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Encyclopedia > Apollo 7
Apollo 7
Mission insignia
Mission statistics
Mission name: Apollo 7
Command Module: CM-101
Service Module: SM-101
Booster: Saturn IB SA-205
Call sign: Command module:
Apollo 7
Number of crew members: 3
Launch pad: Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida
LC-34
Launch: October 11, 1968
15:02:45 UTC
Landing: October 22, 1968
11:11:48 UTC
27° 38' N - 64° 09' W
Duration: 10 d 20 h 9 min 3 s
Number of Orbits: 163
Apogee: 297 km
Perigee: 231 km
Period: 89.78 min
Orbit inclination: 31.63
Mass: CSM 14,781 kg
Crew photo

Apollo 7 crew portrait (L-R: Eisele, Schirra and Cunningham)
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Apollo 7 was the first manned mission in the Apollo program to be launched. It was an eleven-day earth-orbital mission, the first manned launch of the Saturn IB launch vehicle, and the first three-man American space mission. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (912x700, 885 KB)[1]. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Saturn IB was an uprated version of the Saturn I, which was the first manned launch vehicle that was not directly derived from an ICBM (though its tanks were derived from the Jupiter and Redstone tanks, and its first stage engines were Navaho derived). ... The Command/Service Module (CSM) was a spacecraft built for NASA by North American Aviation. ... The Bumper V-2 was the first missile launched at Cape Canaveral on July 24, 1950. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... A Saturn I at Pad 34, ready for mission SA-3 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 34 (LC-34) is a launch site at Merritt Island, Cape Canaveral, Florida. ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the 1968 Gregorian calendar. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precison atomic time standard. ... October 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the 1968 Gregorian calendar. ... A diagram of Keplerian orbital elements. ... A diagram of Keplerian orbital elements. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... Inclination in general is the angle between a reference plane and another plane or axis of direction. ... Apolllo 7 crew: Eisle, Schirra, Cunningham. ... Apollo 6, launched in April 1968, was the Apollo programs second and last unmanned test flight of its Saturn V launch vehicle. ... Apollo 8 was the second manned mission of the Apollo space program, in which Commander Frank Borman, Command Module Pilot James Lovell and Lunar Module Pilot William Anders became the first humans to orbit around the Moon. ... Description Role: Earth and Lunar Orbit Crew: 3; CDR, CM pilot, LM pilot Dimensions Height: 36. ... The Saturn IB was an uprated version of the Saturn I, which was the first manned launch vehicle that was not directly derived from an ICBM (though its tanks were derived from the Jupiter and Redstone tanks, and its first stage engines were Navaho derived). ...

Contents

Crew

This crew was originally the backup crew of the ill-fated Apollo 1.
*Number in parentheses indicates number of spaceflights by each individual, prior to and including this mission. Walter M. “Wally” Schirra Walter Marty Schirra, Jr. ... NASA Astronaut Donn F. Eisele The Apollo 7 crew: Donn Eisele(l. ... Ronnie Walter Walt Cunningham (born March 16, 1932) was an American astronaut. ... Apollo One is the official name given to the Apollo/Saturn 204 (AS-204) spacecraft, destroyed by fire during a training exercise on January 27, 1967, at Pad 34 (Launch Complex 34 at Cape Canaveral - then known as Cape Kennedy) atop a Saturn IB rocket. ...


Backup Crew

See also: Tom Stafford (astronomer). ... Gemini 6A (officially Gemini VI-A) was a 1965 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Gemini 9A (officially Gemini IX-A) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Apollo 10 was the fourth manned mission in the Apollo program, and the first (and only manned Saturn V) mission to launch from pad 39B. The mission included the second crew to orbit the Moon, and the test of the lunar module in lunar orbit. ... The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was the first joint flight of the US and Soviet space programs. ... John W. Young in 1986 John Watts Young (born September 24, 1930) is a former NASA astronaut who walked on the Moon on Apollo 16, April 21, 1972. ... Gemini 3 was a 1965 manned space flight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Gemini 10 (officially Gemini X) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Apollo 10 was the fourth manned mission in the Apollo program, and the first (and only manned Saturn V) mission to launch from pad 39B. The mission included the second crew to orbit the Moon, and the test of the lunar module in lunar orbit. ... Apollo 16 was the tenth manned mission in the Apollo program and the fifth mission to land on the Moon. ... The first Space Shuttle mission, STS-1, launched April 12, 1981, returned April 14. ... STS-9 (Spacelab 1) was a United States Space Shuttle mission, the 6th mission of the Columbia orbiter. ... Eugene Andrew Cernan (born March 14, 1934) is a former American astronaut. ... Gemini 9A (officially Gemini IX-A) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Apollo 10 was the fourth manned mission in the Apollo program, and the first (and only manned Saturn V) mission to launch from pad 39B. The mission included the second crew to orbit the Moon, and the test of the lunar module in lunar orbit. ... Apollo 17 was the eleventh manned space mission in the NASA Apollo program. ...

Support Crew

Ronald Ellwin Evans, Jr. ... Apollo 17 was the eleventh manned space mission in the NASA Apollo program. ... Edward Galen (Ed) Givens Jr (January 5, 1930 - June 6, 1967) was a NASA astronaut selected in the 1966 Original 19 group. ... John Leonard Jack Swigert, Jr. ... Apollo 13 was the third manned lunar-landing mission, part of Project Apollo under the NASA in the United States. ... William Reid Pogue (born January 23, 1930) was an American astronaut. ... Skylab 4 or SL-4 was the fourth Skylab mission and placed the third crew on board. ...

Flight directors

Glynn Lunney as manager of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (1974) Glynn S. Lunney (born November 27, 1936) is a retired NASA engineer. ... Gene Kranz in a more recent photo. ...

Mission highlights

Apollo 7 was a confidence-builder. After the January 1967 Apollo launch pad fire, the Apollo command module had been extensively redesigned. Schirra, who would be the only astronaut to fly Mercury, Gemini and Apollo missions, commanded this Earth-orbital shakedown of the command and service modules. Since it was not carrying a lunar module, Apollo 7 could be launched with the Saturn IB booster rather than the much larger and more powerful Saturn V. Schirra wanted to give Apollo 7 the callsign "Phoenix" (the mythical bird rising from its own ashes) in memory to the loss of the Apollo 1 crew, but NASA higher-ups nixed that idea; fearing public backlash. Apollo One is the official name given to the Apollo/Saturn 204 (AS-204) spacecraft, destroyed by fire during a training exercise on January 27, 1967, at Pad 34 (Launch Complex 34 at Cape Canaveral - then known as Cape Kennedy) atop a Saturn IB rocket. ... Description Role: Orbital spaceflight Crew: one, pilot Dimensions Height: 11. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Description Role: Lunar landing Crew: 2; CDR, LM pilot Dimensions Height: 20. ... The Saturn IB was an uprated version of the Saturn I, which was the first manned launch vehicle that was not directly derived from an ICBM (though its tanks were derived from the Jupiter and Redstone tanks, and its first stage engines were Navaho derived). ... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ...


The Apollo hardware and all mission operations worked without any significant problems, and the Service Propulsion System (SPS), the all-important engine that would place Apollo in and out of lunar orbit, made eight nearly perfect firings. Even though Apollo's larger cabin was more comfortable than Gemini's, eleven days in orbit took its toll on the astronauts. The food was bad, and all three developed colds. As a result Schirra became irritable with requests from Mission Control and all three began "talking back" to the Capcom, leading to none of the crew being selected for further missions. But the mission successfully proved the space-worthiness of the basic Apollo vehicle. During much of the U.S. manned space program, NASA felt it was important for all communication with the astronauts in space to pass through a single individual in the Mission Control Center. ...


Goals for the mission included the first live television broadcast from an American spacecraft (Gordon Cooper had broadcast slow scan television pictures from Faith 7 in 1963) and testing the lunar module docking maneuver. Apollo Lunar Television Camera TV cameras used on the Apollo (and later ASTP and Skylab) missions varied in design, with image quality improving significantly with each design. ... Leroy Gordon Gordo Cooper, Jr. ... Slow-scan television (SSTV) is used by amateur radio operators, to transmit and receive static pictures in monochrome (black & white) or colour. ... Crew Gordon Cooper Backup Crew Alan B. Shepard Mission Parameters Mass: 1,360. ... Description Role: Lunar landing Crew: 2; CDR, LM pilot Dimensions Height: 20. ...


First orbit: Perigee 231 km, Apogee 297 km, Period 89.78 min, Inclination 31.63 deg. Weight: C/SM 14,781 kg. Perigee is the point at which an object in orbit around the Earth makes its closest approach to the Earth. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ...


The splashdown point was 27 deg 32 min N, 64 deg 04 min W, 200 nautical miles (370 km) SSW of Bermuda and 13 km (8 mi) north of the recovery ship USS Essex. The fourth USS Essex (CV-9) (also CVA-9 and CVS-9) was a United States Navy aircraft carrier, the lead ship of her class. ...

The Apollo 7 CM as exhibited at The Frontiers of Flight Museum
The Apollo 7 CM as exhibited at The Frontiers of Flight Museum

For nearly 30 years the Apollo 7 module was on loan (renewable every two years) to the National Museum of Science and Technology of Canada, in Ottawa, along with the space suit worn by Wally Schirra. In November 2003 the Smithsonian Institution in Washington D.C. requested them back for display at their new annex at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center. Currently, the Apollo 7 CM is on loan to the Frontiers of Flight Museum located next to Love Field in Dallas, Texas. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (864 × 648 pixel, file size: 209 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The capsule of Apollo 7 as exhibited in the Frontiers of Flight Museum. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (864 × 648 pixel, file size: 209 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The capsule of Apollo 7 as exhibited in the Frontiers of Flight Museum. ... ... Motto: Advance Ottawa/Ottawa en avant Location of the City of Ottawa in the Province of Ontario Coordinates: Country Canada Province Ontario Established 1850 as Town of Bytown Incorporated 1855 as City of Ottawa Amalgamated January 1, 2001 Government  - Mayor Larry OBrien  - City Council Ottawa City Council  - Representatives 8... Walter Marty Schirra, Jr. ... The Interior of the Udvar-Hazy Center The Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center is the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum (NASM)s annex at Washington Dulles International Airport in Chantilly, Virginia. ... Dallas Love Field Airport (IATA: DAL, ICAO: KDAL) is a public airport located 5 miles (8 km) northwest of Dallas, Texas (USA). ... Nickname: Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: Country United States State Texas Counties Dallas, Collin, Denton, Kaufman, and Rockwall Incorporated 2 February 1856 Government  - Mayor Laura Miller (D)[1] Area  - City  385. ...


Apollo 7 was the only manned Apollo launch to take place from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's Launch Complex 34, as all subsequent Apollo (including Apollo-Soyuz) and Skylab missions were launched from Launch Complex 39 at the nearby Kennedy Space Center. A Saturn I at Pad 34, ready for mission SA-3 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 34 (LC-34) is a launch site at Merritt Island, Cape Canaveral, Florida. ... Launch Complex 39 is a large site and a collection of facilities at the John F. Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island in Florida, USA, originally built for the Apollo program, and later modified to support Space Shuttle operations. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is the NASA space vehicle launch facility (spaceport) at Cape Canaveral on Merritt Island in Florida, United States. ...


As of 2007, Cunningham is the only surviving member of the crew - Eisele died in 1987, and Schirra in 2007.


Mission insignia

The insignia for the flight showed a command and service module with its SPS engine firing, the trail from that fire encircling a globe and extending past the edges of the patch symbolizing the Earth-orbital nature of the mission. The Roman numeral VII appears in the South Pacific Ocean and the crew's names appears on a wide black arc at the bottom. 7 (seven) is the natural number following 6 and preceding 8. ...


References

Pictures

External links

Coordinates: 27°38′N, 64°09′W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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