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Encyclopedia > Apollo 11
Apollo 11
Mission insignia
Mission statistics[1]
Mission name: Apollo 11
Command Module: CM-107
Service Module: SM-107
Lunar Module: LM-5
Booster: Saturn V SA-506
Call sign: Command module:
Columbia
Lunar module:
Eagle
Crew size: 3
Launch pad: Kennedy Space Center, Florida
LC 39A
Launch: 13:32, July 16, 1969 (UTC) (1969-07-16T13:32Z)
Lunar landing: July 20, 1969
20:17:40 UTC
Sea of Tranquility
0° 40' 26.69" N,
23° 28' 22.69" E
(based on the IAU
Mean Earth Polar Axis
coordinate system)
Lunar EVA length: 2 h 31 min 40 s
Lunar surface time: 21 h 36 min 20 s
Lunar sample mass: 21.55 kg (47.5 lb)
Landing: July 24, 1969 (1969-07-24)
16:50:35 UTC
13°19′N 169°9′W / 13.317, -169.15
Duration: 195 h 18 min 35 s
Time in lunar orbit: 59 h 30 min 25.79 s
Mass: CSM: 30,320 kg
LM: 16,448 kg
Crew photo
L-R: Armstrong, Collins and Aldrin
L-R: Armstrong, Collins and Aldrin
Related missions
Previous mission Next mission
Apollo 10 Apollo 12

The Apollo 11 mission was the first manned mission to land on the Moon. It was the fifth human spaceflight of the Apollo program and the third human voyage to the moon. Launched on July 16, 1969, it carried Commander Neil Alden Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin Eugene 'Buzz' Aldrin, Jr. On July 20, Armstrong and Aldrin became the first humans to land on the Moon, while Collins orbited above. A number of memorabilia, urban myths and incidental stories surround the Apollo 11 mission, including controversy of who actually stepped on the moon first, and a replica of the footprint. ... Image File history File links Apollo_11_insignia. ... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ... The Command/Service Module (CSM) was a spacecraft built for NASA by North American Aviation. ... The LEM flight instrumentation panel and front windows. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Launch Complex 39 is a large site and a collection of facilities at the John F. Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island in Florida, USA, originally built for the Apollo program, and later modified to support Space Shuttle operations. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... The Sea of Tranquility of the Moon. ... IAU redirects here. ... In mathematics as applied to geometry, physics or engineering, a coordinate system is a system for assigning a tuple of numbers to each point in an n-dimensional space. ... Lunar Ferroan Anorthosite #60025 (Plagioclase Feldspar). ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... The Command/Service Module (CSM) was a spacecraft built for NASA by North American Aviation. ... The LEM flight instrumentation panel and front windows. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (740x619, 110 KB)Apollo 11 crew portrait (NASA photo) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Apollo 10 was the fourth manned mission in the Apollo program, and the first (and only manned Saturn V) mission to launch from pad 39B. The mission included the second crew to orbit the Moon, and the test of the lunar module in lunar orbit. ... Apollo 12 was the sixth manned mission in the Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... Edward White on a spacewalk during the Gemini 4 mission. ... Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by the United States of America (NASA) using the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, conducted during the years 1961 – 1975. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... This article is about the former American astronaut. ... Michael Collins (born October 31, 1930) is a former American astronaut and test pilot. ... Colonel Buzz Aldrin, Sc. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The mission fulfilled President John F. Kennedy's goal of reaching the moon by the end of the 1960s. In a 1961 speech he had proposed - "I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth". Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ...

Contents

Crew

Primary crew

This article is about the former American astronaut. ... Michael Collins (born October 31, 1930) is a former American astronaut and test pilot. ... Colonel Buzz Aldrin, Sc. ...

Backup crew

Captain James Jim Arthur Lovell, Jr. ... William A. Anders (b. ... Fred Wallace Haise, Jr. ...

Support crew

Astronaut Charles Duke on lunar surface, April 1972 Charles Moss Charlie Duke, Jr. ... Flight controller: a space flight control room position at NASAs Mission Control Center. ... Ronald Ellwin Evans, Jr. ... Owen Kay Garriott, Ph. ... Official astronaut portrait of Don Lind Don Leslie Lind is a former NASA astronaut who was born in Midvale, Utah on May 18, 1930. ... Thomas Kenneth Ken Mattingly II, Rear Admiral, USN (retired) (born March 17, 1936) is an American who as an astronaut flew on the Apollo 16, STS-4, and STS-51-C missions. ... McCandless helped develop the MMU and was first to test it on STS-41-B in 1984 Captain Bruce McCandless II (born June 8, 1937 in Boston, Massachusetts) is a former naval aviator with the United States Navy and NASA astronaut. ... Dr. Harrison Hagan Jack Schmitt (born July 3, 1935) is a geologist, astronaut and former U.S. senator. ... William Reid Pogue (born January 23, 1930) was an American astronaut. ... John Leonard Jack Swigert, Jr. ...

Flight directors

Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... Glynn Lunney as manager of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (1974) Glynn S. Lunney (born November 27, 1936) is a retired NASA engineer. ... Gene Kranz in a more recent photo. ...

Nomenclature

The lunar module was named Eagle after the bald eagle depicted on the insignia; the bald eagle is the national bird of the United States. The command module was named Columbia, a traditional, feminized name for the United States used in song and poetry. It was also a reference to the 'columbiad' cannon used to launch the moonships in Jules Verne's novel From the Earth to the Moon.[citation needed] Some internal NASA planning documents referred to the call signs as Snowcone and Haystack but these were quietly changed before being announced to the press.[2] The LEM flight instrumentation panel and front windows. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1766) Bald Eagle range  Resident, breeding Summer visitor, breeding Winter visitor On migration only Star: accidental records Subspecies (Linnaeus, 1766) Southern Bald Eagle (Audubon, 1827) Northern Bald Eagle Synonyms Falco leucocephalus Linnaeus, 1766 The Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is a bird of prey found in North America... Description Role: Earth and Lunar Orbit Crew: 3; CDR, CM pilot, LM pilot Dimensions Height: 36. ... Ten-inch Confederate Columbiad at Fort Donelson National Battlefield The Columbiad was a large caliber, smoothbore, muzzle loading cannon able to fire heavy projectiles at both high and low trajectories. ... This article is about the French author. ... The projectile, as pictured in an engraving from the 1872 Illustrated Edition. ...


Mission highlights

Launch and lunar landing

In addition to one million people crowding the highways and beaches near the launch site, an estimated audience of over 700 million people viewed the event on television, a new record at that time.[3] President Richard Nixon viewed the proceedings from the Oval Office of the White House. Nixon redirects here. ...


A Saturn V launched Apollo 11 from the Kennedy Space Center on July 16, 1969 at 13:32 UTC (9:32 a.m. local time). It entered Earth's orbit 12 minutes later.[1] After one and a half orbits, the S-IVB third-stage engine pushed the spacecraft onto its trajectory toward the Moon with the Trans Lunar Injection burn. About 30 minutes later the command/service module pair separated from the last remaining Saturn V stage and docked with the lunar module still nestled in the Lunar Module Adaptor. For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... The S-IVB (sometimes S4b) was built by the Douglas Aircraft Company and served as the third stage on the Saturn V and second stage on the Saturn IB. It had one J-2 engine. ... Trans Lunar Injection (TLI) is a term describing the propulsion maneuver used to set a spacecraft on a trajectory which will intersect the Moon. ... The Command/Service Module (CSM) was a spacecraft built for NASA by North American Aviation. ... Description Role: Lunar landing Crew: 2; CDR, LM pilot Dimensions Height: 20. ... Apollo Spacecraft: Command Module, Service Module, Lunar Module. ...


On July 19 Apollo 11 passed behind the Moon and fired its service propulsion engine to enter lunar orbit. In the several orbits which followed, the crew saw passing views of their landing site in the southern Sea of Tranquility about 20 kilometers (12 mi) southwest of the crater Sabine D (0.67408N, 23.47297E). The landing site was selected in part because it had been characterized as relatively flat and smooth by the automated Ranger 8 and Surveyor 5 landers along with the Lunar Orbiter mapping spacecraft. It was therefore unlikely to present major landing or extra-vehicular activity (EVA) challenges.[4] is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sea of Tranquility of the Moon. ... Ranger 8 was designed to achieve a lunar impact trajectory and to transmit high-resolution photographs of the lunar surface during the final minutes of flight up to impact. ... Surveyor 5 was the fifth lunar lander of the Surveyor program that explored the Moon. ... Lunar orbiter spacecraft (NASA) The Lunar Orbiter program was a series of five unmanned Lunar orbiter missions launched by the United States in 1966 through 1967 with the purpose of mapping the lunar surface before the Apollo landings. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ...

Buzz Aldrin bootprint. It was part of an experiment to test the properties of the lunar regolith.
Buzz Aldrin bootprint. It was part of an experiment to test the properties of the lunar regolith.

On July 20, 1969 the lunar module Eagle separated from the command module Columbia. Collins, alone aboard Columbia, inspected Eagle as it pirouetted before him to ensure the craft was not damaged. Armstrong and Aldrin used Eagle's descent engine to right themselves and descend to the lunar surface. Download high resolution version (699x651, 97 KB)One of the first steps taken on the Moon, this is an image of Buzz Aldrins bootprint from the Apollo 11 mission. ... Download high resolution version (699x651, 97 KB)One of the first steps taken on the Moon, this is an image of Buzz Aldrins bootprint from the Apollo 11 mission. ... Regolith (Greek: blanket rock) is a layer of loose, heterogeneous material covering solid rock. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... The LEM flight instrumentation panel and front windows. ...


As the landing began Armstrong reported they were "running long." Eagle was 4 seconds further along its descent trajectory than planned and would land miles west of the intended site. The LM navigation and guidance computer reported several unusual "program alarms" as it guided the LM's descent, drawing the crew's attention from the scene outside as the descent continued. Inside NASA's Mission Control Center in Houston, Texas, computer engineer Jack Garman told guidance officer Steve Bales it was safe to continue the descent in spite of the alarms. When Armstrong returned his attention to the view outside it was apparent the computer was guiding them towards a large crater with rocks scattered around it. Armstrong took manual control of the lunar module and with Aldrin calling out data from the radar and computer, guided it to a landing at 20:17 UTC on July 20 with about 30 seconds of fuel left.[5] The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... An aerial view of the complete Johnson Space Center facility in Houston, Texas in 1989. ... Houston redirects here. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Jack Garman John R. Jack Garman is a computer engineer. ... Flight controller: a space flight control room position at NASAs Mission Control Center. ... Steve Bales is a former NASA engineer and flight controller. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

The Saturn V carrying Apollo 11 took several seconds to clear the tower on July 16, 1969.

The program alarms were "executive overflows" indicating the computer was not completing all its processing tasks. The cause was later traced to a training error: The computer spent unplanned time processing extra data from the LM rendezvous radar which had been left on during descent.[6] Although Apollo 11 landed with less fuel than other missions, they also encountered a premature low fuel warning. It was later found to be caused by the lunar gravity permitting greater propellant 'slosh' which had uncovered a fuel sensor. On future missions extra baffles were added to the tanks.[5] Download high resolution version (944x1200, 179 KB)Launch of Apollo 11, July 16, 1969 (NASA image) http://www. ... Download high resolution version (944x1200, 179 KB)Launch of Apollo 11, July 16, 1969 (NASA image) http://www. ... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ...


Armstrong's first words after landing were, "Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed." This partially confused the staff at Mission Control since Armstrong had only given the name Tranquility Base to the landing site immediately after touchdown.[5] Tranquillity Base was the name given by Astronaut Neil Armstrong to the landing site on the moon where the Apollo 11 Lunar Module Eagle landed. ...


Shortly after landing, before preparations began for the EVA, Aldrin broadcast that: Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ...

This is the LM pilot. I'd like to take this opportunity to ask every person listening in, whoever and wherever they may be, to pause for a moment and contemplate the events of the past few hours and to give thanks in his or her own way.[7]

He then took Communion privately. At this time NASA was still fighting a lawsuit brought by atheist Madalyn Murray O'Hair (who had objected to the Apollo 8 crew reading from the Book of Genesis) which demanded that their astronauts refrain from religious activities while in space. As such, Aldrin (a Presbyterian) chose to refrain from directly mentioning this. He had kept the plan quiet (not even mentioning it to his wife) and did not reveal it publicly for several years.[8] For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... Madalyn Murray OHair (April 13, 1919 – September 29, 1995) was an American who founded American Atheists and campaigned for the separation of church and state. ... Apollo 8 was the second successful manned mission of the Apollo space program, in which Commander Frank Borman, Command Module Pilot James Lovell and Lunar Module Pilot William Anders became the first humans to orbit around the Moon. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... This article needs cleanup. ...

Lunar surface operations

A mounted camera captures Neil Armstrong as descends the ladder to surface.
A mounted camera captures Neil Armstrong as descends the ladder to surface.

At 2:56 UTC on July 21, Armstrong made his descent to the Moon's surface and spoke his famous line "That's one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind" exactly six and a half hours after landing.[1] Aldrin joined him, saying, "Beautiful. Beautiful. Magnificent desolation". Then for two-and-a-half hours, they took notes, photographed what they saw, and drilled core samples. Image File history File links Apollo_11_first_step. ... Image File history File links Apollo_11_first_step. ... Apollo Lunar Television Camera TV cameras used on the Apollo (and later ASTP and Skylab) missions varied in design, with image quality improving significantly with each design. ... UTC redirects here. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Drill (disambiguation). ... Core sample. ...

"That's one small step for (a) man, one giant leap for mankind." Image File history File links Frase_de_Neil_Armstrong. ...

Problems listening to the file? See media help.


Buzz Aldrin steps onto the Moon

They planned placement of the Early Apollo Scientific Experiment Package (EASEP) and the U.S. flag by studying their landing site through Eagle's twin triangular windows, which gave them a 60° field of view. Preparation required longer than the two hours scheduled. Armstrong initially had some difficulties squeezing through the hatch with his Portable Life Support System (PLSS). According to veteran moonwalker John Young, a redesign of the LM to incorporate a smaller hatch was not followed by a redesign of the PLSS backpack, so some of the highest heart rates recorded from Apollo astronauts occurred during LM egress and ingress.[9][10] A11v 1094228. ... A Primary (or Portable) Life Support System, or PLSS, is the backpack of a spacesuit. ... John Young might refer to the following people: John Young (actor) (1916–1996), Scottish actor John Young (artist) (c. ... The LEM flight instrumentation panel and front windows. ...


The Remote Control Unit controls on Armstrong's chest prevented him from seeing his feet. While climbing down the nine-rung ladder, Armstrong pulled a D-ring to deploy the Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA) folded against Eagle's side and activate the TV camera.[11] The first images used a Slow-scan television system which was incompatible with commercial broadcast technology at the time so the images rebroadcast were played on screens mounted in front of conventional television cameras.[12] The signal was picked up at Goldstone in the USA but with better fidelity by Honeysuckle Creek Tracking Station in Australia. Minutes later the TV was switched to normal television, and the feed was switched to the more sensitive radio telescope station at the Parkes Observatory in Australia. Despite some technical and weather difficulties, ghostly black and white images of the first lunar EVA were received and were immediately broadcast to at least 600 million people on Earth.[13] SSTV transmissions often include station call signs, RST reception reports, and radio amateur jargon. ... The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) —commonly called the Goldstone Observatory— is located in Californias Mojave Desert (USA). ... Canberra Deep Dish Communications Complex Honeysuckle Creek was a NASA spacecraft-tracking station near Canberra, Australia at 35°35′02″ S 148°58′37″ E from 1967 to 1981. ... The 64 meter radio telescope at Parkes Observatory A radio telescope is a form of directional radio antenna used in radio astronomy and in tracking and collecting data from satellites and space probes. ... The big dish The Parkes Observatory is a radio telescope observatory, 20 kilometres north of the town of Parkes, New South Wales, Australia. ...

Buzz Aldrin poses on the Moon allowing Neil Armstrong to photograph both of them using the visor's reflection.
Buzz Aldrin poses on the Moon allowing Neil Armstrong to photograph both of them using the visor's reflection.

After describing the surface dust ("fine and powdery... I only go in a small fraction of an inch, but I can see the footprints of my boots"[11]), Armstrong stepped off Eagle's footpad and into history as the first human to set foot on another world, famously describing it as "one small step for (a) man, one giant leap for mankind."[14] He reported that moving in the Moon's gravity, one-sixth of Earth's, was "even perhaps easier than the simulations... It's absolutely no trouble to walk around".[11] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2700x2700, 2494 KB) Short description: Astronaut Buzz Aldrin on the moon Full description: Astronaut Buzz Aldrin, lunar module pilot, walks on the surface of the Moon near the leg of the Lunar Module (LM) Eagle during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2700x2700, 2494 KB) Short description: Astronaut Buzz Aldrin on the moon Full description: Astronaut Buzz Aldrin, lunar module pilot, walks on the surface of the Moon near the leg of the Lunar Module (LM) Eagle during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity... Colonel Buzz Aldrin, Sc. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... This article is about the former American astronaut. ...


In addition to fulfilling President John F. Kennedy's mandate to land a man on the Moon before the end of the 1960s, Apollo 11 was an engineering test of the Apollo system; therefore, Armstrong snapped photos of the LM so engineers would be able to judge its post-landing condition. He then collected a contingency soil sample using a sample bag on a stick. He folded the bag and tucked it into a pocket on his right thigh. He removed the TV camera from the MESA, made a panoramic sweep, and mounted it on a tripod 12 m (40 ft) from the LM. The TV camera cable remained partly coiled and presented a tripping hazard throughout the EVA. John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ...

The historical plaque on the ladder of Apollo 11's lunar module "Eagle", still remaining on the Moon.
The historical plaque on the ladder of Apollo 11's lunar module "Eagle", still remaining on the Moon.

Aldrin joined him on the surface and tested methods for moving around, including two-footed kangaroo hops. The PLSS backpack created a tendency to tip backwards, but neither astronaut had serious problems maintaining balance. Loping became the preferred method of movement. The astronauts reported that they needed to plan their movements six or seven steps ahead. The fine soil was quite slippery. Aldrin remarked that moving from sunlight into Eagle's shadow produced no temperature change inside the suit, though the helmet was warmer in sunlight, so he felt cooler in shadow.[11] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (871x450, 99 KB) Photograph of the stainless steel dedication plaque (right) placed on the Apollo 11 lunar module Eagle (left). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (871x450, 99 KB) Photograph of the stainless steel dedication plaque (right) placed on the Apollo 11 lunar module Eagle (left). ... The LEM flight instrumentation panel and front windows. ... This article is about Earths moon. ...

A condensation cloud forms around an interstage as the Saturn V approached Mach 1 one minute into the flight.
A condensation cloud forms around an interstage as the Saturn V approached Mach 1 one minute into the flight.

They then took a phone call from President Richard Nixon after planting the U.S. flag together on the Moon's surface. Download high resolution version (800x1000, 228 KB) Apollo 11 launch. ... Download high resolution version (800x1000, 228 KB) Apollo 11 launch. ... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ... An F/A-18 Hornet breaking the sound barrier. ... Nixon redirects here. ...


The MESA failed to provide a stable work platform and was in shadow, slowing work somewhat. As they worked, the moonwalkers kicked up gray dust which soiled the outer part of their suits, the integrated thermal meteoroid garment.


They deployed the EASEP, which included a passive seismograph and a laser ranging retroreflector. Then Armstrong loped about 120 m (400 ft) from the LM to snap photos at the rim of East Crater while Aldrin collected two core tubes. He used the geological hammer to pound in the tubes - the only time the hammer was used on Apollo 11. The astronauts then collected rock samples using scoops and tongs on extension handles. Many of the surface activities took longer than expected, so they had to stop documented sample collection halfway through the allotted 34 min. The Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment from the Apollo 11 mission The ongoing Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment measures the distance between the Earth and the Moon using laser ranging. ... Retroreflectors are clearly visible in a pair of bicycle shoes. ... A typical geologists hammer - tubular shaft with chisel head A geologists hammer is a hammer used for geological purposes - by geologists to attain a fresh surface of a rock, to determine its composition, nature, minerals present and history, and by fossil hunters to break rocks and hopefully discover...

Neil Armstrong works at the LM in one of the few photos taken of him from the lunar surface. NASA photo as 11-40-5886.
Neil Armstrong works at the LM in one of the few photos taken of him from the lunar surface. NASA photo as 11-40-5886.

During this period Mission Control used a coded phrase to warn Armstrong that his metabolic rates were high and that he should slow down. He was moving rapidly from task to task as time ran out. Rates remained generally lower than expected for both astronauts throughout the walk, however, so Mission Control granted the astronauts a 15-minute extension.[15] Neil Armstrong works at the LM in one of the few photos taken of him on the moon. ... Neil Armstrong works at the LM in one of the few photos taken of him on the moon. ...


Lunar ascent and return

Aldrin entered Eagle first. With some difficulty the astronauts lifted film and two sample boxes containing more than 22 kg (48 lb) of lunar surface material to the LM hatch using a flat cable pulley device called the Lunar Equipment Conveyor. Armstrong reminded Aldrin of a bag of memorial items in his suit pocket sleeve, and Aldrin tossed the bag down; Armstrong then jumped to the ladder's third rung and climbed into the LM. After transferring to LM life support, the explorers lightened the ascent stage for return to lunar orbit by tossing out their PLSS backpacks, lunar overshoes, one Hasselblad camera, and other equipment. They then repressurised the LM, and settled down to sleep.[16] Life support, in the medical field, refers to a set of therapies for preserving a patients life when essential body systems are not functioning sufficiently to sustain life unaided. ... This article is about Victor Hasselblad AB, the Swedish company. ...


While moving in the cabin Aldrin accidentally broke the circuit breaker that armed the main engine for lift off from the moon. There was initial concern this would prevent firing the engine, which would strand them on the moon. Fortunately a felt-tip pen was sufficient to activate the switch.[16] Had this not worked, the Lunar Module circuitry could have been reconfigured to allow firing the ascent engine.[17]


After about seven hours of rest, they were awakened by Houston to prepare for the return flight. Two and a half hours later, at 17:54 UTC, they lifted off in Eagle's ascent stage, carrying 21.5 kilograms of lunar samples with them, to rejoin CMP Michael Collins aboard Columbia in lunar orbit.[1]


After more than 2½ hours on the lunar surface, they had left behind scientific instruments such as a retroreflector array used for the Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment. They also left an American flag, an Apollo 1 mission patch, and a plaque (mounted on the LM Descent Stage ladder) bearing two drawings of Earth (of the Western and Eastern Hemispheres), an inscription, and signatures of the astronauts and Richard Nixon. The inscription read Here Men From The Planet Earth First Set Foot Upon the Moon, July 1969 A.D. We Came in Peace For All Mankind. They also left behind a memorial bag containing a gold replica of an olive branch as a traditional symbol of peace, the Apollo 1 patch, and a silicon message disk. The disk carries the goodwill statements by Presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson and Nixon and messages from leaders of 73 countries around the world. The disc also carries a listing of the leadership of the US Congress, a listing of members of the four committees of the House and Senate responsible for the NASA legislation, and the names of NASA's past and present top management. NASA News Release No. 69-83F (July 13, 1969).(In his 1989 book, Men from Earth, Aldrin says that the items included Soviet medals commemorating Cosmonauts Vladimir Komarov and Yuri Gagarin.) Retroreflectors are clearly visible in a pair of bicycle shoes. ... The Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment from the Apollo 11 mission The ongoing Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment measures the distance between the Earth and the Moon using laser ranging. ... Union Jack. ... Apollo 1 is the official name given to the never-flown Apollo/Saturn 204 (AS-204) mission. ... Lunar Plaques are square stainless steel plaques (9 x 7 5/8) attached to the ladders on the descent stages of the lunar modules used from Apollo 11 thru Apollo 17. ... Nixon redirects here. ... U.S. Space Shuttle astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a manned maneuvering unit. ... Vladimir Komarov Vladimir Mikhailovich Komarov (Russian: Владимир Михайлович Комаров; March 16, 1927 – April 24, 1967) was a Soviet cosmonaut. ... “Gagarin” redirects here. ...


Film taken from the LM Ascent Stage upon liftoff from the moon reveal the American flag, planted some 25 feet (8 m) from the descent stage, whipping violently in the exhaust of the ascent stage engine. As the landing site receded out of the camera field of view, the flag appeared ready to topple, but whether it did in fact fall or not is unknown. (However, according to Buzz Aldrin[18], during the lunar ascent, “The ascent stage of the LM separated…I was concentrating on the computers, and Neil was studying the attitude indicator, but I looked up long enough to see the flag fall over.”) Subsequent Apollo missions usually planted the American flags at least 100 feet (30 m) from the LM to avoid being blown over by the ascent engine exhaust.


After rendezvous with Columbia, Eagle LM was jettisoned into lunar orbit at 21 July 1969 at 23:41 UT (7:41 PM EDT). Just before the Apollo 12 flight, it was noted that Eagle was still orbiting the moon. Later NASA reports mentioned that Eagle's orbit had decayed resulting in it impacting in an "uncertain location" on the lunar surface.[19]


On July 23, the three astronauts made a television broadcast on the last night before splashdown. Collins commented, "... The Saturn V rocket which put us in orbit is an incredibly complicated piece of machinery, every piece of which worked flawlessly.... We have always had confidence that this equipment will work properly. All this is possible only through the blood, sweat, and tears of a number of a people...All you see is the three of us, but beneath the surface are thousands and thousands of others, and to all of those, I would like to say, 'Thank you very much.'" Aldrin said, "... This has been far more than three men on a mission to the Moon; more, still, than the efforts of a government and industry team; more, even, than the efforts of one nation. We feel that this stands as a symbol of the insatiable curiosity of all mankind to explore the unknown.... Personally, in reflecting on the events of the past several days, a verse from Psalms comes to mind. 'When I consider the heavens, the work of Thy fingers, the Moon and the stars, which Thou hast ordained; What is man that Thou art mindful of him?'" Armstrong concluded, "The responsibility for this flight lies first with history and with the giants of science who have preceded this effort; next with the American people, who have, through their will, indicated their desire; next with four administrations and their Congresses, for implementing that will; and then, with the agency and industry teams that built our spacecraft, the Saturn, the Columbia, the Eagle, and the little EMU, the spacesuit and backpack that was our small spacecraft out on the lunar surface. We would like to give special thanks to all those Americans who built the spacecraft; who did the construction, design, the tests, and put their hearts and all their abilities into those craft. To those people tonight, we give a special thank you, and to all the other people that are listening and watching tonight, God bless you. Good night from Apollo 11."[20]


On July 24, the astronauts returned home and were immediately put in quarantine. The splashdown point was 13°19′N, 169°9′W, 2,660 km (1,440 nm) east of Wake Island, or 380 km (210 nm) south of Johnston Atoll, and 24 km (15 mi) from the recovery ship, USS Hornet. After recovery by helicopter approximately one hour after splashdown,[1] the astronauts were placed in a trailer that had been designed as a quarantine facility. President Richard Nixon was aboard the recovery vessel to personally welcome the astronauts back to Earth. is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... // The eighth USS Hornet (CV/CVA/CVS-12) was originally named USS Kearsarge, but renamed in honor of the CV-8, which was lost in October of 1942. ... Atlantic splashdown locations of American spacecraft. ... Nixon redirects here. ...

The crew of Apollo 11 in quarantine after returning to earth, visited by Richard Nixon.
The crew of Apollo 11 in quarantine after returning to earth, visited by Richard Nixon.

The astronauts were placed in quarantine after their landing on the moon due to fears that the moon might contain undiscovered pathogens, and that the astronauts were exposed to them during their moon walks. However, after almost three weeks in confinement (first in their trailer and later in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center), the astronauts were given a clean bill of health.[21] On August 13, 1969, the astronauts exited quarantine to the cheers of the American public. Parades were held in their honor in New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles on the same day. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x640, 361 KB)Photograph of Apollo 11 crew in quarantine, visited by President Richard Nixon. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x640, 361 KB)Photograph of Apollo 11 crew in quarantine, visited by President Richard Nixon. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nixon redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... First samples from the Moon being delivered to LRL in 1969 The Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) is a facility at NASAs Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (Building 37) that was constructed to quarantine astronauts and material brought back from the Moon during the Apollo program. ... An aerial view of the Johnson Space Center facility of Houston in 1989 The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations center for human spaceflight activities. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ...


That evening in Los Angeles there was an official State Dinner to celebrate Apollo 11, attended by Members of Congress, 44 Governors, the Chief Justice, and ambassadors from 83 nations. President Richard Nixon and Vice President Spiro T. Agnew honored each astronaut with a presentation of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. This celebration was the beginning of a 45-day "Giant Leap" tour that brought the astronauts to 25 foreign countries and included visits with prominent leaders such as Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. Many nations would honor the first manned moon landing by issuing Apollo 11 commemorative postage stamps or coins. Nixon redirects here. ... Spiro Theodore Agnew, born Spiro Anagnostopoulos (November 9, 1918–September 17, 1996), was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1973 under President Richard M. Nixon. ... The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal, which is bestowed by an... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Still frame from the video transmission of Neil Armstrong stepping onto the surface of the Moon on 20 July 1969. ...


At the 27th World Science Fiction Convention in St. Louis, MO, the three astronauts received a special Hugo award for "(t)he Best Moon Landing Ever." The 27th World Science Fiction Convention, also known as St. ... The 2005 Hugo Award with base designed by Deb Kosiba. ...


On September 16, 1969, the three astronauts spoke before a Joint Session of Congress on Capitol Hill. They presented two U.S. flags, one to the House of Representatives and the other to the Senate, that had been carried to the surface of the moon with them. is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ...


The command module is displayed at the National Air and Space Museum, Washington, D.C.. It is placed in the central exhibition hall in front of the Jefferson Drive entrance, and shares the main hall with other pioneering flight vehicles such as the Spirit of St. Louis, the Bell X-1, the North American X-15, Mercury capsule Friendship 7, and Gemini 4. The quarantine trailer is displayed at the Smithsonian's Udvar-Hazy Center annex near Washington Dulles International Airport in Virginia. National Air and Space Museum exterior The National Air and Space Museum (NASM) of the Smithsonian Institution is a museum in Washington, D.C., United States, and is the most popular of the Smithsonian museums. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see The Spirit of St. ... The Bell X-1, originally designated XS-1, was a joint NACA-U.S. Army Air Forces/US Air Force supersonic research project and the first aircraft to exceed the speed of sound in controlled, level flight. ... The North American X-15 rocket plane was part of the USAF/NASA/USN X-series of experimental aircraft, including also the Bell X-1. ... Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States. ... Crew John Glenn Backup Crew M. Scott Carpenter Mission Parameters Mass: 1,352 kg Perigee: 159 km Apogee: 265 km Inclination: 32. ... Gemini 4 (officially Gemini IV) was a 1965 manned space flight in NASAs Gemini program. ... The Interior of the Udvar-Hazy Center The Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center is the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum (NASM)s annex at Washington Dulles International Airport in Chantilly, Virginia. ... , FAA Airport Diagram Washington Dulles International Airport (IATA: IAD, ICAO: KIAD, FAA LID: IAD) is a public airport located 25 miles (40 km) west of the central business district of Washington, D.C., in Loudoun County and Fairfax County, Virginia, United States. ...


Communications link

Early in the planning of Project Apollo, NASA decided to combine all communications between the spacecraft and Earth into a single multiplexed feed called 'The Unified S-Band System',[22] including audio communications, television images, crew medical telemetry and the spacecraft systems telemetry. Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by the United States of America (NASA) using the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, conducted during the years 1961 – 1975. ... The S band ranges from 2 to 4 GHz. ... Telemetry is a technology that allows the remote measurement and reporting of information of interest to the system designer or operator. ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ...


The signal was picked up by three purpose-built stations, called Goldstone (California), Honeysuckle Creek (Australia) and Fresnedillas (Spain), and backed-up by the three nearby deep space network stations (known as 'wing stations'). All of the signals were routed to NASA's communications center (now the Goddard Space Flight Center) in Greenbelt, Maryland. The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) —commonly called the Goldstone Observatory— is located in Californias Mojave Desert (USA). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Honeysuckle Creek was a NASA spacecraft-tracking station near Canberra, Australia from 1967 to 1981. ... Deep Space Network (DSN) is an international network of radio antennas that supports interplanetary spacecraft missions, and radio and radar astronomy observations for the exploration of the solar system and the universe. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (IPA [ˈnæsÉ™]) is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... Aerial view of Goddard Space Flight Center. ... Location in Maryland Coordinates: County Prince Georges County Incorporated 1937 Government  - Mayor Judith F. Davis (D) Area  - City 15. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N...


Intelsat satellites began taking over the trans-oceanic transmissions toward the end of the 1960s, and NASA ended its contracts for the submarine telephone circuits, which were then reallocated by telephone administrations for normal voice use.[23] Intelsat, Ltd. ...


On 14 July 1969, two days before last day of the launch window, the INTELSAT III satellite over the Atlantic failed, cutting off the link between the dish in Spain and Greenbelt, Maryland. It was decided that the problem needed to be fixed by two hours before launch time, or the launch would be scrubbed. is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ...


The Early Bird satellite was activated, but there were concerns that it might not have enough power to get a signal to the United States. So, with great difficulty, twelve undersea telephone circuits were made available to NASA from six countries, for their inverse multiplexed signal. An official with the Spanish communications authority helped the team secure the circuits with his own personal list of contacts. The last circuit using inverse multiplexing was accepted by NASA just minutes before the time limit.[23] INTELSAT I Early Bird Intelsat I (nicknamed Early Bird for the proverb The early bird catches the worm) was the first commercial communications satellite to be placed in geosynchronous orbit, on April 6, 1965. ... An inverse multiplexer (often abbreviated to inverse mux, imux or demux) allows a data stream to be broken into multiple lower data rate communications links. ...


Mission insignia

The familiar patch of Apollo 11 was designed by Collins, who wanted a symbol for "peaceful lunar landing by the United States". He picked an eagle as the symbol, put an olive branch in its beak, and drew a moon background with the earth in the distance. NASA officials said the talons of the eagle looked too "warlike" and after some discussion, the olive branch was moved to the claws. The crew decided the Roman numeral XI would not be understood in some nations and went with Apollo 11; they decided not to put their names on the patch to "allow it to symbolize everyone who worked on the moon landing". All colors are natural, with blue and gold borders around the patch. The LM was named Eagle to match the insignia. When the Eisenhower silver dollar was revived a few years later, the patch design provided the eagle for the back of the coin; the design was kept for the smaller Susan B. Anthony dollar. Olive branch Olive branch is a colloquial term referring to a concession or a gesture of peace, as well as a peace symbol. ... The system of Roman numerals is a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, and was adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... 11 (eleven) is the natural number following 10 and preceding 12. ... For other uses, see Susan B. Anthony (disambiguation). ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... A number of memorabilia, urban myths and incidental stories surround the Apollo 11 mission, including controversy of who actually stepped on the moon first, and a replica of the footprint. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... Related article Mir extra-vehicular activity (just an excerpt from the table above) List of ISS spacewalks (just an excerpt from the table above) External link NASA JSC Oral History Project: See link near page end to Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology PDF document. ... Atlantic splashdown locations of American spacecraft. ... Map of the moon showing some landing sites. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Google Maps. ... Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong in NASAs training mockup of the Moon and lander module. ...

Photo gallery

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Richard W. Orloff. Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference (SP-4029). NASA.
  2. ^ NASA (25 June 1969). Technical information summary: Apollo 11 (AS-506) Apollo Saturn V space vehicle (TM-X-62812; S/E-ASTR-S-101-69) (PDF).
  3. ^ http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/07/0714_040714_moonlanding.html
  4. ^ NASA (July 6, 1969). Apollo 11 Press Kit (p.1-100) (PDF). Retrieved on September 23, 2006.
  5. ^ a b c Jones, Eric M. (editor). Apollo 11 Lunar Surface Journal: The First Lunar Landing. NASA.
  6. ^ Martin, Fred H.. Apollo 11: 25 Years Later. NASA.
  7. ^ Jones, Eric M. (editor). Apollo 11 Lunar Surface Journal: Post-landing Activities. NASA.
  8. ^ Chaikin, Andrew (1998). A Man on the Moon. Penguin Group, pp. 204 & 623. ISBN 0-14-027201-1. 
  9. ^ Eric M. Jones (April 6, 2006). Apollo 11 Lunar Surface Journal. Retrieved on September 23, 2006.
  10. ^ J.M. Waligora, D.J. Horrigan. METABOLISM AND HEAT DISSIPATION DURING APOLLO EVA PERIODS - Chapter 4. Retrieved on September 23, 2006.
  11. ^ a b c d Jones, Eric M. (editor). Apollo 11 Lunar Surface Journal: One Small Step. NASA.
  12. ^ *One giant blunder for mankind: how NASA lost moon pictures.
  13. ^ On Eagle's Wings: The Parkes Observatory's Support of the Apollo 11 Mission (PDF). Astronomical Society of Australia (July 1, 2001). Retrieved on September 22, 2006.
  14. ^ Chaikin, Ibid. Armstrong forgot to say the word "a" but intended to; his wish, according to Chaikin, is that the phrase when appearing in written form include the parenthesized "a".)
  15. ^ Jones, Eric M. (editor). Apollo 11 Lunar Surface Journal: EASEP Deployment and Closeout. NASA.
  16. ^ a b Jones, Eric M. (editor). Apollo 11 Lunar Surface Journal: Trying to Rest. NASA.
  17. ^ Murray, Charles & Cox, Catherine (1990). Apollo: Race to the Moon. Touchstone Books. ISBN 0-671-70625-X. 
  18. ^ National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NASA Apollo Mission Apollo-11. Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  19. ^ NASA. Apollo Tables. Retrieved on September 23, 2006.
  20. ^ NASA Apollo Mission Apollo 11. Retrieved on 2007-01-30.
  21. ^ NASA Explores. Nasa Explores... Hirasaki, the NASA engineer quarantined with the Apollo 11 crew. Retrieved on November 1, 2006.
  22. ^ Apollo Unified S-Band System (PDF). NASA (April 1966). Retrieved on September 22, 2006.
  23. ^ a b Donald E. Kimberlin (June 1, 1994). Camelot on the Moon. Retrieved on September 22, 2006.

Penguin Group is the second largest trade book publisher in the world. ... The big dish The Parkes Observatory is a radio telescope observatory, 20 kilometres north of the town of Parkes, New South Wales, Australia. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading and external links

  • Cappellari, J.O. Jr. (1972). Where on the Moon? An Apollo Systems Engineering Problem. The Bell System Technical Journal. Volume 51, Number 5. 

For young readers

  • Aldrin, Buzz. Reaching for the Moon. HarperCollins, 2005, 40 pages, ISBN 978-0-060-55445-3
  • Thimmesh, Catherine. Team Moon: How 400,000 People Landed Apollo 11 on the Moon. Houghton Mifflin, 2006, 80 pages, ISBN 978-0-618-50757-3

NASA reports

  • Apollo 11 Mission Report (PDF). NASA (1971). - 200+ pages
  • Office of Public Affairs, NASA. EP-72 Log of Apollo 11. NASA History Office. Retrieved on 2006-01-16. - Timeline of the mission

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Multimedia

  • Eric M. Jones. Apollo 11 Lunar Surface Journal. Retrieved on September 23, 2006. - Transcripts and audio clips of important parts of the mission
  • Apollo 11 image library. NASA. Retrieved on September 23, 2006. - Hundreds of high-resolution images of the mission, including assembled panoramas. Captions written by Eric M. Jones
  • Apollo Mission Traverse Maps. USGS. Retrieved on September 23, 2006. - Several maps showing routes of moonwalks
  • Google Moon. - with lunar landing sites tagged
  • Neil Armstrong's First Words on the Moon Video
  • Neil Armstrong's First Words on the Moon Audio
  • Apollo Lunar Surface VR Panoramas QTVR panoramas
  • Apollo Image Archive
  • Footage of the complete journey from takeoff to splashdown - Video

The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... This article is about the series of human spaceflight missions. ... SA-1 was the first flight of a Saturn I launch vehicle and was part of the Apollo Program. ... SA-2 was the second flight Saturn I launch vehicle, the first flight of Project High Water and was part of the Apollo Program. ... SA-3 was the third flight Saturn I launch vehicle, the second flight of Project High Water and was part of the Apollo Program. ... SA-4 was the fourth flight of a Saturn I launch vehicle and the last of the initial test phase of the first stage. ... Little Joe II QTV was the first, Qualification Flight Test of the Apollo Little Joe II rocket. ... Pad Abort Test 1 was the first abort test of the Apollo spacecraft. ... SA-5 was the first launch of the Block II Saturn I rocket and was part of the Apollo Program. ... A-001 was the second abort test of the Apollo spacecraft. ... A-101 was the first Saturn rocket launch to carry a boilerplate Apollo spacecraft. ... A-102 was the first Saturn rocket launch to carry a boilerplate Apollo spacecraft. ... A-002 was the third abort test of the Apollo spacecraft. ... A-103 (SA-9) launch. ... A-003 was the fourth abort test of the Apollo spacecraft. ... A-104 was the ninth test flight of the Saturn I. This mission was the second flight in the Saturn I operational series and the fourth vehicle to carry an Apollo boilerplate spacecraft. ... Pad Abort Test 2 was the second pad abort test of the Apollo spacecraft. ... A-105 was the third flight of an operational Saturn I and was the last in the series of Saturn I flights. ... A-004 was the sixth and final abort test of the Apollo spacecraft. ... AS-201 (or SA-201) was the first flight of the Saturn IB launch vehicle. ... AS-203 (or SA-203) was an unmanned flight Saturn IB launch vehicle. ... AS-202 (or SA-202) was a sub-orbital test flight of the Saturn IB and Command and Service Module. ... Apollo 1 is the official name given to the never-flown Apollo/Saturn 204 (AS-204) mission. ... Apollo 4 was the first unmanned flight of the Saturn V launch vehicle. ... Apollo 5 was the first unmanned flight of the Apollo Lunar Module, which would later carry astronauts to the lunar surface. ... Apollo 6, launched in April 1968, was the Apollo programs second and last unmanned test flight of its Saturn V launch vehicle. ... Apollo 7 was the first manned mission in the Apollo program to be launched. ... Apollo 8 was the second successful manned mission of the Apollo space program, in which Commander Frank Borman, Command Module Pilot James Lovell and Lunar Module Pilot William Anders became the first humans to orbit around the Moon. ... Apollo 9 was the third manned mission in the Apollo program, a ten day earth-orbital mission launched 3 March 1969. ... Apollo 10 was the fourth manned mission in the Apollo program, and the first (and only manned Saturn V) mission to launch from pad 39B. The mission included the second crew to orbit the Moon, and the test of the lunar module in lunar orbit. ... Apollo 12 was the sixth manned mission in the Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon. ... Original crew photo. ... Apollo 14 was the eighth manned mission in the Apollo program and the third mission to land on the Moon. ... Apollo 15 was the ninth manned mission in the Apollo program and the fourth mission to land on the Moon. ... Apollo 16 was the tenth manned mission in the Apollo program and the fifth mission to land on the Moon. ... Apollo 17 was the eleventh manned space mission in the NASA Apollo program. ... The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was the first joint flight of the U.S. and Soviet space programs. ... Due to budget constraints there were many canceled Apollo missions during Project Apollo. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (606x608, 438 KB)Apollo program insignia, cropped white spaces around image. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Project Apollo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3138 words)
Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by the United States of America (NASA) using the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, conducted during the years 1961–1975.
The Apollo program was at least partly motivated by psycho-political considerations, in the context of the Cold War and the Space Race.
Apollo returned 381.7kg (841.5 lb) of rocks and other material from the moon, much is stored at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston.
Apollo 11 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3514 words)
Apollo 11 was the fifth human spaceflight of the Apollo program, the third human voyage to the moon, and the first manned mission to land on the Moon.
Apollo 11 passed behind the Moon on July 19 and soon after fired its main rocket, entering lunar orbit.
The crew decided the Roman numeral XI would not be understood in some nations and went with Apollo 11; they decided not to put their names on the patch to "allow it to symbolize everyone who worked on the moon landing".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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