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Encyclopedia > Apollo Lunar Module
Grumman Apollo LM

Apollo LM on lunar surface
Description
Role: Lunar landing
Crew: 2; CDR, LM pilot
Dimensions
Height: 20.9 ft 6.37 m
Diameter: 14 ft 4.27 m
Landing gear span: 29.75 ft 9.07 m
Volume: 235 ft3 6.65 m³
Masses
Ascent module: 10,024 lb 4,547 kg
Descent module: 22,375 lb 10,149 kg
Total: 32,399 lb 14,696 kg
Rocket engines
LM RCS (N2O4/UDMH) x 16: 100 lbf ea 441 N
Ascent Propulsion System
(N2O4/Aerozine 50) x 1:
3,500 lbf ea 15.6 kN
Descent Propulsion System
(N2O4/Aerozine 50) x 1:
9,982 lbf ea 44.40 kN
Performance
Endurance: 3 days 72 hours
Aposelene: 100 miles 160 km
Periselene: surface surface
Spacecraft delta v: 15,390 ft/s 4,690 m/s
Apollo LM diagram

Apollo LM diagram (NASA)
Grumman Apollo LM
The LEM flight instrumentation panel and front windows. Credit: Alexandre Sabbatini
The LEM flight instrumentation panel and front windows. Credit: Alexandre Sabbatini

The Apollo Lunar Module was the lander portion of the Apollo spacecraft built for the US Apollo program to achieve the transit from moon orbit to the surface and back. The module was also known as the LM from the manufacturer designation (yet pronounced "LEM" from NASA's early name for it, Lunar Excursion Module). Apollo 16 LM on lunar surface (NASA) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Aerozine 50 is a 50/50 mix of hydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH). ... Aerozine 50 is a 50/50 mix of hydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH). ... Download high resolution version (500x698, 26 KB)line drawing of lunar module spacecraft This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image File history File links Ksc12. ... Image File history File links Ksc12. ... This article is about the spacecraft type. ... Apollo Spacecraft: Command Module, Service Module, Lunar Module. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Description Role: Earth and Lunar Orbit Crew: 3; CDR, CM pilot, LM pilot Dimensions Height: 36. ... Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ...


The module was designed to carry two crew in a 6.65 m³ space. The total module was 6.4 m high and 4.3 m across, resting on four legs. It consisted of two stages — the descent stage module and the ascent stage. The total mass of the module was 15,264 kg with the majority of that (10,334 kg) in the descent stage.


HOLIDAYS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


The Apollo Lunar Module came into being because NASA chose to reach the moon via a lunar orbit rendezvous (LOR) instead of a direct ascent or Earth orbit rendezvous (EOR) (see Choosing a mission mode for more information on the available rendezvous types). Both a direct ascent and an EOR would have involved the entire Apollo spacecraft landing on the moon; once the decision had been made to proceed using LOR, it became necessary to produce a separate craft capable of reaching the lunar surface. A space rendezvous between two spacecraft, often between a spacecraft and a space station, is an orbital maneuver where the two arrive at the same orbit, make the orbital velocities the same, and bring them together (an approach maneuver, taxiing maneuver); it may or may not include docking. ... Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by the United States of America (NASA) using the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, conducted during the years 1961–1975. ...


The LM contract was given to Grumman Aircraft Engineering and a number of subcontractors. Grumman had begun lunar orbit rendezvous studies in late 1950s and again in 1962. In July 1962 eleven firms were invited to submit proposals for the LM. Nine did so in September, and Grumman was awarded the contract that same month. The contract cost was expected to be around $350 million. There were initially four major subcontractors — Bell Aerosystems (ascent engine), Hamilton Standard (environmental control systems), Marquardt (reaction control system) and Rocketdyne (descent engine). The Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation, later Grumman Aerospace Corporation, was a leading producer of military and civilian aircraft of the 20th century. ... Hamilton Standard, a famous aircraft propeller part supplier, was founded in 1910 by Thomas F. Hamilton. ... Marquardt Corporation was one of the few aeronautical engineering firms that was dedicated almost solely to the development of the ramjet engine. ... F-1 rocket engine Rocketdyne is the premier rocket engine design and production company in the United States. ...


The primary guidance, navigation and control system (PGNCS) on the LM was developed by the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory. The Apollo Guidance Computer was manufactured by Raytheon. A similar guidance system was used in the Command Module. A backup navigation tool, the Abort Guidance System (AGS), was developed by TRW. The Apollo Primary Guidance, Navigation and Control System (PGNCS) (pronounced pings) was a self-contained inertial guidance system that allowed Apollo spacecraft to carry out their missions when communications with Earth were interrupted, either as expected, when the spacecraft were behind the moon, or in case of a communications failure. ... The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. ... The Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) was the first recognizably modern embedded system, used in real-time by astronaut pilots to collect and provide flight information, and to automatically control all of the navigational functions of the Apollo spacecraft. ... Raytheon Company (NYSE: RTN) is a major United States military contractor based in Waltham, Massachusetts. ... The Command/Service Module (CSM) was a spacecraft built for NASA by North American Aviation. ... TRW Incorporated was an American corporation involved in a number of businesses, mostly defense-related, but including automotive supply and credit reporting. ...


To learn lunar landing techniques, astronauts practiced in the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV), a flying vehicle that simulated the Lunar Module on earth. A 200-foot-tall, 400-foot-long gantry structure was constructed at NASA Langley Research Center; the LLRV was suspended in this structure from a crane, and "piloted" by moving the crane. (The facility is now known as the Impact Dynamics Research Facility, and is used for aircraft crash tests.) Description Role: Research Aircraft Crew: one, pilot Dimensions Length: 22. ... Langley Research Center NASA Langley 14 x 22 foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel. ...


Early configurations of the LEM included a forward docking port, initially it was believed the LEM crew would be active in the docking with the CSM. Early designs included large curved windows. Configuration freeze did not start until April 1963 when the ascent and descent engine design was decided. In addition to Rocketdyne a parallel program for the descent engine was ordered from Space Technology Laboratories in July 1963, and by January 1965 the Rocketdyne contract was cancelled. As the program continued there were numerous redesigns to save weight (including "Operation Scrape"), improve safety, and fix problems. For example initially the module was to be powered by fuel cells, built by Pratt and Whitney but in March 1965 they were paid off in favor of an all battery design. A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... Pratt & Whitney is an American owned aircraft engine manufacturer whose products are widely used in both civil and military aircraft. ...


The initial design iteration had the LEM with three landing legs. It was felt that three legs, though the lightest configuration, was the least stable if one of the legs were damaged during landing. The next landing gear design iteration had five legs and was the most stable configuration for landing on an unknown terrain. That configuration was too heavy and the compromise was four landing legs.


The first LM flight was on January 22, 1968 when the unmanned LM-1 was launched on a Saturn IB for testing of propulsion systems in orbit. The next LM flight was aboard Apollo 9 using LM-3 on March 3, 1969 as a manned flight (McDivitt, Scott and Schweickart) to test a number of systems in Earth orbit including LM and CSM crew transit, LM propulsion, separation and docking. Apollo 10, launched on May 18, 1969, was another series of tests, this time in lunar orbit with the LM separating and descending to within 10 km of the surface. From the successful tests the LM successfully descended and ascended from the lunar surface with Apollo 11. January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... Apollo 9 was the third manned mission in the Apollo program, a ten day earth-orbital mission launched 3 March 1969. ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (63rd in leap years). ... Year 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Apollo 10 was the fourth manned mission in the Apollo program, and the first (and only manned Saturn V) mission to launch from pad 39B. The mission included the second crew to orbit the Moon, and the test of the lunar module in lunar orbit. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... Year 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Apollo 11 was the first manned mission to land on the Moon. ...


In April 1970, the lunar module Aquarius played an unexpected role in saving the lives of the three astronauts of the Apollo 13 mission (Commander James A. Lovell Jr., CSM pilot John L. Swigert Jr., and LM pilot Fred W. Haise Jr.), after an electrical short circuit caused an oxygen tank in that mission's service module to explode. Aquarius served as a refuge for the astronauts during their return to Earth, while its batteries were used to recharge the vital re-entry batteries of the command module that brought the astronauts through the Earth's atmosphere and to a safe splashdown on April 17, 1970. The LM's descent engine, designed to slow the vehicle during its descent to the moon, was used to accelerate the Apollo 13 spacecraft around the moon and back to Earth. After the accident, the LM's systems, designed to support two astronauts for 45 hours, actually supported three astronauts for 90 hours. Apollo 13 was the third manned lunar-landing mission, part of the foundation of the American Apollo program. ... A spacecrafts service module is a compartment containing a variety of support systems used for spacecraft operations, but not any habitable area. ... April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ...

Contents

Lunar Module specifications

The Lunar Module was the portion of the Apollo spacecraft that landed on the moon and returned to lunar orbit. It is divided into two major parts, the Descent Module and the Ascent Module.


The Descent Module contains the landing gear, landing radar antenna, descent rocket engine, and fuel to land on the moon. It also had several cargo compartments used to carry among other things, the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Packages ALSEP, Mobile Equipment Cart (a hand-pulled equipment cart used on Apollo 14), the Lunar Rover (moon car) used on Apollo 15, 16 and 17), surface television camera, surface tools and lunar sample collection boxes. It also carried the majority of the LM's battery power and oxygen, along with the single water tank needed to both cool the electronics and provide the astronauts with enough drinking water for a two- to three-day stay. Also, on the ladder of the descent stage is attached a plaque. The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package, or ALSEP, was a set of connected scientific instruments left on the Moon when the Apollo program ended. ... Apollo 14 was the eighth manned mission in the Apollo program and the third mission to land on the Moon. ... Lunar Rover-Manned land vehicle (NASA) The Lunar Roving Vehicle or Lunar rover or LRV is a land vehicle for use on the Moon. ... Apollo 15 was the ninth manned mission in the Apollo program and the fourth mission to land on the Moon. ... Apollo 16 was the tenth manned mission in the Apollo program and the fifth mission to land on the Moon. ... Apollo 17 was the eleventh manned space mission in the NASA Apollo program and was the sixth and last manned mission to date to land on the Moon. ... Lunar Plaques are square stainless steel plaques (9 x 7 5/8) attached to the ladders on the descent stages of the lunar modules used from Apollo 11 thru Apollo 17. ...


The Ascent Module contains the crew cabin, instrument panels, overhead hatch/docking port, forward hatch, reaction control system, radar and communications antennas, ascent rocket engine and enough fuel, battery power, and breathing oxygen to return to lunar orbit and rendezvous with the Apollo Command and Service Modules.

  • Specifications: (Baseline LM)
    • Ascent Stage:
      • Crew: 2
      • Crew cabin volume: 6.65 m³ (235 ft3)
      • Height: 3.76 m (12.34 ft)
      • Diameter: 4.2 m (13.78 ft)
      • Mass including fuel: 4,670 kg (10,300 lb)
      • Atmosphere: 100% oxygen at 33 kPa (4.8 lb/in2)
      • Water: two 19.3 kg (42.5 lb) storage tanks
      • Coolant: 11.3 kg (25 lb) of ethylene glycol/water solution
      • RCS (Reaction Control System) Propellant mass: 287 kg (633 lb)
      • RCS thrusters: 16 x 445 N; four quads
      • RCS propellants: N2O4/UDMH
      • RCS specific impulse: 2.84 kN·s/kg
      • APS Propellant mass: 2,353 kg (5,187 lb)
      • APS thrust: 15.6 kN (3,500 lbf)
      • APS propellants: N2O4/Aerozine 50 (UDMH/N2H4)
      • APS pressurant: 2 x 2.9 kg helium tanks at 21 MPa
      • Engine specific impulse: 3.05 kN·s/kg
      • Thrust-to-weight ratio: 0.34 (in Earth gravity - The thrust was less than the weight on Earth, but enough on the Moon)
      • Ascent stage delta V: 2,220 m/s (7,280 ft/s)
      • Batteries: 2 x 296 Ah silver-zinc batteries
      • Power: 28 V DC, 115 V 400 Hz AC
    • Descent Stage:
      • Height: 3.2 m (10.5 ft)
      • Diameter: 4.2 m (13.8 ft)
      • Landing gear diameter: 9.4 m (30.8 ft)
      • Mass including fuel: 10,334 kg (22,783 lb)
      • Water: 1 x 151 kg storage tank
      • Power: 2 x 296 Ah silver-zinc batteries (secondary system)
      • Propellants mass: 8,165 kg (18,000 lb)
      • DPS thrust: 45.04 kN (10,125 lbf), throttleable to 4.56 kN (1025 lbf)
      • DPS propellants: N2O4/Aerozine 50 (UDMH/N2H4)
      • DPS pressurant: 1 x 22 kg supercritical helium tank at 10.72 kPa.
      • Engine specific impulse: 3050 N·s/kg
      • Descent stage delta V: 2,470 m/s (8,100 ft/s)
      • Batteries: 4 x 400 A·h silver-zinc batteries
Apollo Spacecraft: Apollo Lunar Module Diagram.
Apollo Spacecraft: Apollo Lunar Module Diagram.
Apollo Lunar Module
Apollo Lunar Module
A Lunar Module in the National Air and Space Museum.
A Lunar Module in the National Air and Space Museum.


Ethylene glycol (monoethylene glycol (MEG), IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an alcohol with two -OH groups (a diol), a chemical compound widely used as an automotive antifreeze. ... Nitrogen tetroxide (or dinitrogen tetroxide) is the chemical compound N2O4. ... Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) (1,1-Dimethylhydrazine) is a hypergolic rocket fuel ingredient, often used in combination with the oxidiser nitrogen tetroxide. ... Aerozine 50 is a 50/50 mix of hydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH). ... The specific impulse (commonly abbreviated Isp) of a propulsion system is the impulse (change in momentum) per unit mass of propellant. ... The specific impulse (commonly abbreviated Isp) of a propulsion system is the impulse (change in momentum) per unit mass of propellant. ... Apollo Lunar Module diagram I created this diagram in Paint Shop Pro from several NASA photos downloaded from the NASA NIX IMAGE SERVER website: http://nix. ... Apollo Lunar Module diagram I created this diagram in Paint Shop Pro from several NASA photos downloaded from the NASA NIX IMAGE SERVER website: http://nix. ... Download high resolution version (549x720, 98 KB)Lunar Module (NASA illustration) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (549x720, 98 KB)Lunar Module (NASA illustration) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 118 KB)Lunar lander LM2 at the National Air & Space Museum, Washington DC. This was built for unmanned orbital tests, but following the success of LM1 on Apollo 5, its mission was scrapped. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 118 KB)Lunar lander LM2 at the National Air & Space Museum, Washington DC. This was built for unmanned orbital tests, but following the success of LM1 on Apollo 5, its mission was scrapped. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Lunar Modules produced

Serial number Use Launch date Current location
LM-1 Apollo 5 January 22, 1968 Reentered Earth's atmosphere
LM-2
 
Not flown
 
On display at the National Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC. ( Photo).
 
LM-3 Spider Apollo 9 March 3, 1969 Reentered Earth's atmosphere
LM-4 Snoopy Apollo 10 May 18, 1969 Descent stage impacted Moon; Ascent stage in solar orbit
LM-5 Eagle Apollo 11 July 16, 1969 Descent stage on lunar surface; Ascent stage left in lunar orbit, eventually crashed on moon
LM-6 Intrepid Apollo 12 November 14, 1969 Descent stage on lunar surface; Ascent stage deliberately crashed into moon
LM-7 Aquarius Apollo 13 April 11, 1970 Reentered Earth's atmosphere over Fiji
LM-8 Antares Apollo 14 January 31, 1971 Descent stage on lunar surface; Ascent stage deliberately crashed into moon
LM-9
 
Not flown
 
On display at the Kennedy Space Center (Apollo/Saturn V Center)
 
LM-10 Falcon Apollo 15 July 26, 1971 Descent stage on lunar surface; Ascent stage deliberately crashed into moon
LM-11 Orion Apollo 16 April 16, 1972 Descent stage on lunar surface; Ascent stage deliberately crashed into moon
LM-12 Challenger Apollo 17 December 7, 1972 Descent stage on lunar surface; Ascent stage deliberately crashed into moon
LM-13
 
Not flown (meant for later Apollo flights)
 
Partially completed by Grumman; restored and on display at Cradle of Aviation Museum, Long Island, New York
LM-14
 
Not flown (meant for later Apollo flights)
 
Never completed; unconfirmed reports claim that some parts (in addition to parts from test vehicle LTA-3) are included in LM on display at the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia (see Franklin Institute web page.)
LM-15
 
Not flown (meant for later Apollo flights)
 
Scrapped
 
* For the location of LMs left on the Lunar surface, see the list of artificial objects on the Moon.

Apollo 5 was the first unmanned flight of the Apollo Lunar Module, which would later carry astronauts to the lunar surface. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Download high resolution version (480x640, 118 KB)Lunar lander LM2 at the National Air & Space Museum, Washington DC. This was built for unmanned orbital tests, but following the success of LM1 on Apollo 5, its mission was scrapped. ... Apollo 9 was the third manned mission in the Apollo program, a ten day earth-orbital mission launched 3 March 1969. ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (63rd in leap years). ... Year 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Apollo 10 was the fourth manned mission in the Apollo program, and the first (and only manned Saturn V) mission to launch from pad 39B. The mission included the second crew to orbit the Moon, and the test of the lunar module in lunar orbit. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... Year 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Apollo 11 was the first manned mission to land on the Moon. ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... Year 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Apollo 12 was the sixth manned mission in the Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon. ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining until the end of the year. ... Year 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Apollo 13 was the third manned lunar-landing mission, part of the foundation of the American Apollo program. ... April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ... Apollo 14 was the eighth manned mission in the Apollo program and the third mission to land on the Moon. ... January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1971 calendar). ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is the NASA space vehicle launch facility (spaceport) at Cape Canaveral on Merritt Island in Florida, United States. ... Apollo 15 was the ninth manned mission in the Apollo program and the fourth mission to land on the Moon. ... July 26 is the 207th day (208th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 158 days remaining. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1971 calendar). ... Apollo 16 was the tenth manned mission in the Apollo program and the fifth mission to land on the Moon. ... April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Apollo 17 was the eleventh manned space mission in the NASA Apollo program and was the sixth and last manned mission to date to land on the Moon. ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Grumman logo The Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation, later Grumman Aerospace Corporation, was a leading producer of military and civilian aircraft of the 20th century. ... An aviation museum located in Long Island, NY. Contains full scale models of airplances from various time periods. ... This article is about Long Island in New York State. ... The Franklin Institute is the memorial to Benjamin Franklin, that serves to perpetuate his legacy; the museum contains many of Franklins personal effects. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Cradle of Liberty, the City That Loves You Back, the Quaker City, The Birthplace of America Motto: Philadelphia maneto - Let brotherly love continue Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor... Map of the moon showing some landing sites. ...

LM Truck

The Apollo LM Truck was a stand-alone LM descent stage intended to deliver up to five metric tons of payload to the Moon for an unmanned landing. This technique was intended to deliver equipment and supplies to a permanent manned lunar base that was never built. As originally proposed, it would be launched on a Saturn V with a full Apollo crew to accompany it to lunar orbit and then guide it to a landing next to the base; the base crew would then unload the "truck" while the orbiting crew returned to earth. An artists rendering of a lunar base. ...


In fiction

The LM and LM Truck, using a modified mission profile, appear in Shane Johnson's novel Ice, about a fictional Apollo 19 mission that takes a disastrous turn. In this scenario, the LM Truck is delivered on a Saturn IB and makes a preprogrammed landing at the proposed landing site; a J-mission Apollo crew then lands a conventional LM next to it, in a feat of precision landing recalling that of Pete Conrad during Apollo 12. Also in this novel, the LM, which happens to be LM-13, fails to fire its ascent engine, stranding two astronauts on the Moon — something that never happened in Project Apollo. Shane Johnson is an author, a graphic artist, and an amateur historian specializing in Project Apollo. ... Ice is an alternate history novel concerning a fictional Apollo 19 mission that suffers a major system failure. ... Due to budget constraints there were many cancelled Apollo missions during Project Apollo. ... The Saturn IB was an uprated version of the Saturn I, which was the first manned launch vehicle that was not directly derived from an ICBM (though its tanks were derived from the Jupiter and Redstone tanks, and its first stage engines were Navaho derived). ... Charles Pete Conrad, Jr. ... Apollo 12 was the sixth manned mission in the Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon. ...


In the movie Superman II, the film's supervillains visit the moon on their way to earth, and encounter a modernized version of the LM (still bearing an obvious resemblance), which they destroy along with its crew of three (two Americans, one Soviet). Superman II is the 1980 sequel to the 1978 feature film Superman. ...


Successors

The LM design was later incorporated into the Apollo Telescope Mount on the successful Skylab space station. Originally planned to be launched on an unmanned Saturn 1B rocket, similar to the unmanned Apollo 5 test flight, NASA decided to save costs and launch the ATM with the station itself. This decision saved the station, as the ATM's "windmill" solar panels helped keep the station operational after damage to the station's solar panels during launch. One of the station's solar panels was damaged during launch, and the other was ripped off. The Apollo Telescope Mount, or ATM, is the name of a solar observatory that was attached to Skylab, the first US space station. ... Skylab was the first space station the United States launched into orbit. ... Apollo 5 was the first unmanned flight of the Apollo Lunar Module, which would later carry astronauts to the lunar surface. ...


In 2005, NASA announced that the successor to the Space Shuttle, the Orion spacecraft (itself based on the Apollo CSM), would feature, for its lunar landing missions, a Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) which is roughly based on the Apollo LM. Like the LM, it has both descent and ascent modules (the latter to house the crew), but unlike the LM, it will incorporate improved computer systems, laser-range and radar tracking systems for landing, waste-management systems, and an airlock for the crew, eliminating the need to depressurize the entire cockpit and allowing the astronauts to track as little lunar dust into the cabin as possible (a problem highly associated with the last three Apollo missions, when crews went into the lunar highlands). NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ... Orion spacecraft in lunar orbit Orion spacecraft with docked LSAM lunar lander Orion spacecraft approaching the ISS Orion during a landing on Earth The Orion Spacecraft (formerly known as the Crew Exploration Vehicle or CEV) is a proposed series of American manned and unmanned spacecraft, intended to replace the Space... The Command/Service Module (CSM) was a spacecraft built for NASA by North American Aviation. ... The LSAM launches its ascent stage to return the astronauts to Lunar Orbit. ...


The LSAM will be powered by four RL-10 engines descent stage and a single RL-10 engine in the ascent stage, both of which are fueled by liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX), which are more powerful than the hypergolic fuels used on the LM (as well as being safer, as LH2 and LOX produces water, while hypergolics are very toxic). This will allow the LSAM to land anywhere on the Moon, although NASA has targeted the the polar regions of the Moon (Apollo was limited to the equatorial regions), which is a desired location for a future lunar base. RL-10 Rocket Engine Specifications. ...


In addition, the LSAM can be flown by an astronaut crew, or even unmanned (similar in nature to the unmanned aerial drones used by the U.S. Air Force), the latter to bring supplies to the future lunar outpost(s), thus the LSAM would function as the proposed, yet unflown "LM Truck" that was envisioned in the Apollo Applications Program. In the unmanned configuration, the LSAM can carry as much weight as the LM would weight itself fully fueled. Seal of the Air Force. ... The Apollo Applications Program (AAP) was established by NASA headquarters in 1968 to develop science based manned space missions using surplus material from the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. ...


The only major difference between the LSAM and the LM is that the LSAM will be launched separately on the Shuttle-derived Ares V rocket, with the CEV being launched separately on the man-rated Ares I rocket. Once in orbit, the Orion CSM will then dock with the LSAM and then be propelled to the Moon on the Earth Departure Stage. The LM, on the other hand, was launched along with the CSM on the Saturn V rocket and then was retrieved after the S-IVB finished firing the translunar injection burn. Comparison of the Saturn V, Space Shuttle and the two Shuttle Derived Launch Vehicles proposed to replace the Shuttle. ... Comparison of the Saturn V, Space Shuttle, Ares I, and Ares V. This article is about the Ares V launch vehicle. ... This article is about the Ares I launch vehicle. ... The Earth Departure Stage (EDS) is the name of the upper stage of the heavy-lift Ares V (CaLV) that will place the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) into low Earth orbit for Project Constellation. ... This article is about the rocket. ...


As an additional note, the LM was given a call sign to identify it separately from the CSM – all LSAMs will possibly bear the name "Artemis," the Greek name for the Moon goddess, as the "Orion" name has already been chosen for the orbiter. Unlike the CSM and LM, the CEV/LSAM combination will bear a dual identity number, much like the Spacelab missions associated with the Space Shuttle (i.e. STS-9/Spacelab 1) or the Salyut space stations orbited by the former Soviet Union in the 1970's and 1980's (i.e. Soyuz 11/Salyut 1). Spacelab in payload bay during STS-90 Spacelab is a microgravity laboratory flown into space on the Space Shuttle. ... STS-9 (Spacelab 1) was a United States Space Shuttle mission, the 6th mission of the Columbia orbiter. ... The Salyut (Russian: Салют, Salute or Firework) program was a series of space stations launched by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. ... Soyuz 11 was the second attempted and the first successful visit to the worlds first space station, Salyut 1. ... Salyut 1 (DOS 1) was the first Salyut space station, and the first human-made space station of any kind. ...


Media

Image File history File links Apollo 15 landing on the Moon. ... Apollo 15 was the ninth manned mission in the Apollo program and the fourth mission to land on the Moon. ... A megabyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to exactly one million bytes. ... Look up Ogg in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ... Image File history File links Apollo 15 liftoff from the Moon. ... Apollo 15 was the ninth manned mission in the Apollo program and the fourth mission to land on the Moon. ... Lunar Rover-Manned land vehicle (NASA) The Lunar Roving Vehicle or Lunar rover or LRV is a land vehicle for use on the Moon. ... A megabyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to exactly one million bytes. ... Look up Ogg in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ... Image File history File links Apollo 15 liftoff from inside LM.ogg Please see the file description page for further information. ... Apollo 15 was the ninth manned mission in the Apollo program and the fourth mission to land on the Moon. ... A megabyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to exactly one million bytes. ... Look up Ogg in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ... Ap17-ascent. ... Apollo 17 was the eleventh manned space mission in the NASA Apollo program and was the sixth and last manned mission to date to land on the Moon. ... Lunar Rover-Manned land vehicle (NASA) The Lunar Roving Vehicle or Lunar rover or LRV is a land vehicle for use on the Moon. ... A megabyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to exactly one million bytes. ... Look up Ogg in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ...

External links

References

  • Kelly, Thomas J. (2001). Moon Lander: How We Developed the Apollo Lunar Module (Smithsonian History of Aviation and Spaceflight Series). Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 1-56098-998-X.
  • Baker, David (1981). The History of Manned Space Flight. Crown Publishers. ISBN 0-517-54377-X
  • Brooks, Courtney J., Grimwood, James M. and Swenson, Loyd S. Jr (1979) Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft NASA SP-4205.
  • Sullivan, Scott P. (2004) Virtual LM: A Pictorial Essay of the Engineering and Construction of the Apollo Lunar Module. Apogee Books. ISBN 1-894959-14-0
  • Stoff, Joshua. (2004) Building Moonships: The Grumman Lunar Module. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 0-7385-3586-9

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Apollo Lunar Module

  Results from FactBites:
 
Project Apollo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3529 words)
The Lunar Module itself was composed of a descent stage and an ascent stage, the former serving as a launch platform for the latter when the lunar exploration party blasted off for lunar orbit where they would dock with the CSM prior to returning to Earth.
To learn lunar landing techniques, astronauts practiced in the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV), a flying vehicle that simulated (by means of a special, additional jet engine) the reduced gravity that the Lunar Module would actually fly in.
Two of the flights (Apollo 7 and Apollo 9) were Earth orbital missions, two of the flights (Apollo 8 and Apollo 10) were lunar orbital missions, and the remaining 7 flights were lunar landing missions (although one, Apollo 13, failed to land).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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