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Encyclopedia > Apollo 15
Apollo 15
Mission insignia
Mission statistics[1]
Mission name: Apollo 15
Command Module: CM-112
Service Module: SM-112
Lunar Module: LM-10
Booster: Saturn V SA-510
Call sign: Command module:
Endeavour
Lunar module:
Falcon
Number of crew members: 3 people
Launch pad: Kennedy Space Center, Florida
LC 39A
Launch: July 26, 1971
13:34:00 UTC
Lunar landing: July 30, 1971
22:16:29 UTC
Hadley Rille
26° 7' 55.99" N,
3° 38' 1.90" E
(based on the IAU
Mean Earth Polar Axis
coordinate system)
Lunar EVA length: LM Stand Up: 33 min 7 s
1st: 6 h 32 min 42 s
2nd: 7 h 12 min 14 s
3rd: 4 h 49 min 50 s
Lunar surface time: 66 h 54 min 53.9 s
Lunar Roving Vehicle: LRV-1
CMP EVA Duration: 39 min 7 s
Lunar sample mass: 77 kg (170 lb)
Landing: August 7, 1971
20:45:53 UTC
26°13′N, 158°13′W
Duration: 295 h 11 min 53 s
Time in lunar orbit: 145 h 12 min 41.68 s
Mass: CSM: 30,370 kg
LM: 16,430 kg
Crew photo
L-R: Scott, Worden and Irwin
L-R: Scott, Worden and Irwin
Navigation
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Apollo 15 was the ninth manned mission in the Apollo program and the fourth mission to land on the Moon. It was the first of what were termed J missions — long duration stays on the Moon with a greater focus on science than had been possible on previous missions. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (697x700, 654 KB)[1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ... The Command/Service Module (CSM) was a spacecraft built for NASA by North American Aviation. ... The LEM flight instrumentation panel and front windows. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Launch Complex 39 is a large site and a collection of facilities at the John F. Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island in Florida, USA, originally built for the Apollo program, and later modified to support Space Shuttle operations. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Jim Irwin and the LRV from Apollo 15, with Mons Hadley in the background Mons Hadley is a massif is the northern portion of the Montes Apenninus, a range in the north hemisphere of the Moon. ... Logo of the IAU The International Astronomical Union (French: Union astronomique internationale) unites national astronomical societies from around the world. ... In mathematics as applied to geometry, physics or engineering, a coordinate system is a system for assigning a tuple of numbers to each point in an n-dimensional space. ... Lunar Rover-Manned land vehicle (NASA) The Lunar Rover was a manned land vehicle for transport on the Moon. ... Lunar Ferroan Anorthosite #60025 (Plagioclase Feldspar). ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... The Command/Service Module (CSM) was a spacecraft built for NASA by North American Aviation. ... The LEM flight instrumentation panel and front windows. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1344x1131, 386 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Apollo 14 was the eighth manned mission in the Apollo program and the third mission to land on the Moon. ... Apollo 16 was the tenth manned mission in the Apollo program and the fifth mission to land on the Moon. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ...


Commander David Scott and Lunar Module Pilot James Irwin spent three days on the Moon and a total of 18½ hours outside the spacecraft on lunar extra-vehicular activity. The mission was the first not to land in a Lunar mare, instead landing near Hadley rille in an area of the Mare Imbrium called Palus Putredinus (Marsh of Decay). The crew explored the area using the first Lunar Rover allowing them to travel much further from the Lunar Module lander than had previously been possible. They collected a total of 77 kg (170 Earth pounds) of lunar surface material. David Scotts Apollo 15 training space suit on display in the Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC. Colonel David Randolph Scott (born June 6, 1932), a former NASA astronaut, was one of the third group of astronauts named by NASA in October 1963 and is one of only twelve... James Benson Irwin (March 17, 1930 – August 8, 1991) was a member of the Apollo 15 mission in 1971 and the eighth man to walk on the Moon. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... The Lunar maria (singular: mare, IPA: //) are large, dark, basaltic plains on Earths Moon, formed by ancient volcanic eruptions. ... Jim Irwin and the LRV from Apollo 15, with Mons Hadley in the background Mons Hadley is a massif is the northern portion of the Montes Apenninus, a range in the north hemisphere of the Moon. ... Oblique view of Mare Imbrium looking south towards Copernicus crater. ... Lunar Rover-Manned land vehicle (NASA) The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) or Lunar rover was a type of land vehicle used on the Moon. ... The LEM flight instrumentation panel and front windows. ... The pound (abbreviations: lb or, sometimes in the United States, #) is a unit of mass (called weight in everyday parlance) in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


At the same time Command Module Pilot Alfred Worden orbited the Moon, using a Scientific Instrument Module (SIM) to study the lunar surface and environment in great detail using a panoramic camera, gamma ray spectrometer, mapping camera, laser altimeter, mass spectrometer, and lunar sub-satellite that was launched at the end of the mission. Alfred Merrill Worden (born February 7, American astronaut who was the command module pilot for the Apollo 15 moon mission in July_August 1971. ... Source of image data: Los Alamos National Laboratory The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) uses the gamma-ray part of the spectrum to look for the presence of 20 elements from the periodic table, and is used in the exploration of Mars. ... Diagram showing the face of a three-pointer sensitive aircraft altimeter displaying altitude in feet. ... Mass spectrometry (also known as mass spectroscopy (deprecated)[1] or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ...

Contents

Crew

Interestingly, all three astronauts received degrees from the University of Michigan, the only spaceflight in the history of the US space program in which all three astronauts hailed from the same alma mater. David Scotts Apollo 15 training space suit on display in the Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC. Colonel David Randolph Scott (born June 6, 1932), a former NASA astronaut, was one of the third group of astronauts named by NASA in October 1963 and is one of only twelve... Alfred Merrill Worden (born February 7, American astronaut who was the command module pilot for the Apollo 15 moon mission in July_August 1971. ... James Benson Irwin (March 17, 1930 – August 8, 1991) was a member of the Apollo 15 mission in 1971 and the eighth man to walk on the Moon. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, U-M or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan, and one of the foremost universities in the United States. ... Alma mater is Latin for nourishing mother. It was used in ancient Rome as a title for the mother goddess, and in Medieval Christianity for the Virgin Mary. ...


Backup crew

Richard F. Gordon, Jr. ... Vance DeVoe Brand is a former NASA astronaut. ... Dr. Harrison Hagan Jack Schmitt (born July 3, 1935) is a geologist, astronaut and former U.S. senator. ...

Support crew

Joseph Percival Allen, Ph. ... STS-5 was a space shuttle mission by NASA using the Space Shuttle Columbia, launched November 11, 1982. ... STS 51-A was the fourteenth flight of a Space Shuttle and the second flight of Discovery. ... Robert Allan Ridley Parker (Ph. ... STS-9 (Spacelab 1) was a United States Space Shuttle mission, the 6th mission of the Columbia orbiter. ... // (total flights to date in parentheses) Vance D. Brand (4), Commander Guy S. Gardner (2), Pilot Jeffrey A. Hoffman (2), Mission Specialist 1 John M. Lounge (3), Mission Specialist 2 Robert A. Parker (2), Mission Specialist 3 Samuel T. Durrance (1), Payload Specialist 1 Ronald A. Parise (1), Payload Specialist... Karl G. Henize, Ph. ... STS-51-F (Spacelab 2) was the nineteenth flight of a Space Shuttle and the eighth flight of Challenger. ...

Flight directors

Glynn Lunney as manager of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (1974) Glynn S. Lunney (born November 27, 1936) is a retired NASA engineer. ... Gene Kranz in a more recent photo. ...

Mission parameters

  • Mass:
    • Launch mass: 2,921,005 kg
    • Total spacecraft: 46,782 kg
      • CSM mass: 30,354 kg, of which CM was 5840 kg, SM 24,514 kg
      • LM mass: 16,428 kg, ascent stage at lunar liftoff 4,951 kg
  • Earth orbits: 3 before leaving for Moon, about one on return
  • Lunar orbits: 74

Earth parking orbit

Perigee is the point at which an object in orbit around the Earth makes its closest approach to the Earth. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... Inclination in general is the angle between a reference plane and another plane or axis of direction. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ...

LM-CSM docking

Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

EVAs

  • Scott - Stand up EVA - LM upper hatch
  • Start Stand Up EVA: 1971-07-31, 00:16:49 UTC
  • End Stand Up EVA: July 31, 00:49:56 UTC
  • Duration: 33 minutes, 07 seconds
  • Scott and Irwin - EVA 1
  • EVA 1 Start: 1971-07-31, 13:12:17 UTC
  • EVA 1 End: July 31, 19:45:59 UTC
  • Duration: 6 hours, 32 minutes, 42 seconds
  • Scott and Irwin - EVA 2
  • EVA 2 Start: 1971-08-01, 11:48:48 UTC
  • EVA 2 End: August 1, 19:01:02 UTC
  • Duration: 7 hours, 12 minutes, 14 seconds
  • Scott and Irwin - EVA 3
  • EVA 3 Start: 1971-08-02, 08:52:14 UTC
  • EVA 3 End: August 2, 13:42:04 UTC
  • Duration: 4 hours, 49 minutes, 50 seconds
  • Worden - Transearth EVA 4
  • EVA 4 Start: 1971-08-05, 15:31:12 UTC
  • EVA 4 End: August 5, 16:10:19 UTC
  • Duration: 39 minutes, 07 seconds

Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Mission highlights

Incident

Shortly after stage 1 separation, the instrumentation on stage 1 went dead. This was traced to the exhaust of stage 2 striking the stage and burning out the electronics. This had never happened before; and was traced to a reduction in the number of retrofire charges from 8 to 4. It was discovered that the two stages were in fact uncomfortably close, due to the slow thrust decay of the F-1 engines, and failure of any one charge could have caused a collision. Later flights had the original retrofire configuration.


Planning and training

Commander Dave Scott during geology training in New Mexico on 1971-03-19.
Commander Dave Scott during geology training in New Mexico on 1971-03-19.

The crew for Apollo 15 had previously served as the backup crew for Apollo 12. There had been a friendly rivalry between that prime and backup crew on that mission, with the prime being all Navy, and the backup all Air Force. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1728x2385, 830 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1728x2385, 830 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... USN redirects here. ... The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the United States armed forces and one of the seven uniformed services. ...


Originally Apollo 15 would have been an H mission, like Apollos 12, 13, 14. But on September 2, 1970, NASA announced it was cancelling what were to be the current incarnations of the Apollo 15 and Apollo 19 missions. To maximize the return from the remaining missions, Apollo 15 would now fly as a J mission and have the honor of carrying the first Lunar Rover. Apollo 12 was the sixth manned mission in the Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon. ... Original crew photo. ... Apollo 14 was the eighth manned mission in the Apollo program and the third mission to land on the Moon. ... September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... Due to budget constraints there were many cancelled Apollo missions during Project Apollo. ...


One of the major changes in the training for 15 was the geology training. Although on previous flights the crews had been trained in field geology, for the first time 15 would make it a high priority. Scott and Irwin would train with Lee Silver, a Caltech geologist who on Earth was interested in the Precambrian. Silver had been suggested by Harrison Schmitt as an alternative to the classroom lecturers that NASA had previously used. Among other things, Silver had made important refinements to the methods for dating rocks using the decay of uranium into lead in the late 1950s. The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ... Dr. Harrison Hagan Jack Schmitt (born July 3, 1935) is a geologist, astronaut and former U.S. senator. ... General Name, symbol, number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, period, block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ...


At first Silver would take the prime and backup crews to various geological sites as if for a normal field geology lesson, but as launch time approached, these trips became more realistic. Crews began to wear mock-ups of the backpacks they would carry, and communicate using walkie-talkies to a CapCom in a tent. (During a mission the Capsule Communicators, CapComs, were the only people who normally would speak to the crew). The CapCom was accompanied by a group of geologists unfamiliar with the area who would rely on the astronauts' descriptions to interpret the findings. A walkie-talkie is a portable, bi-directional radio transceiver, first developed for military use. ...


The decision to land at Hadley came in September 1970. The Site Selection Committees had narrowed the field down to two sites — Hadley Rille or the crater Marius, near which were a group of low, possibly volcanic, domes. Although not ultimately his decision, the commander of a mission always held great sway. To Dave Scott the choice was clear, with Hadley, being "exploration at its finest". Marius is a lunar crater located on the Oceanus Procellarum. ...


Command Module Pilot Al Worden undertook a different kind of geology training. Working with an Egyptian, Farouk El-Baz, he flew over areas in an airplane simulating the speed at which terrain would pass below him while in the CSM in orbit. He became quite adept at making observations as the object traveled below. Farouk El-Baz Farouk El-Baz is an Egyptian-born scientist who worked with NASA training astronauts in lunar observations. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Hardware

The Lunar Roving Vehicle, or the Rover, had been in development since May 1969, with the contract awarded to Boeing. It could be folded into a space 5 ft by 20 in (1.5 m by 0.5 m). Unloaded it weighed 460 lb (209 kg) and when carrying two astronauts and their equipment, 1500 lb (700 kg). Each wheel was independently driven by ¼ horsepower (200 W) electric motor. Although it could be driven by either astronaut, the Commander always drove. Travelling at speeds up to 6 to 8 mph (10 to 12 km/h), it meant that for the first time the astronauts could travel far afield from their lander and still have enough time to do some serious scientific experiments. The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661 ) is a major aerospace and defense corporation, originally founded by William Boeing. ... hp, see HP (disambiguation) The horsepower (hp) is the name of several non-metric units of power. ...


The Saturn V that launched Apollo 15 was designated SA-510, the tenth flight-ready model of the rocket. Apollo 15 used Command/Service Module CSM-112, which was given the callsign Endeavour, named after the HM Bark Endeavour and Lunar Module LM-10, callsign Falcon, named after the United States Air Force Academy mascot. If Apollo 15 had flown as an H mission it would with CSM-111 and LM-9. The CSM was used by the Apollo Soyuz Test Project and the Lunar Module was unused and is now on display at the Kennedy Space Center. The Command/Service Module (CSM) was a spacecraft built for NASA by North American Aviation. ... HMB Endeavour was a small 18th century British sailing ship, famous for being the vessel commanded by Lt. ... The LEM flight instrumentation panel and front windows. ... The United States Air Force Academy (USAFA or Air Force),[1] located immediately north of Colorado Springs in El Paso County, Colorado, United States, is an institution for the undergraduate education of officers for the United States Air Force. ... Millie, once mascot of the City of Brampton, is now the Brampton Arts Councils representative. ... The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was the first joint flight of the US and Soviet space programs. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ...


As the payload of the rocket was greater, changes were made to its launch trajectory and Saturn V itself. The rocket was launched in a more southerly direction (80–100 degrees azimuth) and the Earth parking orbit lowered to 166 km (90 nautical miles) above the Earth's surface. These two changes meant 1100 pounds (500 kg) more could be launched. The propellant reserves were reduced and the number of retrorockets on the S-IC first stage reduced from eight to four. The four outboard engines of the S-IC would be burned longer and the center engine would also burn longer before being shutdown (see Saturn V for more information on the launch sequence). Changes were also made to the S-II second stage to stop pogo oscillations. Azimuth is the horizontal component of a direction (compass direction), measured around the horizon, from the north toward the east (i. ... A propellant is a material that is used to move an object by applying a motive force. ... The S-IC was the first stage of the Saturn V rocket. ... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ... The S-II was the second stage of the Saturn V rocket. ... Pogo oscillation is the term for a potentially dangerous type of oscillation found in rocket engines. ...


On the Lunar Module, the fuel and oxidizer tanks were enlarged on both the descent and ascent stages and the engine bell on the descent stage was extended. Batteries and solar cells were added for increased electrical power. In all this increased the weight of the Lunar Module to 36,000 pounds (16,330 kilograms), 4000 pounds (1800 kg) heavier than previous models. Fuel imports in 2005 Fuel is any material that is capable of releasing energy when its chemical or physical structure is altered. ... An oxidizing agent is a substance that oxidizes another substance in electrochemistry or redox chemical reactions in general. ... A solar cell, made from a monocrystalline silicon wafer A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device that converts light energy into electrical energy. ...


The astronauts themselves wore new spacesuits. On all previous Apollo flights, including the non-lunar flights, the commander and lunar module pilot had worn suits with the life support, liquid cooling, and communications connections in two parallel rows of three. On Apollo 15, the new suits, dubbed the "A7L-B," had the connectors situated in triangular pairs. This new arrangement, along with the relocation of the entry zipper (which went in an up-down motion on the old suits), from the right shoulder to the left hip, allowed the inclusion of a new waist joint, allowing the astronauts to bend completely over, and even to sit on the rover. Upgraded backpacks allowed for longer-duration moonwalks, and the command module pilot, who wore a suit with three connectors, would wear a five-connector version of the old moon suit — the liquid cooling water connector being removed, as the command module pilot would make a "deep-space EVA" to retrieve film cartridges on the flight home.

Apollo 15 SM SIM bay (NASA)
Apollo 15 SM SIM bay (NASA)

Technicians at the Kennedy Space Center had many problems with the SIM bay. It was the first time it had flown and experienced problems from the start. Problems came from the fact the instruments were designed to operate in zero gravity, but had to be tested in the 1 g on the surface of the Earth. As such things like the 7.5 m booms for the mass and gamma ray spectrometers could only be tested using railings that tried to mimic the space environment, though never worked particularly well. When the technicians tried to integrate the entire bay into the rest of the spacecraft, data streams would not synchronize and lead investigators of the instruments would want to make last minute checks and changes. When it came time to test the operation of the gamma-ray spectrometer it was necessary to stop every engine within 10 miles (16 km) of the test site. Download high resolution version (681x950, 230 KB)Apollo 15 SIM bay prior to launch (NASA) http://www. ... Download high resolution version (681x950, 230 KB)Apollo 15 SIM bay prior to launch (NASA) http://www. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... The term g force or gee force refers to the symbol g, the force of acceleration due to gravity at the earths surface. ... Mass spectrometry (also known as mass spectroscopy (deprecated)[1] or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... Source of image data: Los Alamos National Laboratory The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) uses the gamma-ray part of the spectrum to look for the presence of 20 elements from the periodic table, and is used in the exploration of Mars. ... Look up Data stream in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Once all the various components had been installed on the Saturn V, it was moved to the launch site, Launch Complex 39A. During late June and early July 1971, the rocket and Mobile Service Structure were struck by lightning at least four times. All was well however, with only minor damage suffered. For information on lightning precautions, see Lightning safety. ...

The following is a brief overview of the Apollo 15 mission. For more in-depth information, see each the main article for each section.

Outward journey

This article is part
of a series on
Apollo 15.
Outward journey
Solo operations
Lunar surface
Return to Earth

Launching at 9:34:00 am EDT on 1971-07-26, Apollo 15 would take four days to reach the Moon. After spending two hours in orbit around the Earth, the S-IVB third stage of the Saturn V was reignited to send them to the Moon. Launching at at 9:34:00 am EST on July 26, 1971, Apollo 15 would take four days to reach the Moon. ... During the three day explorations of the Moon by Scott and Irwin, Worden had a busy schedule of observations. ... Apollo 15 Commander David Scott and Lunar Module Pilot James Irwin spent three days on the Moon and a total of 18½ hours outside the spacecraft on lunar extra-vehicular activity. ... After the Apollo 15 Lunar Module Falcon lifted from the lunar surface it rendezvoused and docked with the Command/Service Module Endeavour. ... Launching at at 9:34:00 am EST on July 26, 1971, Apollo 15 would take four days to reach the Moon. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The S-IVB (sometimes S4b) was built by the Douglas Aircraft Company and served as the third stage on the Saturn V and second stage on the Saturn IB. It had one J-2 engine. ... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ...


During the retrieval of the LM from its stowed position below the CSM, a light came on the control panel that indicated the valves of the Service Propulsion System were open and the engine should be firing. A short was found in a switch that controlled on the redundant valves for the engine. New procedures were developed to deal with this. During their first inspection of the LM, Scott and Irwin found that the glass cover of a tapemeter had broken forcing them to clean up the glass shards lest they breathe them in.


On the fourth day they entered into lunar orbit and prepared for lunar descent.


Solo operations

During the three day explorations of the Moon by Scott and Irwin, Worden had a busy schedule of observations. Apollo 15 was the first mission to carry the SIM bay, which contained a panoramic camera, gamma ray spectrometer, mapping camera, laser altimeter and mass spectrometer. Worden had to operate the shutter and lenses on the camera and turn on and off the various instruments. During the coast back to Earth, he would perform an EVA to retrieve film cassettes from the cameras. During the three day explorations of the Moon by Scott and Irwin, Worden had a busy schedule of observations. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Panoramic photography. ... Source of image data: Los Alamos National Laboratory The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) uses the gamma-ray part of the spectrum to look for the presence of 20 elements from the periodic table, and is used in the exploration of Mars. ... The word mapping has several senses: In mathematics and related technical fields, it is some kind of function: see map (mathematics). ... Experiment with a laser (US Military) In physics, a laser is a device that emits light through a specific mechanism for which the term laser is an acronym: Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. ... Diagram showing the face of a three-pointer sensitive aircraft altimeter displaying altitude in feet. ... Mass spectrometry is a technique for separating ions by their mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios. ... It has been suggested that Leaf shutter be merged into this article or section. ... An optical instrument either processes light waves to enhance an image for viewing, or analyzes light waves (or photons) to determine one of a number of characteristic properties. ...


Lunar surface

Jim Irwin salutes the US flag
Jim Irwin salutes the US flag
Panoramic Assembly of Apollo 15 Landing Site (Moonpans)

Apollo 15 was the first mission to perform three EVAs on the lunar surface. After landing at 26°8′ N 3°38′ E, Scott removed the top hatch of the LM to perform a site survey and get a brief overview of the surrounding areas. The first EVA took the crew on the Rover to the base of Mount Hadley Delta. Back at the LM the crew started the deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP). Scott had extreme difficulty drilling the holes for the heat-flow experiment, forcing him to come back the next day to complete the task. Apollo 15 Commander David Scott and Lunar Module Pilot James Irwin spent three days on the Moon and a total of 18½ hours outside the spacecraft on lunar extra-vehicular activity. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2400x2400, 1325 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2400x2400, 1325 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x400, 131 KB) Summary Panoramic Assembly of the Apollo 15 Landing Site assembled by Mike Constantine of Moonpans. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x400, 131 KB) Summary Panoramic Assembly of the Apollo 15 Landing Site assembled by Mike Constantine of Moonpans. ...


The second EVA again took Scott and Irwin to the base of Mount Hadley Delta but they went up its slope. Here they found the Genesis Rock. Returning to the LM, Scott completed the heat flow holes and began on a core sample which once again was extremely difficult to drill. He was once again forced to leave it for the next day. The Genesis Rock The Genesis Rock is a sample of lunar crust retrieved from the Moon by Apollo 15 astronauts James Irwin and David Scott, and it is anorthosite. ...


The difficulties with the core sample meant the cancellation of the traverse to the North Complex. The crew still travelled to the edge of Hadley Rille. Returning to the LM for the last time, Scott dropped a falcon feather and his geology hammer to show that in gravity fields, the mass of the object does not affect the rate at which it falls. A typical geologists hammer - tubular shaft with chisel head A geologists hammer is a hammer used for geological purposes. ...

Apollo 15's lunar plaque

On LRV 1, a plaque was attached bearing the inscription: Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Apollo 11 Plaque Inscription: (Signatures: Armstrong, Collins, Aldrin, Nixon) Lunar plaques are square stainless steel plaques (9 x 7 5/8) attached to the ladders on the descent stages of the lunar modules used from Apollo 11 through Apollo 17. ...

MANS FIRST WHEELS ON THE MOON, DELIVERED BY FALCON, 1971-07-30

And the signatures of the Apollo 15 Astronauts. Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Return to Earth

After lifting off from the lunar surface, Falcon and Endeavour rendezvoused and docked. After transferring across the lunar samples and other equipment, Falcon was jettisoned. It would fire its rocket engine to cause it to impact the lunar surface. During lunar liftoff, the United States Air Force song "Wild Blue Yonder" was played, signifying the all-Air Force makeup of the Apollo 15 crew. After the Apollo 15 Lunar Module Falcon lifted from the lunar surface it rendezvoused and docked with the Command/Service Module Endeavour. ... The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the United States armed forces and one of the seven uniformed services. ...


The period from the final moonwalk to the lunar ascent and rendezvous with Endeavour proved to be physically and mentally exhausting for the crew and ground controllers, and led to serious problems. By the time of rendezvous, Scott and Irwin had gone 20 hours without sleep, including a grueling third EVA on the lunar surface. It was later determined they had depleted their body fluid electrolytes, and both men began to show heart irregularities. In Irwin's case this was particularly serious, and after the flight he would eventually suffer two heart attacks, contributing to his death in 1991. After the demanding lunar orbit rendezvous and docking, coordination between the exhausted crew and mission controllers broke down, delaying the jettison of Falcon's spent ascent stage. Learning from this experience, NASA changed the training and flight schedules of the two subsequent Apollo missions to allow a full sleep period before liftoff from the lunar surface.


Apollo 15 spent one more day in lunar orbit, continuing the observations of Worden. After releasing a subsatellite, they ignited their Service Propulsion system to put them on a trajectory back to Earth. The next day, Worden performed an EVA to retrieve the film cassettes from the SIM bay cameras, the first deep-space EVA performed outside of earth orbit.

The Apollo 15 capsule landed safely despite a parachute failure.
The Apollo 15 capsule landed safely despite a parachute failure.

The twelfth day in space was uneventful, with Mission Control holding a press conference where the astronauts were asked questions submitted by the news media. On their 13th and final day they prepared for reentry. During descent, one of their parachutes failed, meaning they landed under only two. Thankfully, the third parachute was a redundancy and they landed successfully, although the landing was harder than usual. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2400x1639, 980 KB) The capsule of Apollo 15 descends under only two good parachutes http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2400x1639, 980 KB) The capsule of Apollo 15 descends under only two good parachutes http://www. ...


The command module is displayed at the National Museum of the United States Air Force, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio. View of the National Museum of the United States Air Force Main entrance to the museum The National Museum of the United States Air Force (formerly the United States Air Force Museum) is the official national museum of the United States Air Force and is located at Wright-Patterson Air... Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a U.S. Air Force base in Greene and Montgomery counties, adjacent to Riverside, Fairborn, Beavercreek, and Dayton, Ohio. ... : Gem City : Birthplace of Aviation United States Ohio Montgomery 56. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ...


Controversies

Further information: Apollo 15 postage stamp scandal
Dave Scott's space suit on display at the NASM.
Dave Scott's space suit on display at the NASM.

After a highly successful mission, the reputation of the crew and NASA was tarnished somewhat by a deal they made with H. Walter Eiermann, an American citizen who had many professional and social contacts to NASA employees and the astronaut corps. Scott had carried 398 unauthorized First-Day Covers in his spacesuit. Eiermann, had promised each astronaut US$7000 in the form of savings accounts in return for 100 covers signed after having returned from the Moon. He told them that he would not advertise or sell the covers until the end of the Apollo program. The Apollo 15 postage stamp scandal occurred within the United States astronaut corps in 1971. ... Download high resolution version (830x2180, 675 KB)The space suit used by David Scott on the lunar surface during the Apollo 15 mission. ... Download high resolution version (830x2180, 675 KB)The space suit used by David Scott on the lunar surface during the Apollo 15 mission. ... National Air and Space Museum exterior The National Air and Space Museum (NASM) of the Smithsonian Institution is a museum in Washington, D.C., United States, and is the most popular of the Smithsonian museums. ... First Day Cover for the wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer, issued 22nd July 1981. ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Indian Ocean Territory,[1] the British Virgin Islands, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 2. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


Scott sent 100 of these covers to Eiermann to Stuttgart, Germany. Eiermann then passed them on to the stamp dealer Herman E. Sieger from Lorch, Germany, who had previously approached him and had suggested the deal. Sieger proceeded to sell the covers for an average price of US$1,500 in a public sale in Germany. On hearing these news, Scott contacted Eiermann, asking him to stop the sale. The crew also decided against receiving any money from Eiermann. NASA took possession of the remaining 298 covers. , City Center seen from Weinsteige Road Castle Solitude The 1956 TV Tower The Weissenhof Estate in 1927 Stuttgart (IPA: []) is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. ... A Stamp dealer is a company or an individual who deals in postage stamps and philatelic products. ... Lorch may refer to: Lorch (Rheingau), a town in Hesse, Germany Lorch (Württemberg), a town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany Lorch, Austria, part of Enns in Upper Austria Category: ...


All three crew members were formally reprimanded and their official Efficiency Reports as military officers were changed to reflect a formal finding of "lack of judgment". Scott and Worden were reassigned within NASA from flight status, and Irwin resigned to pursue outside interests. Congressional questioning of NASA officials about the the "Stamp Affair" caused further embarrassment for the agency as the Apollo program wound down.


Another minor controversy centered around two timepieces, a watch and stopwatch, carried by Scott. He had agreed to evaluate the timepieces for the manufacturer at the request of a friend. Thinking they might be useful, particularly for the possible timing of a manually controlled emergency propulsion maneuver, Scott took them along on the mission without prior authorization. A clock (from the Latin cloca, bell) is an instrument for measuring time. ... This page is about timekeeping devices. ... A stopwatch is a timepiece designed to measure the amount of time elapsed from a particular time when activated to when the piece is deactivated. ...


One final controversial event happened after the flight. The crew had contacted Belgian sculptor Paul Van Hoeydonck to create a small statuette to personally commemorate those astronauts and cosmonauts having lost their lives in the furtherance of space exploration. The small aluminum sculpture called "Fallen Astronaut" was left on the Moon, along with a plaque bearing the names of fourteen American astronauts and Russian cosmonauts. They had agreed with Van Hoeydonck that no replicas were to be made. After mentioning the statuette during their post-flight press conference, the National Air and Space Museum contacted the crew asking for a replica made for the museum. The crew agreed under the condition that it was to be displayed with good taste and without publicity. Van Hoeydonck was contacted to make the replicas. In May 1972 Scott learned that Van Hoeydonck planned to make more replicas and sell them. Van Hoeydonck was not dissuaded and 950 replicas were sold for $750 apiece at the Waddell Gallery of New York. A sculpture is a three-dimensional object, which for the purposes of this article is man-made and selected for special recognition as art. ... A Belgian printmaker and painter, Paul Van Hoeydonck studied both archeology and art history in Antwerp. ... General Name, Symbol, Number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 3, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 26. ... Fallen Astronaut on the Moon. ... National Air and Space Museum exterior The National Air and Space Museum (NASM) of the Smithsonian Institution is a museum in Washington, D.C., United States, and is the most popular of the Smithsonian museums. ... “NY” redirects here. ...


Mission insignia

The circular patch features stylized red, white and blue birds flying over the Hadley Rille section of the moon. Immediately behind the birds, a line of craters form the Roman numeral XV. The artwork is circled in red, with a white band giving the mission and crew names and a blue border. The basic idea came from fashion designer Emilio Pucci, who suggested the three-bird motif. The crew changed the colors from blues and greens to more patriotic red, white and blue. The system of Roman numerals is a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, and was adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... 15 (fifteen) is the natural number following 14 and preceding 16. ... Marchese di Barsento Emilio Pucci (November 20, 1914 – 1992) was an Italian fashion designer. ...


Trivia

Astronauts of Apollo 15 took the music of the album ROAD by the Paul Winter Consort to the moon with them and named two craters after the songs "Ghost Beads" and "Icarus" composed by Ralph Towner. One moon crater was named "Wolverine" because all three of them had attended the University of Michigan Ann Arbor and the university's mascot is a wolverine. Paul Winter Consort is an American musical group led by the soprano saxophonist Paul Winter. ... Ralph Towner (b. ...


The cover art of Brand New's 'Deja Entendu' features an Apollo 15 spacesuit. Brand New is an alternative rock band comprised of lead vocalist, guitarist, and lyricist Jesse Lacey, guitarist Vincent Accardi, bass guitarist Garrett Tierney and drummer Brian Lane. ... Deja Entendu is the second album from Long Island based band Brand New, released in 2003. ...


Media

An experiment at LBNL involving high energy particles from a cyclotron used to investigate the origin of the flashes of light seen by Apollo astronauts on their way to the Moon. Experiments were also done onboard Apollo 15, 16 and 17 and Skylab to investigate this phenomenon with the "Light Flashes Experiment Package" (a box of instrumentation worn on the head during light flash count sequences) flying on Apollo 16 and 17. [1]

Image File history File links Cylcotron_beam_experiment_at_LBNL_for_apollo_space_program_eye_flash_investigations. ... Image File history File links Cylcotron_beam_experiment_at_LBNL_for_apollo_space_program_eye_flash_investigations. ... The Berkeley Lab is perched on a hill overlooking the Berkeley central campus and San Francisco Bay. ... A pair of Dee electrodes with loops of coolant pipes on their surface at the Lawrence Hall of Science. ... Image File history File links Apollo 15 Lunar Rover training. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ... Image File history File links Apollo 15 launch. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ... Image File history File links Apollo 15 TandD.ogg Please see the file description page for further information. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ... Image File history File links Apollo 15 CSM moving away from LM.ogg Please see the file description page for further information. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ... Image File history File links Apollo 15 landing on the Moon. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ... Image File history File links Apollo 15 lunar rover EVA2. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ... Image File history File links Apollo 15 feather and hammer drop. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ... Image File history File links Apollo 15 liftoff from the Moon. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ... Image File history File links Apollo 15 liftoff from inside LM.ogg Please see the file description page for further information. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ... Image File history File links Apollo 15 Worden EVA.ogg Please see the file description page for further information. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ... Image File history File links Apollo 15 splashdown. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ...

Depiction in fiction

Portions of the Apollo 15 mission are dramatized in the miniseries From the Earth to the Moon episode entitled "Galileo was Right". From the Earth to the Moon is a twelve-part HBO television miniseries (1998) co-produced by Ron Howard, Brian Grazer, Tom Hanks, and Michael Bostick detailing the landmark Apollo expeditions to the Moon during the 1960s and early 1970s. ... From the Earth to the Moon is a twelve-part HBO television miniseries (1998) co-produced by Ron Howard, Brian Grazer, Tom Hanks, and Michael Bostick detailing the landmark Apollo expeditions to the Moon during the 1960s and early 1970s. ...


See also

Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... Related article Mir extra-vehicular activity (just an excerpt from the table above) List of ISS spacewalks (just an excerpt from the table above) External link NASA JSC Oral History Project: See link near page end to Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology PDF document. ... Atlantic splashdown locations of American spacecraft. ... Map of the moon showing some landing sites. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Google Maps. ...

References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

  Results from FactBites:
 
Apollo Program - MSN Encarta (1081 words)
Apollo Program, American manned lunar-space program designed to land an astronaut on the Moon and return him safely to Earth, as well as to overtake the former Soviet Union in the race to dominate space exploration.
Following the Apollo program, Apollo spacecraft were used to shuttle astronauts to and from the Skylab space station, and an Apollo spacecraft docked with the orbiting Soviet spacecraft Soyuz 19 in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project.
During the Apollo program, 12 Saturn V rockets were launched from the Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral, Florida, and all were successful.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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