] In any case, the first manned Apollo flight, Apollo 7, occurred in October, 1968, 21 months after the fire. Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite-1, or literally Co-traveler-1 byname ПС-1 (PS-1, i. ... Sputnik 2 (Russian: , Satellite 2) was the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit, on November 3, 1957, and the first to carry a living animal - a dog named Laika. ... Belka and Strelka orbited the Earth and returned safely on Korabl-Sputnik-2 During the 1950s and 1960s the USSR used a number of dogs for sub-orbital and orbital space flights to determine whether human spaceflight was feasible. ... Sputnik 5 was a USSR artificial Earth satellite from the Sputnik space program, launched on August 19, 1960. ... “Gagarin” redirects here. ... Vostok 1 (Russian: , meaning Orient-1 or East-1) was the first human spaceflight. ... A space rendezvous between two spacecraft, often between a spacecraft and a space station, is an orbital maneuver where the two arrive at the same orbit, make the orbital velocities the same, and bring them together (an approach maneuver, taxiing maneuver); it may or may not include docking. ... Vostok 3 was a mission in the Soviet space program. ... Vostok 4 was a mission in the Soviet space program. ... 1963 USSR postage stamp depicting Valentina Tereshkova Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova (Russian: ; born March 6, 1937), is a retired Soviet cosmonaut and was the first woman to fly in space, aboard Vostok 6 on the 16th of June 1963. ... A joint flight with Vostok 5, Vostok 6 carried the first woman into space, cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova. ... Like Vostoks 3 and 4, Vostok 5 and 6 were joint missions in the Soviet space program, and like the previous pair, came close to one another in orbit and established a radio link. ... Voskhod 1 (Russian: ) was the first spaceflight to carry more than one person into space and the first flight without space suits. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... Voskhod 2 (Russian: Восход 2) was a Soviet manned space mission. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Apollo 1 is the official name given to the never-flown Apollo/Saturn 204 (AS-204) mission. ... Apollo 7 was the first manned mission in the Apollo program to be launched. ...

  • NASA and others say that these achievements by the Soviets are not as impressive as the simple list implies; that a number of these 'firsts' were mere stunts that did not advance the technology significantly, or at all (e.g. the first woman in space).[49]
  • A close examination of the many flight missions reveal many problems, risks, and near-catastrophes for both the Soviet and American programs. A negative 'first' for the Soviets was the first in-flight fatality, in April 1967, three months after the Apollo I fire, as Soyuz 1 crash-landed. Despite that disaster, the Soyuz program continued, after a lengthy interval to solve design problems, as with the Apollo program.
  • Before the first Earth-orbiting Apollo flight, the USSR had accumulated 534 hours of manned spaceflight whereas the US had accumulated over 1,992 hours of manned spaceflight. By the time of Apollo 11, the US's lead was much wider than that (see List of human spaceflights, 1960s.)
  • Most of the 'firsts' above were done by the US within a year afterwards (sometimes within weeks). In 1965 the US started to achieve many 'firsts' which were important steps in a mission to the Moon. See List of Space Exploration Milestones, 1957-1969 for a more complete list of achievements by both the US and USSR. The USSR never developed a successful rocket capable of a Moon landing mission — their N1 rocket failed on all four launch attempts. They never tested a lunar lander on a manned mission.[50]

Soyuz 1 (Russian Союз 1, Union 1) was part of the Soviet Unions space program and was launched into orbit on April 23, 1967, carrying a single cosmonaut, Colonel Vladimir Mikhailovich Komarov, who was killed when the spacecraft crashed after its return to Earth. ... This is a detailed listing of human spaceflights from 1961 to 1969, spanning the Soviet Vostok and Voskhod programs, the start of the Soviet Soyuz program, the American Mercury and Gemini programs, and the the first lunar landings of the American Apollo program. ... See also Space Race Space firsts Space exploration Categories: | | ... Two N1 Moon rockets appear on the pads at Baikonur Cosmodrome in early July 1969. ...

Photographs and films

Photo of the Earth taken from behind the Apollo 11 Lunar Module.

Moon hoax proponents devote a substantial portion of their efforts to examining NASA photos. They point to various issues with photographs and films purportedly taken on the Moon. Experts in photography (even those unrelated to NASA) respond that the anomalies, while sometimes counterintuitive, are in fact precisely what one would expect from a real Moon landing, and contrary to what would occur with manipulated or studio imagery. Hoax proponents also state that whistleblowers may have deliberately manipulated the NASA photos in hope of exposing NASA. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 593 × 599 pixels Full resolution (2349 × 2373 pixel, file size: 497 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo of Earth taken from behind the Apollo 11 Lunar Module. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 593 × 599 pixels Full resolution (2349 × 2373 pixel, file size: 497 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo of Earth taken from behind the Apollo 11 Lunar Module. ... Those who believe that the Apollo Moon Landing was a hoax often engage in examination of Apollo moon photos. ...

The original Buzz Aldrin photograph.

1. Crosshairs appear to be behind objects. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2349x2373, 1146 KB) Summary Edwin Aldrin as photographed by Neil Armstrong on the surface of the Moon during the Apollo 11 lunar EVA. Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2349x2373, 1146 KB) Summary Edwin Aldrin as photographed by Neil Armstrong on the surface of the Moon during the Apollo 11 lunar EVA. Source: http://www. ...

  • Overexposure causes white objects to bleed into the black areas on the film.

2. Crosshairs are sometimes misplaced or rotated.

  • Popular versions of photos are sometimes cropped or rotated for aesthetic impact.
The photo mockup made for the book Moon Shot. The second astronaut is located in the 'fold' in the middle of the scanned photo.
The photo mockup made for the book Moon Shot. The second astronaut is located in the 'fold' in the middle of the scanned photo.
TV image of the actual scene.
TV image of the actual scene.

3. The quality of the photographs is implausibly high. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2584x2212, 168 KB) Summary Scanned by myself. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2584x2212, 168 KB) Summary Scanned by myself. ... Image File history File links Apollo_14_golf. ... Image File history File links Apollo_14_golf. ...

  • There are many, many poor quality photographs taken by the Apollo astronauts. NASA chose to publish only the best examples.[51][52]

4. There are no stars in any of the photos. The Apollo 11 astronauts also claimed to have not remembered seeing any of the stars in a press conference after the event. This article is about the astronomical object. ...

  • The sun was shining. Cameras were set for daylight exposure.[12], pp. 158–160.

5. The color and angle of shadows and light are inconsistent.

  • Shadows on the Moon are complicated by uneven ground, wide angle lens distortion, light reflected from the Earth, and lunar dust.[12], pp. 167–172. Shadows also display the properties of vanishing point perspective leading them to converge to a point on the horizon.

6. Identical backgrounds in photos are listed as taken miles apart.

  • Shots were not identical, just similar. Background objects were mountains many miles away. Without an atmosphere to obscure distant objects, it can be difficult to tell the relative distance and scale of terrain features.[53] One specific case is debunked in Who Mourns For Apollo? by Mike Bara.[54]

7. The number of photographs taken is implausibly high. Up to one photo per 50 seconds.[55]

  • Simplified gear with fixed settings permitted two photographs a second. Many were taken immediately after each other. Calculations are based on a single astronaut on the surface, and does not take into account that there were two persons sharing the workload during the EVA.

8. The photos contain artifacts like the two seemingly matching 'C's on a rock and on the ground.

  • The "C"-shaped objects are most likely printing imperfections not in the original film from the camera.

9. A resident of Perth, Australia, with the pseudonym "Una Ronald", said she saw a soft drink bottle in the frame. Location of Perth within Australia This article is about the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. ... A soft drink is a drink that contains no alcohol. ...

  • No such newspaper reports or recordings have been verified. "Una Ronald"'s existence is authenticated by only one source. There are also flaws in the story, i.e. the emphatic statement that she had to "stay up late" is easily discounted by numerous witnesses in Australia who observed the event to occur in the middle of their daytime, since this event was an unusual compulsory viewing for school children in Australia.[56]

10. The book Moon Shot contains an obvious composite photograph of Alan Shepard hitting a golf ball on the Moon with another astronaut. Moon Shot: The Inside Story of Americas Race to the Moon is a book written by Alan Shepard and Donald K. Deke Slayton, two of the original Mercury Seven astronauts. ... For other persons named Alan Shepard, see Alan Shepard (disambiguation). ...

  • It was used in lieu of the only existing real images, from the TV monitor, which the editors of the book apparently felt were too grainy to present in a book's picture section. The book publishers did not work for NASA.

11. There appear to be "hot spots" in some photographs that look like a huge spotlight was used at a close distance.

  • Pits in moon dust focus and reflect light in a manner similar to minuscule glass spheres used in the coating of street signs, or dew-drops on wet grass. (see Heiligenschein)[57]

12. Footprints in the extraordinarily fine lunar dust, with no moisture or atmosphere or strong gravity, are unexpectedly well preserved, in the minds of some observers – as if made in wet sand. Heiligenschein (holy light) is the name for an optical effect which creates a bright spot around the shadow of a persons head when this person is looking at it. ...

  • The dust is silicate, and this has a special property in a vacuum of sticking together like that. The astronauts described it as being like "talcum powder or wet sand".[54]

Ionizing radiation and heat

Challenges and Responses Radiation hazard symbol. ...


1. The astronauts could not have survived the trip because of exposure to radiation from the Van Allen radiation belt and galactic ambient radiation (see Radiation poisoning). Some hoax theorists have suggested that Starfish Prime (high altitude nuclear testing in 1962) was a failed attempt to disrupt the Van Allen belts. Van Allen radiation belts The Van Allen Radiation Belt is a torus of energetic charged particles (plasma) around Earth, held in place by Earths magnetic field. ... Radiation poisoning, also called radiation sickness, is a form of damage to organ tissue due to excessive exposure to ionizing radiation. ... The debris fireball stretching along Earths magnetic field [1] with air-glow aurora as seen at 3 minutes from a KC-135 surveillance aircraft The flash created by the explosion as seen through heavy cloud cover from Honolulu 1,300 km away Another view of Starfish Prime through thin...

  • The Moon is ten times higher than the Van Allen radiation belts. The spacecraft moved through the belts in just 30 minutes, and the astronauts were protected from the ionizing radiation by the metal hulls of the spacecraft. In addition, the orbital transfer trajectory from the Earth to the Moon through the belts was selected to minimize radiation exposure. Even Dr. James Van Allen, the discoverer of the Van Allen radiation belts, rebutted the claims that radiation levels were too dangerous for the Apollo missions. Dosimeters carried by the crews showed they received about the same cumulative dosage as a chest X-ray or about 1 milligray.[58] Plait cited an average dose of less than 1 rem, which is equivalent to the ambient radiation received by living at sea level for three years.[12], pp. 160–162
  • The radiation is actually evidence that the astronauts went to the Moon. Irene Schneider reports that thirty-three of the thirty-six Apollo astronauts involved in the nine Apollo missions to leave Earth orbit have early stage cataracts that have been shown to be caused by radiation exposure to cosmic rays during their trip.[59] However, only twenty-four astronauts left earth orbit. At least thirty-nine former astronauts have developed cataracts. Thirty-six of those were involved in high-radiation missions such as the Apollo lunar missions. [60]

2. Film in the cameras would have been fogged by this radiation. James Van Allen at National Air & Space Museum (NASM), 1981, Photo courtesy of NASM. Explorer I model and Pioneer H probe in background James Alfred Van Allen (September 7, 1914 – August 9, 2006) was an American space scientist at the University of Iowa. ... A dosimeter is any device used to measure an individuals exposure to a hazardous environment, particularly when the hazard is cumulative over long intervals of time, or ones lifetime. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... The gray (symbol: Gy) is the SI unit of absorbed dose. ... The röntgen (roentgen) equivalent in man or rem (symbol rem) is a unit of radiation dose. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... Human eye cross-sectional view, showing position of human lens. ...

  • The film was kept in metal containers that prevented radiation from fogging the film's emulsion.[12], pp. 162–163 In addition, film carried by unmanned lunar probes such as the Lunar Orbiter and Luna 3 (which used on-board film development processes) was not fogged.

3. The Moon's surface during the daytime is so hot that camera film would have melted. Lunar orbiter spacecraft (NASA) The Lunar Orbiter program was a series of five unmanned Lunar orbiter missions launched by the United States in 1966 through 1967 with the purpose of mapping the lunar surface before the Apollo landings. ... Luna 3 (E-3 series) was the third spacecraft sent successfully to the moon and was an early triumph in the human exploration of outer space. ...

  • There is no atmosphere to efficiently couple lunar surface heat to devices such as cameras not in direct contact with it. In a vacuum, only radiation remains as a heat transfer mechanism. The physics of radiative heat transfer are thoroughly understood, and the proper use of passive optical coatings and paints was adequate to control the temperature of the film within the cameras; lunar module temperatures were controlled with similar coatings that gave it its gold color. Also, while the Moon's surface does get very hot at lunar noon, every Apollo landing was made shortly after lunar sunrise at the landing site. During the longer stays, the astronauts did notice increased cooling loads on their spacesuits as the sun continued to rise and the surface temperature increased, but the effect was easily countered by the passive and active cooling systems.[12], pp. 165–67 The film was not in direct sunlight, so it wasn't overheated. [61]
  • Note: all of the lunar landings occurred during the lunar daytime. The Moon's day is approximately 29½ days long, and as a consequence a single lunar day (dawn to dusk) lasts nearly fifteen days. As such there was no sunrise or sunset whilst the astronauts were on the surface. Most lunar missions occurred during the first few earth days of the lunar day.

4. The Apollo 16 crew should not have survived a big solar flare firing out when they were on their way to the Moon. "They should have been fried." In space exploration, a lunar day is the period of time it takes for the Moon to complete one full rotation on its axis. ... Apollo 16 was the tenth manned mission in the Apollo program and the fifth mission to land on the Moon. ...

  • No large solar flare occurred during the flight of Apollo 16. There were large solar flares in August 1972, after Apollo 16 returned to Earth and before the flight of Apollo 17.[62][63]

Apollo 17 was the eleventh manned space mission in the NASA Apollo program. ...

Transmissions

Challenges and responses


1. The lack of a more than two-second delay in two-way communications at a distance of a 250,000 miles (400,000 km).

  • The round trip light travel time of more than two seconds is apparent in all the real-time recordings of the lunar audio, but this does not always appear as expected. There may also be some documentary films where the delay has been edited out. Principal motivations for editing the audio would likely come in response to time constraints or in the interest of clarity.[64]
The relative sizes of, and distance between, Earth and Moon, to scale, with a beam of light travelling between them at the speed of light.

2. Typical delays in communication were on the order of half a second. Download high resolution version (1024x92, 4 KB)Self-made File links There are no pages that link to this file. ... Download high resolution version (1024x92, 4 KB)Self-made File links There are no pages that link to this file. ...

  • Claims that the delays were only on the order of half a second are unsubstantiated by an examination of the actual recordings. It should also be borne in mind that there should not be a straightforward, consistent time delay between every response, as the conversation is being recorded at one end - Mission Control. Responses from Mission Control could be heard without any delay, as the recording is being made at the same time that Houston receives the transmission from the moon.

3. The Parkes Observatory in Australia was billed to the world for weeks as the site that would be relaying communications from the Moon, then five hours before transmission they were told to stand down. The big dish The Parkes Observatory is a radio telescope observatory, 20 kilometres north of the town of Parkes, New South Wales, Australia. ...

  • The timing of the first Moonwalk was moved up after landing. In fact, delays in getting the Moonwalk started meant that Parkes did cover almost the entire Apollo 11 Moonwalk.[65]

4. Parkes supposedly provided the clearest video feed from the Moon, but Australian media and all other known sources ran a live feed from the United States.

  • While that was the original plan, and, according to some sources, the official policy, the Australian Broadcasting Commission (ABC) did take the transmission direct from the Parkes and Honeysuckle Creek radio telescopes. These were converted to NTSC television at Paddington, in Sydney. This meant that Australian viewers saw the Moonwalk several seconds before the rest of the world.[66] See also The Parkes Observatory's Support of the Apollo 11 Mission, from "Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia" (The events surrounding the Parkes Observatory's role in relaying the live television of man's first steps on the Moon were portrayed in a slightly fictionalized 2000 Australian film comedy The Dish.)

5. Better signal was supposedly received at Parkes Observatory when the Moon was on the opposite side of the planet. Honeysuckle Creek was a NASA spacecraft-tracking station near Canberra, Australia from 1967 to 1981. ... In contrast to an ordinary telescope, which produces visible light images, a radio telescope sees radio waves emitted by radio sources, typically by means of a large parabolic (dish) antenna, or arrays of them. ... NTSC is the analog television system in use in Canada, Japan, Mexico, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, the United States, and some other countries, mostly in the Americas (see map). ... Paddington is an inner-city, eastern suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... The Dish is a 2000 Australian film that tells the story of how the Parkes Observatory was used to relay the live television from ur mothers bedroom to her bathroom. ...

  • This is not supported by the detailed evidence and logs from the missions.[67]

Mechanical issues

Challenges and responses


1. No blast crater or any sign of dust scatter as was seen in the 16mm movies of each landing [3], p. 75.

  • No crater should be expected. The Descent Propulsion System was throttled very far down during the final stages of landing. The Lunar Module was no longer rapidly decelerating, so the descent engine only had to support the module's own weight, which by then was greatly diminished by the near exhaustion of the descent propellants, and the Moon's lower gravity. At the time of landing, the engine's thrust divided by the cross-sectional area of the engine bell is only about 10 kilopascals (1.5 PSI)[12], p. 164, and that is reduced by the fact that the engine was in a vacuum, causing the exhaust to spread out. (By contrast, the thrust of the first stage of the Saturn V was 3.2 MPa (459 PSI), over the area of the engine bell.) Rocket exhaust gases expand much more rapidly after leaving the engine nozzle in a vacuum than in an atmosphere. The effect of an atmosphere on rocket plumes can be easily seen in launches from Earth; as the rocket rises through the thinning atmosphere, the exhaust plumes broaden very noticeably. Rocket engines designed for vacuum operation have longer bells than those designed for use at the Earth's surface, but they still cannot prevent this spreading. The Lunar Module's exhaust gases therefore expanded rapidly well beyond the landing site. Even if they hadn't, a simple calculation will show that the pressure at the end of the descent engine bell was much too low to carve out a crater. However, the descent engines did scatter a considerable amount of very fine surface dust as seen in 16mm movies of each landing, and as Neil Armstrong said as the landing neared ("...kicking up some dust..."). This significantly impaired visibility in the final stages of landing, and many mission commanders commented on it. Photographs do show slightly disturbed dust beneath the descent engine. And finally, the landers were generally moving horizontally as well as vertically until right before landing, so the exhaust would not be focused on any one surface spot for very long, and the compactness of the lunar soil below a thin surface layer of dust also make it virtually impossible for the descent engine to blast out a "crater".[12], pp. 163–165

2. The launch rocket (Lunar Module ascent stage) produced no visible flame. The pascal (symbol Pa) is the SI unit of pressure. ... A pressure gauge reading in PSI (red scale) and kPa (black scale) The pound-force per square inch (symbol: lbf/in²) is a non-SI unit of pressure based on avoirdupois units. ... MPA is a TLA (three-letter acronym) that may mean: Macedonian Press Agency Marine Protected Area Maritime Patrol Aircraft Maryland and Pennsylvania Railroad (AAR reporting mark MPA) Master of Public Administration Master of Public Affairs Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics Metropolitan Police Authority Mid-atlantic Pagan Alliance Motion Picture Association... This article is about the former American astronaut. ...

  • Hydrazine (a fuel) and dinitrogen tetroxide (an oxidizer) were the Lunar Module propellants, chosen for their reliability; they ignite hypergolically –upon contact– without a spark. Hypergolic propellants happen to produce a nearly transparent exhaust. Hypergolic fuels are also used by several space launchers: the core of the American Titan, the Russian Proton, the European Ariane 1 through 4 and the Chinese Long March, and the transparency of their plumes is apparent in many launch photos. The plumes of rocket engines fired in a vacuum spread out very rapidly as they leave the engine nozzle (see above), further reducing their visibility. Finally, most rocket engines use a "rich" mixture to lengthen their lifetimes. While the excess fuel will burn when it contacts atmospheric oxygen, this cannot happen in a vacuum.

3. The rocks brought back from the Moon are identical to rocks collected by scientific expeditions to Antarctica. Hydrazine is the chemical compound with formula N2H4. ... Nitrogen tetroxide (or dinitrogen tetroxide) is the chemical compound N2O4. ... Hypergolic rocket fuels spontaneously ignite when their two components come into contact with each other. ... Transparent glass ball In optics, transparency is the property of allowing light to pass. ... Titan is a family of U.S. expendable rockets. ... The Proton (Прото́н) rocket (formal designation: UR-500, also known as D-1/ D-1e or SL-12/SL-13) is a Russian unmanned space vehicle design, first launched in 1965. ... Ariane is a feminine name. ... CZ-2F rocket A Long March rocket (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is any rocket in a family of expendable launch systems operated by the Peoples Republic of China. ...

  • Chemical analysis of the rocks confirms a different oxygen isotopic composition and a surprising lack of volatile elements. There are only a few 'identical' rocks, and those few fell as meteorites after being ejected from the Moon during impact cratering events. The total quantity of these 'lunar meteorites' is small compared to the more than 840 lb (380 kg) of lunar samples returned by Apollo. Also the Apollo lunar soil samples chemically matched the Russian Luna space probe’s lunar soil samples. In addition, unlike the Antarctic lunites, the rocks recovered from the moon do not exhibit the effects of atmospheric friction.

4. The presence of deep dust around the module; given the blast from the landing engine, this should not be present. The Luna programme (occasionally called Lunik) was a series of unmanned space missions sent to the Moon by the Soviet Union between 1959 and 1976. ...

  • The dust around the module is called regolith and is created by ejecta from asteroid and meteoroid impacts. This dust was several inches thick at the Apollo 11 landing site. The regolith was estimated to be several meters thick and is highly compacted with depth. In an atmosphere, we would expect a rocket engine to blast all the surface dust off the ground for tens of meters. However, dust was only removed from the area directly beneath the Apollo landing engine. The important observation here is "atmosphere". Powerful engines set up turbulence in air which lifts and carries dust readily, far beyond the engine itself. However, in a vacuum, there is no air to disturb. Only the actual engine exhaust's direct pressure on the dust can move it.[12], pp. 163–165

5. The flag placed on the surface by the astronauts flapped despite there being no wind on the Moon [68]. Sibrel said "The wind was probably caused by intense air-conditioning used to cool the astronauts in their lightened, un-circulated space suits. The cooling systems in the backpacks would have been removed to lighten the load not designed for Earth’s six times heavier gravity, otherwise they might have fallen over". Regolith (Greek: blanket rock) is a layer of loose, heterogeneous material covering solid rock. ... In volcanology, ejecta consists of particles that came out of a volcanic vent, traveled though the air or under water, and fell back on the ground surface or on the ocean floor. ...

  • The astronauts were moving the flag into position, causing motion. Since there is no air on the Moon to provide friction, these movements caused a long-lasting undulating movement seen in the flag. There was a rod extending from the top of the flagpole to hold the flag out for proper display (visible under the fabric in many photographs). The fabric's rippled appearance was due to its having been folded during flight and gave it an appearance which could be mistaken for motion in a still photograph. The top supporting rod of the flag was telescopic and the crew of Apollo 11 found they could not fully extend it. Later crews did not fully extend this rod because they liked how it made the flag appear. A viewing of the videotape made during the Moonwalk shows that shortly after the astronauts remove their hands from the flag/flagpole, it stops moving and remains motionless. At one point the flag is in view for well over thirty minutes and it remains completely motionless throughout that period (and all similar periods). (See inertia.) See the photographs below.
Cropped photo of Buzz Aldrin saluting the flag (Note the fingers of Aldrin's right hand can be seen behind his helmet).
Cropped photo of Buzz Aldrin saluting the flag (Note the fingers of Aldrin's right hand can be seen behind his helmet).
Cropped photo taken a few seconds later, Buzz Aldrin's hand is down, head turned toward the camera, the flag is unchanged.
Cropped photo taken a few seconds later, Buzz Aldrin's hand is down, head turned toward the camera, the flag is unchanged.
Animation of the two photos, showing that the flag is not waving.
The flag is not waving, but is swinging as a pendulum after being touched by the astronauts here.

6. The Lander weighed 17 tons and sat on top of the sand making no impression but directly next to it footprints can be seen in the sand. This article is about inertia as it applies to local motion. ... Image File history File links AldrinFlag1a. ... Image File history File links AldrinFlag1a. ... Image File history File links AldrinFlag2a. ... Image File history File links AldrinFlag2a. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Pendulum (disambiguation). ...

  • The lander weighed less than three tons on the Moon. The astronauts were much lighter than the lander, but the area of their boots was also much smaller than that of the lander's pads. Pressure, or force per unit area, rather than force, determines the depth of compression of the soil. An example would be driving a car (heavy) on sand, then getting a person (light) to walk on the same surface. You will often find the depth of tracks to be about the same.

7. The air conditioning units that were part of the astronauts' spacesuits could not have worked in an environment of no atmosphere. There is no way to dissipate heat without being able to transmit energy through an atmosphere.[citation needed]

  • (This is simply wrong. While heat convection, as proposed here, would require an atmosphere, thermal radiation would not. The latter process is how heat from the sun can reach the Earth through the vacuum of space. However, in this case, thermal radiation was not relied upon.) In the case of Apollo, the space suits had no air conditioning units; instead, one of the many layers was the LCG (Liquid Cooling Garment), essentially a pair of long-johns embedded with a network of thin plastic tubes. The excess heat was picked up by water circulating through the tubes. The water was pumped into the backpack, where it was cooled by means of a heat exchanger, then pumped back into the circuit (closed-loop system). The water-based heat exchanger comprised an open-circuit system, its warmed feedwater being expelled in the vacuum through a sublimator unit in the backpack. There was a 12-pound feedwater reserve, which provided some eight hours worth of cooling. Thus, excess heat was removed from the spacesuits by transferring that heat to water, and then removing that heated water. Radiative cooling, although allowing for a much simpler system, is a process too slow to be of any practical use in a spacesuit. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators, for example, use radiative cooling because the volume constraints (required for the large heat-radiating fins) are not as tight as those for a spacesuit.

8. Although Apollo 11 had made an almost embarrassingly imprecise landing well outside the designated target area, Apollo 12 succeeded, on November 19, 1969, in making a pin-point landing, within walking distance (less than 200 meters) of the Surveyor 3 probe, which had landed on the Moon in April 1967. Hoax proponents consider the incredible short distance to the Surveyor probe to be a concession due to the limitations of a concealed set on Earth.[citation needed] Convection in the most general terms refers to the movement of currents within fluids (i. ... Radiant heat redirects here. ... A heat exchanger is a device built for efficient heat transfer from one fluid to another, whether the fluids are separated by a solid wall so that they never mix, or the fluids are directly contacted. ... Radiative cooling is the condition in which a body loses more energy by radiation than it gains from its surroundings. ... // A radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) is a simple electrical generator which obtains its power from radioactive decay. ... This article covers the Apollo 11 mission itself. ... Apollo 12 was the sixth manned mission in the Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon. ... Surveyor 3 was the third lunar lander of the Surveyor program that explored the Moon. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ...

  • The Apollo 11 landing was not 'embarrassingly imprecise'. Armstrong took manual control of the lander and directed it further down range when it was noted that the intended landing site was strewn with boulders. (This same boulder field was later visited by the astronauts for scientific examination.) Apollo 14 landed even closer to the planned landing site.
  • The Apollo astronauts were highly skilled pilots, and the LEM was a manoevreable craft that could be accurately flown to a specific landing point. During the powered descent phase the astronauts used the PNGS (Primary Navigation Guidance System) and LPD (Landing Point Designator) to predict where the LEM was going to land, and then they would manually pilot the LEM to a selected point with great accuracy.

Moon rocks

The Apollo Program collected a total of 382 kilograms of Moon rocks during the Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 missions. Analyses by scientists worldwide all agree that these rocks came from the Moon—no published accounts in peer-reviewed scientific journals are known that dispute this claim. The Apollo samples are easily distinguishable from both meteorites and terrestrial rocks[69] in that they show a complete lack of hydrous alteration products, they show evidence for having been subjected to impact events on an airless body, and they have unique geochemical characteristics. Furthermore, most are significantly older than the oldest rocks found on Earth (by up to 700,000,000 years). Most importantly, though, they share the same characteristics as the Soviet lunar samples that were obtained at a later date.[70]. Genesis Rock returned by the Apollo 15 mission. ... This article covers the Apollo 11 mission itself. ... Apollo 12 was the sixth manned mission in the Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon. ... Apollo 14 was the eighth manned mission in the Apollo program and the third mission to land on the Moon. ... Apollo 15 was the ninth manned mission in the Apollo program and the fourth mission to land on the Moon. ... Apollo 16 was the tenth manned mission in the Apollo program and the fifth mission to land on the Moon. ... Apollo 17 was the eleventh manned space mission in the NASA Apollo program. ...


Hoax proponents argue that Wernher von Braun's trip to Antarctica in 1967 (two years prior to the Apollo missions) was in order to study and/or collect lunar meteorites to be used as fake Moon rocks. Because von Braun was a former SS officer,[71] hoax proponents have suggested[29] that he could have been susceptible to pressure to agree to the conspiracy in order to protect himself from recriminations over the past. Whilst NASA does not provide much information about why the MSFC Director and three others were in Antarctica at that time, it has said that the purpose was "to look into environmental and logistic factors that might relate to the planning of future space missions, and hardware".[72] An article on Sankar Chatterjee at Texas Tech University states that von Braun sent a letter to F. Alton Wade, Chatterjee's predecessor, and that "Von Braun was searching for a secretive locale to help train the United States’ earliest astronauts. Wade pointed von Braun to Antarctica." Even today, NASA continues to send teams to work in parts of Antarctica that are very dry and mimic the conditions on other planets such as Mars and the Moon. For other uses of von Braun, see von Braun (disambiguation). ... Lunar Meteorite Allan Hills 81005 A Lunar meteorite is a meteorite that is known to have originated on the Moon. ... Lunar Ferroan Anorthosite #60025 (Plagioclase Feldspar). ... SS redirects here. ... Map of the McMurdo Sound and the Dry Valleys The McMurdo Dry Valleys are a row of valleys in Antarctica located within Victoria Land west of McMurdo Sound. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ...


It is now accepted by the scientific community that rocks have been ejected from both the Martian and lunar surface during impact events, and that some of these have landed on the Earth in the form of Martian and lunar meteorites.[73][74] However, the first antarctic lunar meteorite was collected in 1979, and its lunar origin was not recognized until 1982.[75] If scientists did not already possess lunar samples to compare with, it would be difficult to conclusively prove that these meteorites were in fact derived from the Moon[citation needed]. Furthermore, lunar meteorites are so rare that it is very improbable that they could account for the 382 kilograms of Moon rocks that NASA obtained between 1969 and 1972. Currently, there are only about 30 kilograms of lunar meteorites in existence, even though private collectors and governmental agencies worldwide have been searching for these for more than 20 years.[75] Tycho crater on Earths moon. ... A Martian meteorite is a meteorite that has landed on Earth but is believed to have originated from Mars. ... Lunar Meteorite Allan Hills 81005 A Lunar meteorite is a meteorite that is known to have originated on the Moon. ...


Even if the Apollo Moon rocks were collected from the lunar surface, some hoax proponents argue[citation needed] that they were collected robotically. However, the large combined mass of the Apollo samples makes this scenario implausible. While the Apollo missions obtained 382 kilograms of Moon rocks, the soviet Luna 16, 20, and 24 robotic sample return missions only obtained 326 grams combined (that is, more than 1000 times less). Indeed, current plans for a Martian sample return would only obtain about 500 grams of soil,[76] and a recently proposed South Pole-Aitken basin sample return mission would only obtain about 1 kilogram of Moon rock.[77] If a similar technology to collect the Apollo Moon rocks was used as with the Soviet missions or modern sample return proposals, then between 300 and 2000 robotic sample return missions would be required to obtain the current mass of Moon rocks that is curated by NASA. Luna 16 (Ye-8-5 series) was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 16. ... Luna 20 (Ye-8-5 series) was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 20. ... Luna 24 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 24. ... The South Pole-Aitken basin is an impact crater on Earths Moon. ...


Concerning the composition of the Moon rocks, Kaysing asked:

Why was there no mention of gold, silver, diamonds, or other precious metals on the Moon? It was never discussed by the press or astronauts.[3], p. 8

Geologists realize that gold and silver deposits on Earth are the result of the action of hydrothermal fluids concentrating the precious metals into veins of ore. Since even in 1969 water was known to be absent on the Moon, no geologist would bother discussing the possibility of finding these on the Moon in any significant quantity.


Deaths of key Apollo personnel

In a television program about the hoax allegations, Fox Entertainment Group listed the deaths of ten astronauts and of two civilians related to the manned spaceflight program as having possibly been killed as part of a cover-up. Fox Entertainment Group is an American entertainment industry company that owns film studios and terrestrial, cable, and direct broadcast satellite television properties. ...

  • Ted Freeman (T-38 crash, 1964)
  • Elliott See and Charlie Bassett (T-38 accident, 1966)
  • Virgil Ivan "Gus" Grissom (Apollo 1 fire, January 1967). His son, Scott Grissom said the accident was a murder.[78] Bill Kaysing also makes this claim[3], p. 41.
  • Ed White (Apollo 1 fire, January 1967)
  • Roger Chaffee (Apollo 1 fire, January 1967)
  • Ed Givens (car accident, 1967)
  • C. C. Williams (T-38 accident, October 1967)
  • X-15 pilot Mike Adams (the only X-15 pilot killed during the X-15 flight test program in November 1967 - not a NASA astronaut, but had flown X-15 above 50 miles).
  • Robert Lawrence, scheduled to be an Air Force Manned Orbiting Laboratory pilot who died in a jet crash in December 1967, shortly after reporting for duty to that (later canceled) program.
  • NASA worker Thomas Baron (automobile collision with train, 1967 shortly after making accusations before Congress about the cause of the Apollo 1 fire, after which he was fired.) Ruled as suicide. Baron was a quality control inspector who wrote a report critical of the Apollo program and was an outspoken critic after the Apollo 1 fire. Baron and his family were killed as their car was struck by a train at a train crossing.[78][79]
  • Lee Gelvani said he almost convinced James Irwin, an Apollo 15 astronaut whom Gelvani referred to as an "informant", to confess about a cover-up having occurred. Irwin was supposedly going to contact Gelvani about it; however he died of a heart attack in 1991, before any such telephone call occurred.

All but one of the astronaut deaths (Irwin's) were directly related to their job with NASA or the Air Force. Two of the astronauts, Mike Adams and Robert Lawrence, had no connection with the civilian manned space program. Astronaut James Irwin had suffered several heart attacks in the years prior to his death. There is no independent confirmation of Gelvani's claim that Irwin was about to come forward. All but one of the deaths occurred at least one or two years before Apollo 11 and the subsequent flights. REDIRECT Theodore Freeman Is cool ... The Northrop T-38 Talon is a widely used US-built supersonic jet trainer. ... Elliott See Elliott McKay See, Jr. ... Astronaut Charles Bassett NAME: Charles A. Bassett , II (Captain, USAF) NASA Astronaut (Deceased) // Personal data Bassett was born in Dayton, Ohio, on December 30, 1931, and died February 28, 1966, in St. ... Virgil Ivan Gus Grissom (April 3, 1926 – January 27, 1967) was a United States Air Force pilot who became the second American astronaut and one of the first to die in the U.S. space program. ... Apollo 1 is the official name given to the never-flown Apollo/Saturn 204 (AS-204) mission. ... William Charles Kaysing (July 31, 1922 – April 21, 2005) was a writer who is best known for claiming that the six Apollo moon landings that took place between July 1969 and December 1972 were hoaxes. ... Edward Higgins White, II (Lt. ... Roger Chaffee Roger Bruce Chaffee (February 15, 1935 - January 27, 1967) was a U.S. Navy pilot who became an American astronaut in the Apollo program. ... Edward Givens Edward Galen (Ed) Givens Jr (January 5, 1930 - June 6, 1967) was a NASA astronaut selected in the 1966 Original 19 group. ... Clifton C.C. Williams (September 26, 1932 - October 5, 1967) was a NASA astronaut and USMC Major who was killed after a mechanical failure caused the flight controls in a T-38 he was piloting to stop responding. ... Description Role: Research Aircraft Crew: one, pilot Dimensions Length: 50. ... Michael J. Adams with X-15 #1 (NASA) Michael J. Adams (born in Sacramento, California on 5 May 1930, died 15 November 1967) was an American aviator and NASA astronaut. ... Major Robert H. Lawrence, Jr. ... Manned Orbiting Laboratory early 1960 conceptual drawing that did not use the Gemini spacecraft. ... James Benson Irwin (March 17, 1930 – August 8, 1991) was a member of the Apollo 15 mission in 1971 and the eighth man to walk on the Moon. ... Heart attack redirects here. ...


Contemporary with the deaths of the Apollo-related astronauts, other astronauts and cosmonauts died without having had a connection to Apollo:[80]

Grigori Nelyubov, one of the original 20 cosmonauts Grigori Grigoyevich Nelyubov (March 31, 1934 – February 18, 1966) was a Russian cosmonaut who was likely to have been the third or fourth person in space before his dismissal from the Soviet space program. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph Albert Joe Walker (20 February 1921 - 8 June 1966) was an American test pilot and a USAF astronaut. ... The Lockheed F-104 Starfighter was the last of the day fighters, a high-performance supersonic interceptor aircraft capable of high speeds and climb rates. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons of the same name, see Komarov. ... Soyuz 1 (Russian Союз 1, Union 1) was part of the Soviet Unions space program and was launched into orbit on April 23, 1967, carrying a single cosmonaut, Colonel Vladimir Mikhailovich Komarov, who was killed when the spacecraft crashed after its return to Earth. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Russell Lee Rogers was an astronaut assigned to the X-20 Dyna-Soar program. ... The Republic F-105 Thunderchief was a single-seat, supersonic fighter-bomber used by the United States Air Force. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Artists conception of the X-20 during re-entry The X-20 Dyna-Soar was a USAF program to develop an orbital spaceplane that could be used for a variety of military missions including reconnaissance, bombing, space rescue, satellite maintenance, and sabotage of enemy satellites. ... Michael J. Adams with X-15 #1 (NASA) Michael J. Adams (born in Sacramento, California on 5 May 1930, died 15 November 1967) was an American aviator and NASA astronaut. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Major Robert H. Lawrence, Jr. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Manned Orbiting Laboratory early 1960 conceptual drawing that did not use the Gemini spacecraft. ... “Gagarin” redirects here. ... The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 (NATO reporting name Fagot) was a jet fighter developed for the USSR. History Design began under the bureau designation I-310, which first flew in 1947. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pavel Belyayev Pavel Ivanovich Belyayev (Russian: Павел Иванович Беляев), June 26, 1925, Chelizshevo – January 10, 1970, Moscow, was a cosmonaut who flew on the historic Voskhod 2 mission. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Georgi Dobrovolski Georgi Timofeyevich Dobrovolski (Russian: Георгий Тимофеевич Добровольский; June 1, 1928 – June 30, 1971) was a Soviet cosmonaut. ... Soyuz 11 was the first successful visit to the worlds first space station, Salyut 1, but ended in disaster when an air leak killed the three-man crew during preparations for re-entry. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Vladislav Nikolayevich Volkov (Russian: Владислав Николаевич Волков; b. ... Viktor Patsayev Viktor Ivanovich Patsayev (Russian: Виктор Иванович Пацаев; June 19, 1933, Aktuybinsk – June 30, 1971) was a Soviet cosmonaut who flew on the Soyuz 11 mission and had the unfortunate distinction of being part of the second crew to die during a space flight. ...

Gravity on the Moon

The hoax investigation site xenophilia.com claims that versions of the Encyclopædia Britannica from the 1960s (pre-Apollo missions) have the neutral point between the Earth and the Moon 20,520 miles from the Moon. "In theory," the site claims, "a Moon with 1/6 Earth's gravity should have a Neutral Point between 22,078 and 25,193 miles from the Moon's surface. Yet after the Apollo missions, Time magazine July 25, 1969 said 'At a point of 43,495 miles from the Moon, lunar gravity exerted a force equal to the gravity of the Earth, then some 200,000 miles distant.'" The site claims that the 1973 Encyclopædia Britannica gave a new neutral point distance of 39,000 miles.[81]

  • The surface gravity of an astronomical body such as the Moon is not directly related to the position of the neutral point between it and the planet it orbits. The neutral point between the Earth and Moon depends on the mass of the Earth, the mass of the Moon, and the current distance between them—which varies between the apogee of 405,500 km and perigee of 363,300 km, due to the Moon's orbital eccentricity of 0.055. In contrast, the surface gravity of the Moon depends only on the gravitational constant, the mass of the Moon, and the radius of the Moon (see the equation at surface gravity, and see Moon for the mass and radius of the Moon). The surface gravity does not depend on the distance to Earth or the Earth's mass, so the "neutral point" and "sphere of influence" are irrelevant to the Moon's surface gravity. The Moon's surface gravity is very close to one-sixth that of Earth's.[82]
  • Spacecraft from several nations have traveled to or past the Moon,[83][84][85] so unless all their space programs are part of the conspiracy, at least one should have indicated by now if the mass of the Moon was incorrect. Similarly, if lunar gravity was four times as high as generally believed, it would be demonstrable on Earth in unexpectedly large tidal action, the Moon's orbital characteristics, and the Earth's wobble. The Surveyor program Moon landers had an engine thrust of 150 pounds and their landing weight was approximately 660 pounds on Earth. Five of these spacecraft soft-landed on the Moon in 1966-68. If the Moon's surface gravity was much larger than one-sixth that of Earth's, the spacecraft would not be able to soft-land on the Moon.
  • The website appears to be confusing the Moon's sphere of influence and the point at which the Moon's gravitation and Earth's are equal. NASA were concerned with the Moon's sphere of influence, which starts around 40,000 miles from the Moon, and marks the point where the Moon's gravity has more influence on the spacecraft's trajectory than the Earth's. The 'Apollo 16 Flight Journal'[86] comments on this: "we're scheduled to cross that mythical line known as the lunar Sphere of Influence, the point of which we begin calculating the increasing of the lunar gravity on the spacecraft. Our displays here in Mission Control shortly after that point are generally switched over to Moon reference from Earth reference. The velocities that we have been watching decrease steadily up to now, will then begin to increase as the spacecraft is accelerated toward the Moon.." The point where the lunar gravity and Earth's gravity are equal is around 25,000 miles, so there's no discrepancy to explain: they appear to be measuring different things.
  • The site fails to note that the flight paths of the Apollo crafts were curved, not straight-line, so the neutral point within their flight paths would be significantly larger than the straight-line neutral point range of 22,000-25,000 miles (for illustration, see the bands of gravitational influence in the diagram accompanying Lagrangian point). The 'Time' article's statement would then be equally as true as the early 1960s 'Britannica'. The statement that the 1973 'Britannica' reported a different figure is currently unverified. The 1966 edition of The World Book Encyclopedia (volume 13, page 650) gives the Moon's surface gravity as one-sixth that of Earth's.

The surface gravity of a Killing horizon is the acceleration, as exerted at infinity, needed to keep an object at the horizon. ... In celestial mechanics, the Lagrangian points, (also Lagrange point, L-point, or libration point) are the five stationary solutions of the circular restricted three-body problem. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... Perigee is the point at which an object in orbit around the Earth makes its closest approach to the Earth. ... (This page refers to eccitricity in astrodynamics. ... According to the law of universal gravitation, the attractive force between two bodies is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. ... The surface gravity of a Killing horizon is the acceleration, as exerted at infinity, needed to keep an object at the horizon. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... This article is about tides in the Earths oceans. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... Photograph of Surveyor(3) lunar landing spacecraft taken by Apollo 12 astronauts (descriptions added). ... A contour plot of the effective potential (the Hills Surfaces) of a two-body system (the Sun and Earth here), showing the five Lagrange points. ...

Involvement of the Soviet Union

A primary reason for the race to the Moon was the Cold War. The Soviets, with their own competing Moon program and a formidable scientific community able to analyze NASA data, could be expected to have cried foul if the USA tried to fake a Moon landing[12], p. 173, especially as they themselves had been unsuccessful in their own man-on-the-Moon program. They would have scored enormous status in the eyes of the rest of the world by doing so. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Details of the Soviet Moonshot were kept intensely secret until the arrival of glasnost. ...


For more on conspiracy theories within the Soviet space program, see Soviet space program conspiracy accusations. Lost Cosmonauts or Phantom Cosmonauts are cosmonauts that allegedly entered outer space and records of their voyages were kept confidential or destroyed altogether. ...


Bart Sibrel said, in response, that "the Soviets did not have the capability to track deep spacecraft until late in 1972, immediately after which, the last three Apollo missions were abruptly canceled."[87]

  • However, the Soviet Union had been sending unmanned spacecraft to the Moon since 1959.[88] and "during 1962, deep space tracking facilities were introduced at IP-15 in Ussuriisk and IP-16 in Evpatoria (Crimean Peninsula), while Saturn communication stations were added to IP-3, 4 and 14",[89] the latter having a 100 million km range.[90]

Ussuriysk (Russian: ) is a city in Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated in the middle of a fertile valley at the junction of three rivers at . ... ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Due to budget constraints there were many canceled Apollo missions during Project Apollo. ...

Individuals featured in the controversy

Apollo Moon Landing Hoax Accusers claim that some or all elements of the Apollo Moon landings were faked by NASA and possibly members of other involved organizations. ...

Major hoax proponents and proposals

  • Bill Kaysing (1922-2005) an ex-employee of Rocketdyne,[93] (the company which built the F-1 engines used on the Saturn V rocket). Kaysing was not technically qualified, and worked at Rocketdyne as a librarian. Kaysing's self published book, We Never Went to the Moon: America's Thirty Billion Dollar Swindle[3][12], p. 157, made many allegations, effectively beginning the discussion of the moon landings possibly being hoaxed. NASA, and others, have debunked the claims made in the book.
  • Bart Sibrel, a filmmaker and self proclaimed investigative journalist, created, inter alia, a film in 2001 called A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Moon, furthering the idea of a hoax. Again, the arguments put forward therein have been debunked by numerous sources, including the video series Lunar Legacy,[94] which disproves the documentary's primary argument that Earth was filmed through a round porthole window in the command module, while in low orbit.
  • William Brian, an engineer self-published a book in 1982 called "Moongate: Suppressed Findings of the U.S. Space Program," in which he disputes the Moon's surface gravity. This claim has again been debunked by NASA and other parties.
  • David Percy, TV producer and expert in audiovisual technologies and member of the Royal Photographic Society, is co-author, along with Mary Bennett of Dark Moon: Apollo and the Whistle-Blowers (ISBN 1-898541-10-8) and co-producer of What Happened On the Moon?. He is the main proponent of the "whistle-blower" accusation, arguing that the errors in the NASA photos in particular are so obvious that they are evidence that insiders are trying to 'blow the whistle' on the hoax by deliberately inserting errors that they know will be seen.[95]
  • Ralph Rene - An inventor and 'self taught' engineering buff. Author of NASA Mooned America (second edition OCLC 36317224).
  • Charles T. Hawkins - Author of How America Faked the Moon Landings,
  • Philippe Lheureux - French author of Moon Landings: Did NASA Lie?, and Lumières sur la Lune (Lights on the Moon): La NASA a t-elle menti!.
  • James M. Collier (d. 1998) - American journalist and author, producer of the video Was It Only a Paper Moon? in 1997.
  • Jan Lundberg - A technician for Hasselblad, the company that developed and manufactured the cameras used by the astronauts.
  • Jack White - American photo historian known for his attempt to prove forgery in photos related to the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy.
  • Marcus Allen (publisher) - British publisher of Nexus magazine said that photographs of the lander would not prove that the US put men on the Moon. "Getting to the Moon really isn't much of a problem - the Russians did that in 1959 - the big problem is getting people there."[96]
  • Aron Ranen - Directed Did we go? (co-produced with Benjamin Britton and selected for the 2000 "New Documentary Series" Museum of Modern Art, NYC, the 2000 Dallas Video Festival Awards and the 2001 Digital Video Underground Festival in San Francisco). He received a Golden Cine Eagle and two fellowships from the National Endowment for Arts.
  • Clyde Lewis - Radio talk show host.[97]
  • Christopher Wunderlee - American novelist who wrote The Loony: a novella of epic proportions, a fictionalized account of faking the Apollo Missions in 2005.
  • Dr. David Groves - Works for Quantech Image Processing and worked on some of the NASA photos. He said he can pinpoint the exact point at which the artificial light was used. Using the focal length of the camera's lens and an actual boot, he has calculated (using ray-tracing) that the artificial light source is between 24 and 36 cm to the right of the camera.[98][99]
  • Joe Rogan - tends to use it in his acts and when asked about it, brings up many facts to dissprove the legality of the moon landing. On the radio station KROQ, found as well in one of their podcasts, he talks to fans calling in and to Kevin, Bean and Lisa May about the moon landing and how so much of the evidence is fake or tampered and cannot be trusted.

William Charles Kaysing (July 31, 1922 – April 21, 2005) was a writer who is best known for claiming that the six Apollo moon landings that took place between July 1969 and December 1972 were hoaxes. ... F-1 rocket engine Rocketdyne is a United States company that designs and produces rocket engines that use liquid propellants. ... F-1 Rocket Engine Specifications. ... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ... Bartholomew Winfield Sibrel is a Nashville, Tennessee-based amateur filmmaker who claims that the six Apollo moon landings between 1969 and 1972 were hoaxes. ... For the 1968 science-fiction film and novel, see 2001: A Space Odyssey The year 2001 in film involved some significant events. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Description Role: Earth and Lunar Orbit Crew: 3; CDR, CM pilot, LM pilot Dimensions Height: 36. ... David S Percy, born and educated in London, is a TV producer and expert in audiovisuals technologies, member of the Royal Photographic Society of Britain and Vice-Presidente of the Finchley Cinévideo Society. ... vbcvbcbvcbcb ... Mary Letitia Somerville Bennett (1913 - November 1, 2005) was a British academic, best known for her tenure as Principal of St Hildas College, Oxford. ... What happened on the Moon is a documentary film by David Percy in which he claims NASA Moon Landing photographs are a hoax. ... Ralph Rene is a self-taught inventor and small press publisher who is a vocal proponent of the Apollo moon landing hoax. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Philippe Lheureux has written two books on the subject of Apollo moon landing hoax accusations: Moon Landings: Did NASA Lie?, and Lumières sur la Lune : La NASA a t-elle menti!. External links English copy of his book . ... This article is about Victor Hasselblad AB, the Swedish company. ... Marcus Allen is the British distributer and publisher of Nexus magazine, and a well known proponent of, as he puts it, news and information that is overlooked, unreported or ignored by the mainstream media. He worked as a photographer in the 1960s, and is a proponent of the idea that... Nexus magazine is a magazine containing many alternative and conspiracy theorist articles. ... Clyde Lewis (born Louis Clyde Holder, 22 February 1964, Murray, Utah) is a talk radio personality and actor. ... Christopher Wunderlee is an American avant-garde poet and experimental writer. ... Joe Rogan performing at a comedy club after UFC 70. ... KROQ is a commercial rock and roll music radio station in Los Angeles, California, broadcasting on 106. ...

Large telescopes and the Moon hoax

Another component of the moon hoax theory is based on the argument that professional observatories and the Hubble Space Telescope should be able to take pictures of the lunar landing sites. The argument runs that if telescopes can "see to the edge of the universe" then they ought to be able to take pictures of the lunar landing sites. This implies that the world's major observatories (as well as the Hubble Program) are complicit in the moon landing hoax by refusing to take pictures of the landing sites. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ...


To see the 1.2 meter long flag left on the Moon, an Earth-based telescope would have to be 200 meters wide, whereas the largest telescope on Earth is only about 10 meters across. The Hubble Space Telescope can only see objects on the Moon as small as 60 meters [100] across.[101] The following is a list of the largest optical reflecting telescopes sorted by mirror diameter. ...


People accused of involvement in the hoax

  • Deke Slayton, NASA Chief Astronaut in 1968: Some hoax proponents (for example, the 'NASA Scam'[102] website, and Clyde Lewis[103]) say that Slayton was one of the primary leaders of the hoax. He visited the film set of 2001: A Space Odyssey, in the UK, which he referred to as "NASA East".
  • Michael J Tuttle: Some hoax proponents say that he took the job of producing fake photographs in 1994.[104] Prior to the widespread availability of the internet, only a small subset of the photos currently in existence were seen. Some hoax proponents believe many of the photos were created in the mid 1990s as editing technology improved.
  • Stanley Kubrick is accused of having produced much of the footage for Apollo 11 and 12.[97] It has been claimed, without any evidence, that in early 1968 while 2001: A Space Odyssey (which includes scenes taking place on the Moon) was in post-production, NASA secretly approached Kubrick to direct the first three Moon landings. In this scenario the launch and splashdown would be real but the spacecraft would have remained in Earth orbit while the fake footage was broadcast as "live" from the lunar journey. Kubrick did hire Frederick Ordway and Harry Lange, both of whom had worked for NASA and major aerospace contractors, to work with him on 2001. Kubrick also used some 50mm f/0.7 lenses that were left over from a batch made by Zeiss for NASA. (However, Kubrick only acquired this lens for Barry Lyndon (1975). The lens was originally a still-photo lens and required modifications to be used for motion filming.)
  • Douglas Trumbull, a visual effects designer on 2001: A Space Odyssey, is accused of leading the special effects team for the faking of the Apollo 11 and 12 missions.[97]

Donald Kent Deke Slayton (March 1, 1924 – June 13, 1993) was one of the original Mercury Seven NASA astronauts. ... Kubrick redirects here. ... Post production is the general term for the last stage of film production in which photographed scenes (also called footage) are put together into a complete film. ... // Harry Lange is a self made man. ... Carl Zeiss in middle age. ... Barry Lyndon (1975) is an award-winning period film by Stanley Kubrick based on the novel The Luck of Barry Lyndon (1844) by William Makepeace Thackeray. ... Douglas Trumbull (born April 8, 1942) is a film director and special effects supervisor. ... Visual effects (or VFX for short) is the term given in which images or film frames are created and manipulated for film and video. ...

Other evidence and issues

NASA book commission and withdrawal

In 2002, NASA commissioned James Oberg $15,000 to write a point-by-point rebuttal of the hoax claims, and, in the same year, canceled their commission in the face of protests by hoax skeptics that the book would dignify the accusations. Oberg said that he intends (funding allowing) to finish the project.[16][105] In November 2002 Peter Jennings (ABC’s World News Tonight anchor) said "[NASA] is going to spend a few thousand dollars trying to prove to some people that the United States did indeed land men on the Moon." Jennings said "[NASA] had been so rattled, [they] hired [somebody] to write a book refuting the conspiracy theorists." James Edward Oberg (b. ... Peter Charles Archibald Ewart Jennings, CM (July 29, 1938 – August 7, 2005) was a Canadian-American journalist and news anchor. ...


Academic work

In 2004, Drs Martin Hendry and Ken Skeldon at Glasgow University were awarded a grant by the UK based Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council to investigate 'Moon Hoax' proposals.[106] In November of that same year, they gave a lecture at a Glasgow planetarium where the top ten lines of evidence advanced by hoax proponents were individually addressed and refuted.[107] The University of Glasgow is the largest of the three universities in Glasgow, Scotland. ... PPARC is an abbreviation for the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council, and is the UKs strategic science investment agency based in Swindon. ...


Attempts to view the landing site

Leonard David published an article on space.com,[108][109] on 27 April 2001 showing a picture taken by the Clementine mission which shows a diffuse dark spot at the location that NASA says is the Lunar Module Falcon. The evidence was noticed by Misha Kreslavsky, of the Department of Geological Sciences at Brown University, and Yuri Shkuratov of the Kharkov Astronomical Observatory in Ukraine. Space. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Clementine was a joint space project between the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO, previously the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, or SDIO) and NASA. The objective of the mission was to test sensors and spacecraft components under extended exposure to the space environment and to make scientific observations of the Moon... Brown University is a private university located in Providence, Rhode Island. ...


The European Space Agency's modern Moon probe, the SMART-1 unmanned probe, sent back imagery to the ESA of the Apollo Moon landing sites, according to Bernard Foing, Chief Scientist of the ESA Science Program.[110] Given SMART-1’s initial high orbit, however, it may prove difficult to see artifacts, said Foing in an interview on the website "space.com'. No photos have so far been released, according to the website. ESA redirects here. ... SMART-1. ...


The Daily Telegraph published a story in 2002 saying that European astronomers at the Very Large Telescope (VLT, the most powerful telescope in the world) would use the telescope to view the remains of the Apollo lunar landers. According to the article, Dr. Richard West said that his team would take "a high-resolution image of one of the Apollo landing sites". Marcus Allen, a Moon hoax believer, pointed out in the story that no images of hardware on the Moon would convince him that manned landings had taken place[111] (Allen believes robot missions placed objects there). The article greatly overstates the power of the VLT (it can show details only as small as 130m at the distance of the Moon) and so it is not surprising that no images sharp enough to resolve the lander have been forthcoming.[109] Such photos, if and when they become available, would be the first non-NASA produced images of the site at that definition. This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... One of the four telescopes that make up the VLT, named Kueyen. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Hubble Space Telescope can resolve objects as small as 280 feet (86 meters) at the distance of the Moon; again, not good enough to settle this issue. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ...


Alex R. Blackwell, of the University of Hawaii has pointed out that photos taken by Apollo astronauts[109] are currently the best available images of the landing sites; they show shadows of the lander, but not the lander itself. NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (planned for 2008) is slated to produce better pictures as part of its mission.[112] Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is an unmanned orbiter planned for launch to the Moon in October 2008 aboard an Atlas V [1]. It is an early element of the implementation of the United States Vision for Space Exploration and its objectives are primarily to support that...


Apollo hoax in popular culture and parody

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

In print

  • President Clinton in his 2004 autobiography, My Life, states (on page 156): "Just a month before, Apollo 11 astronauts Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong had left their colleague, Michael Collins, aboard spaceship Columbia and walked on the Moon, beating by five months President Kennedy's goal of putting a man on the Moon before the decade was out. The old carpenter asked me if I really believed it happened. I said sure, I saw it on television. He disagreed; he said that he didn't believe it for a minute, that 'them television fellers' could make things look real that weren't. Back then, I thought he was a crank. During my eight years in Washington, I saw some things on TV that made me wonder if he wasn't ahead of his time."
  • Norman Mailer in 1969 wrote "The event (Apollo 11 Moonwalk) was so removed, however, so unreal, that no objective correlative existed to prove it had not been an event staged in a television studio—the greatest con of the century—and indeed a good mind, product of the iniquities, treacheries, gold, passions, invention, deception, and rich worldly stink of the Renaissance could hardly deny that the event if bogus was as great a creation in mass hoodwinking, deception, and legerdemain as the true ascent was in discipline and technology. Indeed, conceive of the genius of such a conspiracy. It would take criminals and confidence men mightier, more trustworthy and more resourceful than anything in this century or the ones before. Merely to conceive of such men was the surest way to know the event was not staged."
  • The Loony: a novella of epic proportions (published in April 2005) by Christopher Wunderlee is a work of hysterical realism whose primary plot revolves around an astrophysicist's role in assisting NASA in faking the lunar landings. In the novel, the astrophysicist is hired by agents to assist a film crew in making footage "look" real. He is then embroiled in the coverup and is blackmailed to keep the secret.
  • In the book Great Lies To Tell Small Kids by Andy Riley one of the lies is, "All the Moon landings were shot on a set on Mars".

William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... My Life My Life is a 2004 autobiography written by former President of the United States Bill Clinton, who left office on January 20, 2001. ... Norman Kingsley Mailer (January 31, 1923 – November 10, 2007) was an American novelist, journalist, playwright, screenwriter, and film director. ... Christopher Wunderlee is an American avant-garde poet and experimental writer. ... Hysterical realism, also called recherché postmodernism or maximalism, is a literary genre typified by a strong contrast between elaborately absurd prose, plotting, or characterization and careful detailed investigations of real specific social phenomena. ... Great Lies to Tell Small Kids (2005) is Andy Rileys third book of cartoons, following his bestsellers The Book of Bunny Suicides and Return of the Bunny Suicides. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

On film

  • The 1978 film Capricorn One portrayed a fictional NASA attempt to fake a landing on Mars.
  • In 1971, there was a brief sequence in the James Bond movie Diamonds Are Forever, in which the action takes place in a "Moon" setting where astronauts were being trained.[113] Agent 007 steals what appears to be a Moon buggy from the model set, and drives it off to escape from an enemy compound. This scene may have helped to spread the idea of the Moon landings being a hoax[3], p. 62.
  • In 2002, William Karel released a spoof documentary film, Dark Side of the Moon, 'exposing' how Stanley Kubrick was recruited to fake the Moon landings, and featured interviews with, among others, Kubrick's widow and a number of American statesmen including Henry Kissinger and Donald Rumsfeld. It was an elaborate joke: interviews and other footage were presented out of context and in some cases completely staged, with actors playing interviewees who had never existed (and in many cases named after characters from Kubrick's films, just one of many clues included to reveal the joke to the alert viewer).[114]
  • In the 2004 film Man on the Moon , Richard Fortunato fictionally explores the links between Apollo 11, the Vietnam War, Richard Nixon, and a Russian spy in an effort to explain the staged moon landing
  • In the 1992 movie Sneakers, the character "Mother", played by Dan Aykroyd, mentions "It's the same technology that NASA used to fake the Apollo Moon landings, so it shouldn't give us any trouble."
  • In the movie Looney Tunes: Back In Action, as Bugs Bunny and Daffy Duck are in Area 52 they browse the videotape shelf, one of the videotapes searched read "Moon LANDING DRESS REHEARSAL".
  • In the movie RV, singer JoJo's character commented that the RV camp they were staying overnight was "where NASA faked the Moon landings."
  • In the outtakes/end credits for the film Daddy Day Care, the cameraman is struggling to focus the camera. Eddie Murphy then says, "This is why I know we didn't land on the moon."

Capricorn One is a horror/thriller/science fiction movie about a Mars landing hoax. ... Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ... 007 redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... William Karel (born in Tunisia in 1940) is a French film director and author. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... This article is about the documentary. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a businessman, a U.S. Republican politician, the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Nixon redirects here. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long or excessively detailed compared to the rest of the article. ... Daniel Edward Aykroyd CM (born July 1, 1952) is an Academy Award-nominated and Emmy Award-winning Canadian/American comedian, actor, screenwriter, and musician. ... Looney Tunes: Back in Action was a 2003 Warner Bros. ... Bugs Bunny is an animated hare who appears in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of animated films produced by Warner Bros. ... Daffy Duck is an animated cartoon character in the Warner Brothers Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of cartoons. ... RV is a movie starring Robin Williams, Cheryl Hines, Jeff Daniels, JoJo, Kristin Chenoweth and Josh Hutcherson. ... Joanna Noëlle Blagden (born December 20, 1990), better known by her stage name JoJo and as Joanna Levesque, is an American pop and R&B singer, songwriter, and actress who rose to fame in 2004 with her platinum-certified, self-titled debut album JoJo which reached number four on...

On television

  • A television drama called The News-Benders, the key plot device of which stipulated that all major technological advances since 1945 had been faked in some way, aired in January 1968; it postulated a "Moon landing" falsified with models. It was written by British writer Desmond Lowden.
  • In an episode of Fox TV's Family Guy, a flashback shows the ending of filming the hoax, with Neil Armstrong walking out of the studio and a pedestrian seeing him. When the pedestrian asks why he is not in space, Neil Armstrong makes a feeble excuse about "solar winds" before killing the man. In the episode "If I'm Dyin', I'm Lyin'," Peter said that his "healing powers" were a fake, "like the Moon landings".
  • In the ITV1 sitcom Believe Nothing an Illuminati type council kills one of their members after stating "we faked the moon landing" but their caterers can't supply "a decent prune danish"
  • In an episode of Friends, Joey asks Phoebe for a good lie, and she responds, "Okay, how about the whole 'man-landing-on-the-Moon' thing? I mean, you can see the strings, people!!"
  • In an episode of Newsradio, Jimmy James pretends to fly a hot air balloon around the world, but this is actually a hoax being filmed in a television studio. When Lisa finds out about this and criticizes him, he says, "It's not like I was faking the Apollo Moon landings, now that was a big deal." Lisa says, "What?" Jimmy gets nervous and says, "Nothing, I gotta go."
  • On the May 11, 1998 edition of the Late Show With David Letterman, actress Gillian Anderson read a Top Ten List entitled "Top Ten Things The Government Doesn't Want You To Know." Number three on the list was, "Due to a navigational error, Neil Armstrong actually landed in Wilmington, Delaware."
  • In "Roswell That Ends Well", an episode of Futurama, when the crew is mysteriously flung back in time to 1947, President Harry S. Truman requests that Zoidberg, an alien, be taken to Area 51 for study. When informed that Area 51 is the location for the faked Moon landing, he replies, "Then we'll have to really land on the Moon. Invent NASA and tell them to get off their fannies!"[115]
  • In an episode of The PJs, Thurston said that if people can fake a Moon landing, anything's possible.
  • In an episode of King of the Hill, conspiracy theorist Dale Gribble suggests that the Super Bowl is pre-selected and is filmed in an unidentifiable location where they filmed the fake Moon landing, months before the game ever began. On another episode, Dale discovers that the government report on the Kennedy assassination made sense and said, "If the government was right about this then maybe we really did go to the moon."
  • On the June 7, 2006 edition of The Colbert Report, host Stephen Colbert said "Tonight's guest is a pioneer in Mars exploration. Hopefully tonight he'll explain how they faked a space landing there too."
  • On the July 27, 2006 episode of The Colbert Report, host Stephen Colbert said "And here's the Smithsonian Institute's Air and Space Museum, where you can see the original rocks from the soundstage where they faked the Moon landing. It's a part of Hollywood history."
  • On the August 1, 2007 edition of The Colbert Report, Stephen Colbert said, "Unless you've been on the moon this week, you know I broke my wrist. And if you have been on the moon, congratulations, you are the first!"
  • In February 2007, Craig Ferguson commented that the Lisa Nowak scandal was the biggest thing to happen to NASA "since they faked that moon landing thing in the sixties."
  • In a Washington Mutual commercial, the spokesperson is confronted by rival branch members in a parking garage. Comparing the rates of Washington Mutual to other known banks, one of them mentions that the moon landing was staged.
  • In an episode of The Whitest Kids U'Know, Trevor Moore tells a group of young schoolchildren that the Moon landings were faked.
  • In the TV show Codename:Kids Next Door, The KND (Kids Next Door) say they faked the moon landing so the adults couldnt find their headquarters in the moon.
  • In some episodes of My Name Is Earl, Darnell Turner (AKA "Crab Man") suggests that the moon landing is a hoax.

A plot device is an element introduced into a story to solely to advance or resolve the plot of the story. ... Family Guy is an Emmy Award-winning American animated television series about a dysfunctional family in the fictional town of Quahog, Rhode Island. ... “If I’m Dyin’, I’m Lyin’ â€ is an episode from the FOX animated television series Family Guy. ... ITV1 is the name, in England, Wales and the Scottish borders, for a terrestrial, free-to-air television channel, broadcast in the United Kingdom by the ITV network. ... Believe Nothing (2002) is a British sitcom starring Rik Mayall as Quadruple Professor Adonis Cnut, the cleverest man in England and Oxfords leading moral philosopher. ... For friendship, see friendship. ... This article is about the sitcom. ... Late Show redirects here. ... Gillian Leigh Anderson (born August 9, 1968) is an Emmy and Golden Globe Award-winning American actress, best known for her roles as FBI Agent Dana Scully in the American TV series The X-Files and Lady Dedlock in the BBC TV series Bleak House. ... : Chemical Capital of the World , Corporate Capital of the World , Credit Card Capital of the World : A Place to Be Somebody United States Delaware New Castle 17. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... Roswell That Ends Well is the nineteenth episode of the third production season of the TV show Futurama. ... This article is about the television series. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Doctor John Zoidberg is a lobster-like alien, Decapodian, in the television series Futurama. ... This article is about the U.S. Air Force installation in Nevada. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the television program. ... Dale Alvin Gribble (voiced by Johnny Hardwick) is a character in the animated series King of the Hill. ... The winning Super Bowl team receives the Vince Lombardi Trophy. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Colbert Report (IPA ) is an American satirical television program that airs from 11:30 p. ... This article is about Stephen Colbert, the actor. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Colbert Report (IPA ) is an American satirical television program that airs from 11:30 p. ... This article is about Stephen Colbert, the actor. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... National Air and Space Museum exterior The National Air and Space Museum (NASM) of the Smithsonian Institution is a museum in Washington, D.C., United States, and is the most popular of the Smithsonian museums. ... The Colbert Report (IPA ) is an American satirical television program that airs from 11:30 p. ... This article is about Stephen Colbert, the actor. ... Lisa Marie Nowak (née Caputo) (born May 10, 1963 in Washington, D.C.), is a United States Naval officer and a former NASA astronaut. ... “WaMu” redirects here. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Trevor Moore (born April 4, 1981 in Montclair, New Jersey) is an American comedian, actor, satirist, cartoonist, writer and director. ... My Name Is Earl is an Emmy Award-winning American sitcom created by Greg Garcia. ... Crab Man redirects here. ...

In video games

  • The plot of Activision's 1998 computer game Battlezone is based largely on the idea that while the lunar landings did take place, both the United States and Soviet Union had already spent considerable time on the moon and were actively waging war against each other on the lunar surface using equipment based on alien technology and materials discovered there. In the game's universe, the Apollo landings were a hoax of a different kind, using only technology that had been admitted to the public, rather than the highly advanced and secret alien technology.
  • In the 2005 first person shooter Area 51, one level is based on the idea that the lunar landing was faked. The room is filled with cameras, cranes, lunar vehicles, and recordings of radio transmissions, positioned in a way to portray a fake lunar terrain and a black wall in the back with a picture of the Earth in the distance.
  • In Duke Nukem 3D a moon landing movie set can be found in a level of the game.
  • In the game Grand Theft Auto- Vice City a moon landing set can also be found in the movie studio.

Battlezone is a critically acclaimed remake (for Microsoft Windows) of an arcade game of the same name. ... Area 51 is a first-person shooter developed in tandem for the PlayStation 2, Xbox, and PC, and is loosely based on the 1996 light gun video game Area 51. ... Duke Nukem 3D is a first-person shooter computer game developed by 3D Realms and published by Apogee Software. ...

In music

  • The REM song "Man on the Moon" implies that the Moon landings may have involved sleight of hand ("If you believe they put a Man on the Moon, if you believe there's nothing up my sleeve...").
  • The Men From Earth song "I Faked the Moon Landing" tells an imaginary story of someone's deathbed confession to assisting with the hoax. Among the many references in the song to popular hoax accusations is the line "that wasn't Buzz next to the LEM / just a guy who looked like him."
  • The group Looper have a song called "Dave the Moon Man" on their album Up a Tree. It features a character who does not believe in the Moon landings and repeats several of the major conspiracy arguments.
  • The video for the Rammstein song "Amerika" depicts the band on a movie set wearing NASA suits and a theme of the video is the faking of the Moon landing.
  • There is a song by metal band Margret Heater called "Apollo Conspiracy".
  • Swedish hardcore punk band Refused recorded a song called "The Apollo Programme Was a Hoax" for their final full-length album, The Shape of Punk to Come.
  • The Beta Band song "Eclipse" ends with a series of lines stating opinions such as "and the roads are not very clean" and "and the food we eat is not very healthy", after which another voice replies "okay, we're agreed on that." The final line is "and the moon is a big ball with nothing on it, but I don't think anyone's ever been there", to which the second voice replies "ok, so we're KIND of agreed to that."
  • The Tullycraft song "Sent to the Moon" includes the phrase, "we watched it all with our folks...it was the world's biggest hoax", indicating a possible NASA conspiracy involving the Apollo moon landings.
  • The song 'Fall Out' from the album Six by British band Mansun features the lyric, "Did Stanley Kubrick fake it with the moon?"
  • The Solillaquists Of Sound song 'Mark It Place' includes the phrase 'I saw the American flag waving proudly on its own without a care, but it was on the moon and there's no wind out there'.
  • The Diamond Rio song "It's All in Your Head" includes the line "we never walked on the moon" as well as other conspiratorial references such as "Elvis ain't dead."

R.E.M. is an American rock band formed in Athens, Georgia in 1980 by Bill Berry (drums), Peter Buck (guitar), Mike Mills (bass guitar), and Michael Stipe (vocals). ... Man on the Moon is a song by the band R.E.M. from their 1992 album Automatic for the People. ... Looper are a Scottish indie-pop band, fronted by Stuart David, former Belle and Sebastian bassist. ... For other uses, see Ramstein. ... Amerika is the second released single from Rammsteins fourth studio album titled Reise Reise. ... Margret Heater was a Baltimore, Maryland rock and metal band from 1997-2003. ... Hardcore punk, now commonly known as hardcore, is a subgenre of punk rock that originated in North America in the late 1970s. ... The Shape of Punk to Come was the final album released by Swedish hardcore punk band Refused before they split up. ... The Beta Band is Scottish musical group whose self-described style is folktronic, a blend of folk, rock, trip hop, and experimental jamming. ... Disenchanted Hearts Unite Album Cover Tullycraft is an American twee pop band formed by the members of two now defunct bands, Crayon and Wimp Factor 14. ... Six (released July 1998 - see 1998 in music) was the second album of British indie rock group Mansun. ... Mansun were a rock music band formed in Chester in 1995 by vocalist/rhythm guitarist Paul Draper, lead guitarist/back vocalist Dominic Chad, and bassist Stove King, with drummer Andie Rathbone, and disbanded in May, 2003. ... Diamond Rio performing live This page is about the country band. ...

Other references

  • A 2006 commercial for Red Bull features astronauts who, after drinking Red Bull, "gain a pair of wings" and are unable to actually set foot on the Moon. They are instructed by Houston to return to Earth so the scene can be shot in a studio instead.
  • Former Major League Baseball player Carl Everett has said in interviews with Boston Globe columnist Dan Shaughnessy that he doubts the validity of the Moon landings. Shaughnessy would go on to nickname Everett "Jurassic Carl" due to Everett's assertion that dinosaurs never existed.
  • Episode 45 of the webcomic Red vs. Blue involves the characters arguing about conspiracy theories, including "We never landed on the sun!"
  • Two strips of the webcomic xkcd make reference to the Lunar Landing hoax - in one, the strip jokes about YouTube video comments, and, in the other, the character files a bug report with God for the belief in conspiracy theories.
  • One strip of Wulffmorgenthaler features alien conspiracy theorists asserting that "the Earth landing has never happened".

For other uses, see Red Bull (disambiguation). ... Mission Control Center (MCC) is a unit that manages aerospace flights. ... Major Leagues redirects here. ... Carl Edward Everett III (born June 3, 1971 in Tampa, Florida) is a former All-star Major League Baseball outfielder. ... The Boston Globe is the most widely-circulated daily newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts and in the greater New England region. ... Dan Shaughnessy is a sports columnist and reporter for The Boston Globe. ... Orders Saurischia    Sauropodomorpha    Theropoda Ornithischia Dinosaurs are giant reptiles that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for most of their 165-million year existence. ... For divisions in United States politics, see Red states and blue states. ... xkcd is a webcomic created by Randall Munroe,[1] a Christopher Newport University graduate who worked as a contractor for NASA.[2] It calls itself a webcomic of romance, sarcasm, math, and language. ... YouTube is a popular video sharing website where users can upload, view and share video clips. ... Wulffmorgenthaler is a webcomic created by Danish writer/artist duo Mikael Wulff and Anders Morgenthaler. ...

See also

Apollo 12 astronaut Pete Conrad with the unmanned Surveyor 3 lander. ... Captain James Jim Arthur Lovell, Jr. ... Astronauts Gone Wild is a 2004 film made by Bart Sibrel, a filmmaker from Nashville, Tennessee who charges that the six Apollo moon landings in the 1960s and 1970s were elaborate hoaxes. ... The Apollo missing tapes are the missing original recordings of the transmissions (Slow-scan television and telemetry data) broadcast during the Apollo 11 moonwalk[1]. // The video of the Apollo 11 moonwalk was transmitted in Slow-Scan TV (SSTV) format (see Apollo TV camera). ... In the Shadow of the Moon is a 2006[1] British documentary film about the United States manned missions to the moon. ...

References

  1. ^ a b http://poll.gallup.com/content/default.aspx?ci=1993&pg=1
  2. ^ van Bakel, Rogier (September 1994). The Wrong Stuff (magazine) (English). 'Wired' 8. CondéNet Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-05-09. “Are you sure we went to the moon 25 years ago? Are you positive? Millions of Americans believe the moon landings may have been a US$25 billion swindle, perpetrated by NASA with the latest in communications technology and the best in special effects. Wired plunges into the combat zone between heated conspiracy believers and exasperated NASA officials.”
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i We Never Went to the Moon: America's Thirty Billion Dollar Swindle, Bill Kaysing, Pomeroy, WA, USA: Health Research Books, 2002. ISBN 1-85810-422-X.
  4. ^ http://www.bautforum.com/archive/index.php/t-1180.html
  5. ^ http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/2.09/moon.land.html?pg=3&topic=
  6. ^ http://www.debunker.com/texts/apollo11.html
  7. ^ Lheureux, Philippe (2000). Lumières sur la Lune. Editions CARNOT. ISBN 2912362490. 
  8. ^ http://www.apfn.org/apfn/moon.htm
  9. ^ http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/lunar/apollo.html
  10. ^ a b c van Bakel, Rogier (1994). The Wrong Stuff. Wired Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  11. ^ Newport, Frank (1999). Landing a Man on the Moon: The Public's View. The Gallup Poll. The Gallup Poll. Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Bad Astronomy: Misconceptions and Misuses Revealed, from Astrology to the Moon Landing "Hoax", Dr. Philip Plait, John Wiley & Sons, 2002. ISBN 0-471-40976-6. See esp. chapter 17.
  13. ^ Fox TV, "Conspiracy Theory: Did We Really Land on the Moon?"[1]
  14. ^ http://www.lunaranomalies.com/fake-Moon2.htm
  15. ^ http://www.thespacereview.com/article/787/1
  16. ^ a b http://www.jamesoberg.com/042003lessonsfake_his.html
  17. ^ http://www.jamesoberg.com/103102apollodebunk.html
  18. ^ The Flat-out Truth: Earth Orbits? Moon Landings? A Fraud! Says This Prophet, Robert J. Schadewald, Science Digest, vol. 83, July 1980, pp. 58–63.
  19. ^ Where are they Now? the Flat Earthers, Newsweek, vol. 73, January 13, 1969, p. 8.
  20. ^ http://krishna.org/Articles/2000/08/00082.html
  21. ^ http://science.krishna.org/Articles/2000/12/00227.html
  22. ^ Rudin, Mike (2006-12-08). The danger with conspiracies. BBC.com.
  23. ^ a b Cziesche, Dominik; Jürgen Dahlkamp, Ulrich Fichtner, Ulrich Jaeger, Gunther Latsch, Gisela Leske, Max F. Ruppert (2003). Panoply of the Absurd. Der Spiegel. Der Spiegel. Retrieved on 2006-06-06.
  24. ^ Calder, Vince; Johnson, Andrew P.E. (2002-10-12). Ask A Scientist. Newton "Ask a Scientist", General Science Archive. "Newton", Argonne National Laboratory. Retrieved on 2007-02-07.
  25. ^ Laser Ranging Retroreflector. NSSDC Master Catalog Display: Experiment. National Space Science Data Center, NASA (2006-12-04). Retrieved on 2007-02-07.
  26. ^ Unmanned Soviet Lunokhod 1 and Lunokhod 2 rovers carried mirror arrays. (Lunokhod 1 : Luna 17/Lunokhod 1. NSSDC Master Catalog Display: Spacecraft. National Space Science Data Center, NASA (2006-12-04). Retrieved on 2007-02-07., (Lunokhod 2 : Luna 21/Lunokhod 2. NSSDC Master Catalog Display: Spacecraft. National Space Science Data Center, NASA (2006-12-04). Retrieved on 2007-02-07.) Reflected signals were received from Lunokhod 1, but then it was left in a position preventing the return of signals. (Stooke, P. J. (March 14-18, 2005). "Lunar Laser Ranging and the Location of Lunokhod 1". 36th Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, abstract no.1194, Lunar and Planetary Institute, NASA. Retrieved on 2007-02-07. )
  27. ^ Matthews, Robert (2002-11-25). Telescope to challenge moon doubters. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved on 2007-02-07.
  28. ^ Apollo Moon landings tapes reported missing, Wikinews, August 5, 2006.
  29. ^ a b http://Moonhoax.com/site/evidence.html
  30. ^ SolarViews.com
  31. ^ a peer-reviewed paper in "Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia"
  32. ^ http://www.parkes.atnf.csiro.au/apollo11/Parkes_Apollo11_TV_quality.html
  33. ^ http://www.cosmosmagazine.com/node/818
  34. ^ http://www.honeysucklecreek.net.nyud.net:8080/Apollo_11/tapes/Search_for_SSTV_Tapes.pdf
  35. ^ http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19670010532_1967010532.pdf
  36. ^ Carmelo Amalfi, Lost Moon landing tapes discovered, COSMOS Magazine, Nov 1,2006
  37. ^ a b http://www.xenophilia.com/zb0003c.htm
  38. ^ http://pirlwww.lpl.arizona.edu/~jscotti/NOT_faked/collier.htm
  39. ^ http://www.clavius.org/bibcollier.html
  40. ^ http://www.cradleofaviation.org
  41. ^ LM-13
  42. ^ http://aesp.nasa.okstate.edu/fieldguide/pages/lunarmod/index.html
  43. ^ http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/lunar/apollo_lrv.html
  44. ^ http://www.thespacereview.com/article/127/1
  45. ^ http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/lrvhand.html
  46. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_SRV7elUFjo
  47. ^ http://www.moonmovie.com/moonmovie/default.asp?ID=7
  48. ^ Bart Sibrel
  49. ^ http://www.clavius.org/techsoviet.html
  50. ^ http://www.astronautix.com/flights/sovnding.htm
  51. ^ http://www.clavius.org/photoqual.html
  52. ^ http://www.clavius.org/photoret.html
  53. ^ http://www.iangoddard.net/Moon01.htm
  54. ^ a b Who Mourns For Apollo?, part II, by Mike Bara.
  55. ^ http://www.aulis.com/skeleton.html
  56. ^ http://www.webwombat.com.au/careers_ed/education/fly-to-moon.htm
  57. ^ http://www.clavius.org/bootspot.html
  58. ^ http://spider.ipac.caltech.edu/staff/waw/mad/mad19.html
  59. ^ See Ms. Irene Schneider on the November 20, 2005 episode of The Space Show.
  60. ^ http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2004/22oct_cataracts.htm
  61. ^ http://www.clavius.org/envheat.html
  62. ^ http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2005/27jan_solarflares.htm
  63. ^ http://skyandtelescope.com/news/article_1754_1.asp
  64. ^ http://www.redzero.demon.co.uk/moonhoax/Radio.htm
  65. ^ http://www.nasm.si.edu/collections/imagery/apollo/AS11/a11sum.htm
  66. ^ http://www.honeysucklecreek.net/Apollo_11/Australian_TV.html
  67. ^ http://www.parkes.atnf.csiro.au/apollo11/one_giant_leap.html
  68. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e8fCxRQJS9M Bart
  69. ^ Tony Phillips. The Great Moon Hoax: Moon rocks and common sense prove Apollo astronauts really did visit the Moon. Science@NASA.
  70. ^ James Papike, Grahm Ryder, and Charles Shearer (1998). "Lunar Samples". Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 36: 5.1-5.234. 
  71. ^ Wernher von Braun in SS uniform.
  72. ^ Marshall Highlights for 1967. Marshall Space Flight Center History Office.
  73. ^ James N. Head, H. Jay Melosh, and Boris A. Ivanov (2002). "High-speed ejecta from small craters". Science 298: 1752-1756. 
  74. ^ Bill Cooke (2006). "The Great Interplanetary Rock Swap". Astronomy 34 (August): 64-67. 
  75. ^ a b Randy Korotev (2005). "Lunar geochemistry as told by lunar meteorites". Chemie der Erde 65: 297-346. 
  76. ^ Aurora exploration programme: Mars sample return. European Space Agency.
  77. ^ Michael Duke (2002). "South Pole-Aitlen basin sample return mission". COSPAR. 
  78. ^ a b http://pirlwww.lpl.arizona.edu/~jscotti/NOT_faked/FOX.html
  79. ^ http://history.nasa.gov/Apollo204/barron.html
  80. ^ Furnis, T.: Spaceflight - the records, 1985, Guinness Superlatives Ltd., ISBN 0-85112-451-8
  81. ^ http://www.xenophilia.com/zb0003u.htm#bal
  82. ^ Horizons: Exploring the Universe, Michael A. Seeds, Wadsworth, 1995, p. 378. ISBN 0-534-24889-6.
  83. ^ http://sci.esa.int/science-e/www/area/index.cfm?fareaid=10
  84. ^ http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/tmp/1990-007A.html
  85. ^ http://www.russianspaceweb.com/spacecraft_planetary_lunar.html
  86. ^ http://history.nasa.gov/ap16fj/09_Day3_Pt2.htm
  87. ^ http://www.Moonmovie.com/Moonmovie/default.asp?ID=8
  88. ^ http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/gal114/SpaceRace/sec300/sec361.htm
  89. ^ http://www.russianspaceweb.com/kik.html
  90. ^ http://www.astronautix.com/articles/sovstems.htm
  91. ^ http://www.astronautix.com/flights/apollo18.htm
  92. ^ http://www.astronautix.com/flights/apollo20.htm
  93. ^ http://www.clavius.org/kaysing.html
  94. ^ http://www.geocities.com/wideflare
  95. ^ http://www.clavius.org/bibcast.html
  96. ^ http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/11/24/1037697982142.html
  97. ^ a b c http://www.groundzeromedia.org/dis/gorsky/gorsky.html
  98. ^ http://www.ufos-aliens.co.uk/cosmicapollo.html
  99. ^ http://mrbasheer.tripod.com/Moonwalk.htm
  100. ^ http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2005/11jul_lroc.htm
  101. ^ anon (2007). "Ask Astro". Astronomy 35, #11: 62. 
  102. ^ http://www.geocities.com/apollotruth/
  103. ^ http://www.groundzeromedia.org/dis/Moondoggle/Moondoggle.htm
  104. ^ http://www.geocities.com/fakeMoonpics/
  105. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/2424927.stm
  106. ^ http://www.cafescientifique.org/glasgow1.htm
  107. ^ http://www.dimaggio.org/Glasgow/SPST/nov_2004.htm
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  109. ^ a b c http://www.tass-survey.org/richmond/answers/lunar_lander.html
  110. ^ http://www.space.com/missionlaunches/050304_Moon_snoop.html
  111. ^ World's biggest telescope to prove Americans really walked on Moon, Robert Matthews, The Daily Telegraph (online), November 23, 2002
  112. ^ http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2005/11jul_lroc.htm
  113. ^ http://www.007magazine.co.uk/Moon_buggy.htm
  114. ^ http://www.pointdujour.fr/Va/programmes/prog_fiche.asp?idProg=20965
  115. ^ http://www.tv.com/futurama/roswell-that-ends-well/episode/100702/trivia.html#quotes

This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lunokhod (Russian for Moon walker) 1 and 2 were a pair of unmanned lunar rovers landed on the Moon by the Soviet Union. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article concerns the British newspaper. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...

External links

  • moon-hoax.com All conspiracy videos
  • National Geographic: Conspiracy Moon Landing
  • A Moon Landing? What Moon Landing?, John Noble Wilford, The New York Times, December 18, 1969, p. 30.

is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ...

Television specials

The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ...

Google videos

FOX Special: Conspiracy Theory, Did We Land On The Moon?

  • http://video.google.ca/videoplay?docid=-1138935117048624484
  • NASA - Apollo 11 How did they do it? 8 Min
  • What Happened on the Moon - 1 of 2 2hr 11 min
  • What Happened on the Moon - 2 of 2 1hr
  • "FAKE MOON LANDING-Classified Apollo 11 NASA video-astronauts faking footage" 54 min (Teasingly labeled, as the video was not actually classified, and multiple sources have shown that there was no faking of footage)
  • Lunar Legacy Episode 1 Part 1 - Did We Land on the Moon? 7 Min
  • Lunar Legacy Episode 1 Part 2 - Did We Land on the Moon? 4 Min
  • Lunar Legacy Episode 1 Part 3 - Did We Land on the Moon? 10 Min
  • Lunar Legacy Episode 1 Part 4 - Did We Land on the Moon? 11 Min
  • Lunar Legacy Episode 1 Part 5 - Did We Land on the Moon? 8 Min
  • We Never Went to the Moon 9 Min

Hoax allegation links

  • Conspiration.co.uk
  • Dark Side of the Moon Landing
  • A group forum website* Can One man prove we went to the Moon in 1969? Documentary by Aron Ranen
  • Bart Sibrel is the producer of "Astronauts Gone Wild," a documentary confronting nine Apollo astronauts with his accusations that the Moon landings were not authentic. Includes footage of the verbal assault on Mr. Aldrin and his physical assault on Mr. Sibrel. His other videos also try to prove the Moon landings were faked.
  • Bill Kaysing
  • Ralph Rene is author of "NASA Mooned America," a popular book on the Moon hoax allegation.
  • Moon Wide Web
  • Photo analysis by Jack White
  • The Apollo Hoax
  • The Apollo 11 Hoax Conspiracy Evidence, motives and photos to argue that the landings were faked.
  • Xenophilia - a relatively thorough examination of many of the hoax claims
  • Crank Dot Net list of websites about Apollo mostly hoax supporters but may include some parodies and anti-hoax materials
  • The moon was the Earth assorted websites from faked Gagarin to faked Apollo with absolute proofs, photos, showing impossibilities, showing competition reasons among the state systems, no conspiracy, but integral presentation

Hoax rebuttal links

  • Lunar Legacy Episode 1, Part 5 (Did we land on the moon?)
  • The Bad Astronomy Web site is run by NASA Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) astronomer Phil Plait
  • Who mourns for Apollo? Richard C. Hoagland's Moon Hoax rebuttal page.
  • Point by point rebuttal of hoax allegations
  • Clavius website established to debunk the hoax arguments
  • Lunar reflection analysis supporting the presence of retroreflectors
  • A rebuttal to one typical Moon landing hoax webpage
  • Humans Walked on the Moon
  • Did We Land On the Moon?
  • Did we land? (different from above)
  • Straight Dope
  • Snopes.com on fake footage
  • Are Apollo Moon Photos Fake?
  • HardyArt
  • NASA Stooge
  • The great Moon hoax NASA about the rocks
  • Debunking The 'Debunkers' - Why the Apollo Moon Hoax is a Cheap, Cheesy Scam
  • Article about how Apollo 11 astronauts put an array of mirrors pointing toward Earth on the Moon
  • Lunar Legacy - A video series utilizing solid scientific data and video analysis to refute conspiracy claims.

The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope, or GLAST, is future space-based gamma-ray telescope, designed to explore the high-energy Universe. ... Philip Plait, physicist , astronomer and writer Philip Plait (a. ... Richard C. Hoagland (born April 25, 1945) is an author of books that reject the scientific method in favour of speculative theories on astronomical topics, and conspiracy theories connected to the U.S. space program. ...

Source material

  • Soviet Moon Space Program: Zond 8
  • The Project Apollo Archive – Collection of publicly released Apollo photography
  • The Apollo Image Atlas at The Lunar and Planetary Institute – Thumbnails of images taken during the Apollo Saturn missions
  • Description by ground station engineers at Honeysuckle Creek Tracking Station of receiving images from Apollo 11 from the Moon
  • Apollo Lunar Surface Journal
  • Parkes radio telescope and Apollo 11
  • Video of Nixon talking to the Apollo 11 astronauts
  • Aldrin hopping, television
  • Aldrin hopping, movie camera
  • Apollo 15 dropping a hammer and a feather
  • Gagarin quote about seeing stars
  • Seeing stars in space
  • Flat Earth Society (reprinted from 1980 Science Digest article)
  • Telescopic Tracking of the Apollo Lunar Missions
  • Space debris shows photo of water dump from video screen
  • Apollo 15 landing site
  • Apollo 11 Tapes Search for original Apollo 11 EVA tapes, television details
  • Technical drawings of Apollo capsule and Lunar Module
  • Locations of Apollo hardware
  • Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft
  • An image from Soviet Moon Space Program: Luna 21 Horizon

Spoofs

  • "I Faked The Moon Landing" pop video by Men From Earth
  • Parody with The Clangers
  • The Mad Revisionist - This web site says the Moon Landings are a hoax because the Moon does not exist.

Image File history File links Info_non-talk. ... A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix kilo-, meaning 1,000) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to either 1,000 bytes or 1,024 bytes (210), depending on context. ... An example of a Web browser (Mozilla Firefox) A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, videos, music and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Apollo moon landing hoax accusations (2220 words)
Although the hoax idea has apparently gained credence with some in the general public (a 1999 Gallup poll suggested 6% of the population of the U.S. believe the claim) nearly all interested scientists and historians have rejected the claim, considering it to be a baseless conspiracy theory.
The landing skeptics believe that the moon landings of Apollo 11 on July 20, 1969 and subsequent missions never happened, but were faked on Earth.
Some landing skeptics have claimed that famed director Stanley Kubrick was somehow a part of the conspiracy, usually casting him as the director of the moon landing sequence.
Apollo Moon Landing Hoax Accusations (508 words)
Apollo 11 was thereby limited to using a fl-and-white, slow-scan TV camera with a scan rate of 10 frames-per-second at 320 lines-per-frame.
The Apollo Moon landing hoax accusations are a set of allegations that some or all elements of the Apollo Moon landings were faked by NASA and possibly members of other involved organizations.
Apollo Moon Landing hoax accusations are claims that some or all elements of the Apollo Moon landings were faked by NASA and possibly members of other involved organizations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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