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Encyclopedia > Apollo
Lycian Apollo, early Imperial Roman copy of a 4th century AD Greek original (Louvre Museum)
Lycian Apollo, early Imperial Roman copy of a 4th century AD Greek original (Louvre Museum)

In Greek and Roman mythology, Apollo (in Greek, ἈπόλλωνApóllōn or ἈπέλλωνApellōn), the ideal of the kouros (a beardless youth), was the archer-god of medicine and healing, light, truth, archery and also a bringer of death-dealing plague. Apollo may be: Apollo, in Greek mythology, is god of truth, the arts, archery, plague, divination and a few other things. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1084x2544, 1667 KB) Description fr: Apollon lycien. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1084x2544, 1667 KB) Description fr: Apollon lycien. ... Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycia (in Lycian, Trm̃misa (see List of Lycian place names); in ancient Greek, Λυκία and in modern Turkish, Likya) is a region in the modern-day provinces of Antalya and MuÄŸla on the southern coast of Turkey. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... This article is about the museum. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... The great kouros of Samos, the largest surviving kouros in Greece (Samos Archaeological Museum) A kouros (plural kouroi) is a statue of a male youth, dating from the Archaic Period of Greek sculpture (about 650 BC to about 500 BC). ... Look up pestilence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


As the patron of Delphi ("Pythian Apollo"), Apollo was an oracular god. He was the prophetic deity of the Delphic Oracle, as well as one of the most important and many-sided of the Olympian deities. Apollo also had dominion over colonists, over medicine (mediated through his son Asclepius), and was the patron defender of herds and flocks. As the leader of the Muses (Apollon Musagetes) and director of their choir, he is a god of music and poetry. Hymns sung to Apollo were called paeans. Michelangelos rendering of the Delphic Sibyl The Delphic Sibyl was a legendary figure who made prophecies in the sacred precinct of Apollo at Delphi, located on the slopes of Mount Parnassus. ... Twelve Olympians, also known as the Dodekatheon (Greek: Δωδεκάθεον < δωδεκα, dodeka, twelve + θεον, theon, of the gods), in Greek religion, were the principal gods of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus. ... Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city, not from a territory-at-large. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Asclepius (Greek also rendered Aesculapius in Latin and transliterated Asklepios) was the god of medicine and healing in ancient Greek mythology, according to which he was born a mortal but was given immortality as the constellation Ophiuchus after his death. ... In Greek mythology, the Muses (Greek , Mousai: perhaps from the Proto-Indo-European root *men- think[1]) are a number of goddesses or spirits who embody the arts and inspire the creation process with their graces through remembered and improvised song and stage, writing, traditional music and dance. ... This article is about the art form. ... Paean, in Homer, was the Greek physician of the gods. ...


Apollo is son of Zeus and Leto, and has a twin sister, the chaste huntress, Artemis, who took the place of Selene in some myths as goddess of the moon. For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Leto (disambiguation). ... Fraternal twin boys in the tub The term twin most notably refers to two individuals (or one of two individuals) who have shared the same uterus (womb) and usually, but not necessarily, born on the same day. ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Greek goddess. ...


Apollo is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan mythology as Apulu. In Roman mythology he is known as Apollo. The Etruscans were a race of unknown origin from North Italy who were eventually integrated into Rome. ...


In Hellenistic times, especially during the 3rd century BC, as Apollo Helios he became identified among Greeks with Helios, god of the sun, and his sister similarly equated with Selene, goddess of the moon.[1] In Latin texts, however, Joseph Fontenrose declared himself unable to find any conflation of Apollo with Sol among the Augustan poets of the first century, not even in the conjurations of Aeneas and Latinus in Aeneid XII (161-215).[2] Apollo and Helios/Sol remained separate beings in literary and mythological texts until the third century CE. The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... For other uses, see Helios (disambiguation). ... The Trundholm sun chariot pulled by a horse is believed to be a sculpture illustrating an important part of Nordic Bronze Age mythology. ... This article is about the Greek goddess. ... An 18th century drawing of Khoikhoi worshipping the moon In mythology, a lunar deity is a god or goddess associated with or symbolizing the moon: see moon (mythology). ... Standards Of Learning SOL stands for The Standards Of Learning. ... Classical Latin is the language used by the principal exponents of that language in what is usually regarded as classical Latin literature. ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... Latinus or Latinos in Greek mythology, in Hesiods Theogony, was the son of Odysseus and Circe who ruled the Tyrsenoi, that is the Etruscans, with his brothers Agrius and Telegonus. ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos) is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story...

Contents

Etymology

The etymology of Apollo is uncertain. Several instances of popular etymology are attested from ancient authors. Thus, Plato in Cratylus connects the name with ἀπόλυσις "redeem", with ἀπόλουσις "purification", and with ἁπλοῦν "simple", in particular in reference to the Thessalian form of the name, Ἄπλουν, and finally with Ἀει-βάλλων "ever-shooting". The ἁπλοῦν suggestion is repeated by Plutarch in Moralia in the sense of "unity".[citation needed] Hesychius connects the name Apollo with the Doric απελλα, which means "assembly", so that Apollo would be the god of political life, and he also gives the explanation σηκος ("fold"), in which case Apollo would be the god of flocks and herds. It is also possible[3] that apellai derives from an old form of Apollo which can be equated with Appaliunas, an Anatolian god whose name possibly means "father lion" or "father light". The Greeks later associated Apollo's name with the Greek verb απολλυμι (apollymi) meaning "to destroy".[4] A fake etymology is an invented explanation (etymology) for the origin of a word. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Cratylus (Κρατυλος) is the name of a dialogue by Plato, dating to ca. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... External links The Moralia (loosely translatable as Matters relating to customs and mores) of Plutarch is an eclectic collection of 78 essays and transcribed speeches, which includes On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander the Great &#8212; an important adjunct to his Life of the great general &#8212; On... This article is about the number one. ... page of Marc. ...


It has also been suggested[5][6] that Apollo comes from the Hurrian and Hittite divinity, Aplu, who was widely evoked during the "plague years". Aplu, it is suggested, comes from the Akkadian Aplu Enlil, meaning "the son of Enlil", a title that was given to the god Nergal, who was linked to Shamash, Babylonian god of the sun. He was intelligent The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ... Hittite can refer to either: The ancient Anatolian people called the Hittites; or The Hittite language, an ancient Indo-European language they spoke. ... The name Nergal (or Nirgal, Nirgali) refers to a deity in Babylonia with the main seat of his cult at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim. ... Shamash or Sama, was the common Akkadian name of the sun-god in Babylonia and Assyria, corresponding to Sumerian Utu. ...


Origins of cult

Apollo with a radiant halo in a Roman floor mosaic, El Djem, Tunisia, late 2nd century
Apollo with a radiant halo in a Roman floor mosaic, El Djem, Tunisia, late 2nd century

It appears that both Greek and Etruscan Apollo came to the Aegean during the Archaic Period (i.e. from c.1,100 BCE to c.800 BCE) from Anatolia. Homer pictures him on the side of the Trojans, against the Achaeans, during the Trojan War and he has close affiliations with a Luwian deity, Apaliunas, who in turn seems to have traveled west from further east. The Late Bronze Age (from 1,700 BCE - 1,200 BCE) Hittite and Hurrian Aplu,[7] like the Homeric Apollo, was a god of plagues, and resembles the mouse god Apollo Smintheus. Here we have an apotropaic situation, where a god originally bringing the plague was invoked to end it, merging over time through fusion with the Mycenaean "doctor" god Paieon (PA-JA-WO in Linear B); Paean, in Homer, was the Greek physician of the gods. In other writers, the word is a mere epithet of Apollo in his capacity as a god of healing, but it is now known from Linear B that Paean was originally a separate deity. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (665x1000, 338 KB) Summary Source: http://scifi. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (665x1000, 338 KB) Summary Source: http://scifi. ... A halo (Greek: ; also known as a nimbus, glory, or Gloriole) is a ring of light that surrounds an object. ... El Djem: the amphitheatre of Thysdrus El Djem (Latin Thysdrus) is a town in Mahdia governorate, Tunisia, population 18,302 (2004 census). ... Extent of Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The archaic period in Greece is the period during which the ancient Greek city-states developed, and is normally taken to cover roughly the 9th century to the 6th century BCE. The Archaic period followed the dark ages, and saw significant advancements in political theory, and the rise of democracy... Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1150s BC 1140s BC 1130s BC 1120s BC 1110s BC - 1100s BC - 1090s BC 1080s BC 1070s BC 1060s BC 1050s BC Events and Trends 1100 BC - Tiglath-Pileser I of Assyria conquers the Hittites c. ... 804 BC - Adad-nirari III of Assyria conquers Damascus. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... Trojan originally referred to a citizen of the city of Troy (Ilium) made legendary by the Trojan war. ... This article is about the ancient people of the Achaeans. ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... Luwian (sometimes spelled Luwiyan) is an Anatolian language known in three forms: (1) Cuneiform Luwian, (2) Hieroglyphic-Luwian and (3), the somewhat later Lycian. ... Apaliunas is a Luwian deity attested among the gods in western Anatolia in a treaty inscription. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... // Overview Events 1700 – 1500 BC -- Hurrian conquests. ... Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after a reign of 30... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from Kaneš who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ... Look up pestilence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Apotrope (adj. ... A clay tablet with writing in Linear B from Mycenae. ... This article is about the ancient syllabary. ... Paean, in Homer, was the Greek physician of the gods. ... For the Todd Rundgren album, see Healing (Todd Rundgren). ...


Homer left the question unanswered, whilst Hesiod separated the two and, in later poetry Paean was invoked independently as a god of healing. It is equally difficult to separate Paean or Paeon in the sense of "healer" from Paean in the sense of "song." It was believed to refer to the ancient association between the healing craft and the singing of spells, but here we see a shift from the concerns to the original sense of "healer" gradually giving way to that of "hymn," from the phrase Ιή Παιάν.[citation needed] Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived... Wiktionary has a definition of: Spell For spelling in linguistics, see orthography. ... A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a god or other religiously significant figure. ...


Such songs were originally addressed to Apollo, and afterwards to other gods (i.e. Dionysus, Helios, Asclepius) associated with Apollo. About the fourth century BCE, the paean became merely a formula of adulation; its object was either to implore protection against disease and misfortune, or to offer thanks after such protection had been rendered. It was in this way that Apollo became recognised as the god of music. Apollo's role as the slayer of the Python led to his association with battle and victory; hence it became the Roman custom for a paean to be sung by an army on the march and before entering into battle, when a fleet left the harbour, and also after a victory had been won. This article is about the ancient deity. ... For other uses, see Helios (disambiguation). ... Asclepius (Greek also rendered Aesculapius in Latin and transliterated Asklepios) was the god of medicine and healing in ancient Greek mythology, according to which he was born a mortal but was given immortality as the constellation Ophiuchus after his death. ... The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... In Greek mythology Python was the earth-dragon of Delphi, always represented in the vase-paintings and by sculptors as a serpent. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Apollo's links with oracles again seem to be associated with wishing to know the outcome of an illness. Apollo killed the Python of Delphi and took over that oracle, so he is vanquisher of unconscious terrors.[citation needed] He is golden-haired like the sun; he is an archer who shoots arrows of insight[citation needed] and/or death; he is a god of music and the lyre. Healing belongs to his realm: he was the father of Asclepius, the god of medicine. The Muses are part of his retinue, so that music, history, dreams,[citation needed] poetry and dance all belong to him. For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... For other uses, see Dream (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dance (disambiguation). ...

Apollo (the "Adonis" of Centocelle), Roman after a Greek original (Ashmolean Museum)
Apollo (the "Adonis" of Centocelle), Roman after a Greek original (Ashmolean Museum)

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1013x2050, 306 KB) Summary en: Adonis Centocelle (Apollo probably with bow and arrow), mid-2nd century AD) - This statue is in the Ashmolean Museum, part of the University of Oxford. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1013x2050, 306 KB) Summary en: Adonis Centocelle (Apollo probably with bow and arrow), mid-2nd century AD) - This statue is in the Ashmolean Museum, part of the University of Oxford. ... Ashmolean Museum main entrance. ...

Cult sites

Unusually among the Olympic deities, Apollo had two cult sites that had widespread influence: Delos and Delphi. In cult practice, Delian Apollo and Pythian Apollo (the Apollo of Delphi) were so distinct that they might both have shrines in the same locality.[8] Theophoric names such as Apollodorus or Apollonios and cities named Apollonia are met with throughout the Greek world. Apollo's cult was already fully established when written sources commenced, about 650 BCE. The island of Delos, Carl Anton Joseph Rottmann, 1847 The island of Delos (Greek: Δήλος, Dhilos), isolated in the centre of the roughly circular ring of islands called the Cyclades, near Mykonos, had a position as a holy sanctuary for a millennium before Olympian Greek mythology made it the birthplace of... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ... Theophoric names are exceedingly common in the Ancient Near East and Mesopotamia, where the personal name of an individual included the name of a god in whose care the individual is entrusted. ... There have been several places called Apollonia: An ancient Greek city in Illyria near to the sea and the river Vjosa, 12 km from Fier, Albania. ... In traditional usage, the cult of a religion, quite apart from its sacred writings (scriptures), its theology or myths, or the personal faith of its believers, is the totality of external religious practice and observance, the neglect of which is the definition of impiety. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC - 650s BC - 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC Events and Trends Occupation begins at Maya site of Piedras Negras, Guatemala 657 BC - Cypselus becomes the...


Oracular shrines

Apollo had a famous oracle in Delphi, and other notable ones in Clarus and Branchidae. His oracular shrine in Abae in Phocis, where he bore the toponymic epithet Abaeus (Ἀπόλλων Ἀβαῖος, Apollon Abaios) was important enough to be consulted by Croesus (Herodotus, 1.46). His oracular shrines include: Consulting the Oracle by John William Waterhouse, showing eight priestesses in a temple of prophecy An oracle is a person or persons considered to be the source of wise counsel or prophetic opinion; an infallible authority, usually spiritual in nature. ... The Dogcow The Dogcow is a bitmapped image first introduced by Apple Computer. ... Didyma was an ancient Greek city, located in Turkey, near the modern village of Yenihisar (Yoran) near the town of Söke in the province of Aydýn. ... Abae (rabai), is a town in the N.E. corner of Phocis, in Greece, famous in early times for its oracle of Apollo, one of those consulted by Croesus (Herod. ... Phocis (Greek, Modern: Φωκίδα/Fokída, Ancient/Katharevousa: Φωκίς/Phokis; named after the Greek mythological personage Phocus) is an ancient district of central Greece and a prefecture of modern Greece located in Sterea Hellas, one of the thirteen peripheries of Greece. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Croesus Croesus (IPA pronunciation: , CREE-sus) was the king of Lydia from 560/561 BC until his defeat by the Persians in about 547 BC. The English name Croesus come from the Latin transliteration of the Greek , in Arabic and Persian قارون, Qârun. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ...

  • In Didyma, an oracle on the coast of Anatolia, south west of Lydian (Luwian) Sardis, in which priests from the lineage of the Branchidae received inspiration by drinking from a healing spring located in the temple.
  • In Hierapolis Bambyce, Syria (modern Manbij), according to the treatise De Dea Syria, the sanctuary of the Syrian Goddess contained a robed and bearded image of Apollo. Divination was based on spontaneous movements of this image.[9]
  • In Delos, there was an oracle to the Delian Apollo, during summer. The Heiron (Sanctuary) of Apollo adjacent to the Sacred Lake, was the place where the god was said to have been born.
  • In Corinth, the Oracle of Corinth came from the town of Tenea, from prisoners supposedly taken in the Trojan War
  • In Bassae in the Peloponnese
  • In Abae in Phocis
  • In Delphi, the Pythia became filled with the pneuma of Apollo, said to come from a spring inside the Adyton.
  • At Patara, in Lycia, there was a seasonal winter oracle of Apollo, said to have been the place where the god went from Delos. As at Delphi the oracle at Patara was a woman.
  • At Clarus, on the west coast of Asia Minor; as at Delphi a holy spring which gave off a pneuma, from which the priests drank.
  • In Segesta in Sicily

Oracles were also given by sons of Apollo. Didymaion, Didim Didyma was an ancient Ionian city, the modern Didim, Turkey. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of Ä°zmir and Manisa. ... Luwian (sometimes spelled Luwiyan) is an Anatolian language known in three forms: (1) Cuneiform Luwian, (2) Hieroglyphic-Luwian and (3), the somewhat later Lycian. ... A recent view of the ceremonial court of the thermae–gymnasium complex in Sardis, dated to 211—212 AD Sardis, also Sardes (Lydian: Sfard, Greek: Σάρδεις, Persian: Sparda), modern Sart in the Manisa province of Turkey, was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a proconsul under... The theatre Hierapolis Bambyce or Mabug (Arabic Manbij or Mumbij) is not to be confused with the better known Hierapolis on top of the Pamukkale hot springs in western Turkey near Denizli, listed as a World Heritage Site. ... De Dea Syria (Concerning the Syrian Goddess) is the conventional Latin title of a work written in Greek that has been traditionally ascribed to the Hellenized Syrian essayist Lucian of Samosata. ... Atargatis, in Aramaic ‘Atar‘atah, was a Syrian deity, more commonly known to the Greeks by a shortened form of the name, Derceto or Derketo (Strabo 16. ... The island of Delos, Carl Anton Joseph Rottmann, 1847 The island of Delos (Greek: Δήλος, Dhilos), isolated in the centre of the roughly circular ring of islands called the Cyclades, near Mykonos, had a position as a holy sanctuary for a millennium before Olympian Greek mythology made it the birthplace of... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... Tenea (&#932;&#949;&#957;&#941;&#945;) was established approximately 15 kilometers west of Corinth and 25 kilometers NW of Mycenae shortly after the Trojan war by Trojans living in the island of Tenedos, offshore Troy, hence the name. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with temple of Apollo at Bassae. ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... Abae (rabai), is a town in the N.E. corner of Phocis, in Greece, famous in early times for its oracle of Apollo, one of those consulted by Croesus (Herod. ... Phocis (Greek, Modern: Φωκίδα/Fokída, Ancient/Katharevousa: Φωκίς/Phokis; named after the Greek mythological personage Phocus) is an ancient district of central Greece and a prefecture of modern Greece located in Sterea Hellas, one of the thirteen peripheries of Greece. ... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pythia (disambiguation). ... Pneumatology refers to the study of spiritual beings and phenomena, especially the interactions between humans and God. ... The Adyton (Greek Αδυτον) was a restricted ares within the cella of a Greek or Roman temple. ... Patara (Lycian: Pttara), later renamed Arsinoe (Greek: ), was a flourishing maritime and commercial city on the south-west coast of Lycia on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey near the modern small town of GelemiÅŸ, in Antalya Province. ... Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycia (in Lycian, Trm̃misa (see List of Lycian place names); in ancient Greek, Λυκία and in modern Turkish, Likya) is a region in the modern-day provinces of Antalya and MuÄŸla on the southern coast of Turkey. ... The Dogcow The Dogcow is a bitmapped image first introduced by Apple Computer. ... Anatolia (Greek: &#945;&#957;&#945;&#964;&#959;&#955;&#951; anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Segesta was the political center of the Elymian people. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...

  • In Oropus, north of Athens, the oracle Amphiaraus, was said to be the son of Apollo; Oropus also had a sacred spring.
  • in Labadea, 20 miles east of Delphi, Trophonius, another son of Apollo, killed his brother and fled to the cave where he was also afterwards consulted as an oracle.

Oropos, or Oropus is a Greek seaport, on the Euripus in Attica, opposite Eretria. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... In Greek mythology, Amphiaraus, or Amphiaraos (doubly-cursed) was the son of Oicles and husband of Eriphyle. ... Trophonius (the Latinate spelling) or Trophonios (in the transliterated Greek spelling) was a Greek hero or daimon or god - it was never certain which one - with a rich mythological tradition and an oracular cult at Lebadaea in Boeotia. ...

Festivals

The chief Apollonian festivals were the Boedromia, Carneia, Carpiae, Daphnephoria, Delia, Hyacinthia, Metageitnia, Pyanepsia, Pythia and Thargelia. Boedromia was an ancient Greek festival held at Athens during the month Boedromion (summer) in the honor of Apollo. ... The Carneian festival (&#922;&#940;&#961;&#957;&#949;&#953;&#945;) was one of the most important religious festivals in ancient Sparta, held in honor of Apollo Carneios, who was worshipped in various parts of the Peloponnesus. ... Daphnephoria, a festival held every ninth year at Thebes in Boeotia in honour of Apollo Ismenius or Galaxius. ... In classical antiquity, Delia (Gr ) were festivals and games celebrated at the great celebratory gathering, or panegyris in the island of Delos, the centre of an amphictyony to which the Cyclades and the neighboring Ionians on the coasts belonged. ... The Hyacinthia (Ancient Greek Ὑακίνθια / Hyakínthia) were Spartan religious festivities, organized at Amycla every year in early summer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pyanopsia, or Pyanepsia (from Gr. ... For other uses, see Pythia (disambiguation). ... Thargelia (Greek θαργήλια) was one of the chief Athenian festivals in honour of the Delian Apollo and Artemis, held on their birthdays, the 6th and 7th of the month Thargelion (about May 24 and May 25). ...


Attributes and symbols

Apollo citharoedus or Apollo with the griffin, Musei Capitolini, Rome
Apollo citharoedus or Apollo with the griffin, Musei Capitolini, Rome

Apollo's most common attributes were the bow and arrow. Other attributes of his included the kithara (an advanced version of the common lyre), the plectrum and the sword. Another common emblem was the sacrificial tripod, representing his prophetic powers. The Pythian Games were held in Apollo's honor every four years at Delphi. The laurel bay plant was used in expiatory sacrifices and in making the crown of victory at these games. The palm was also sacred to Apollo because he had been born under one in Delos. Animals sacred to Apollo included wolves, dolphins, roe deer, swans, cicadas (symbolizing music and song), hawks, ravens, crows, snakes (referencing Apollo's function as the god of prophecy), mice and griffins, mythical eagle-lion hybrids of Eastern origin. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 799 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (850 × 638 pixel, file size: 137 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 799 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (850 × 638 pixel, file size: 137 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Michelangelos design for Capitoline Hill, now home to the Capitoline Museums. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... This article is about the weapon. ... The kithara was an ancient Greek musical instrument. ... “Lyres” redirects here. ... Various guitar picks A plectrum is a small flat tool used to pluck or strum a stringed instrument. ... This article needs cleanup. ... View of the stadium of the Delphi sanctuary, used for the Pythian Games. ... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ... The name Laurel is widely used in English, once being a moderately common name typically for girls; also as Laurie. ... A laurel wreath decorating a memorial at the Folketing, the national parliament of Denmark. ... Genera Many; see list of Arecaceae genera Arecaceae (also known as Palmae or Palmaceae), the palm family, is a family of flowering plants, belonging to the monocot order Arecales. ... The island of Delos, Carl Anton Joseph Rottmann, 1847 The island of Delos (Greek: Δήλος, Dhilos), isolated in the centre of the roughly circular ring of islands called the Cyclades, near Mykonos, had a position as a holy sanctuary for a millennium before Olympian Greek mythology made it the birthplace of... Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... For other uses, see Dolphin (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The European Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) is a deer species of Europe, Asia Minor, and Caspian coastal regions. ... Species 6-7 living, see text. ... For other uses, see Cicada (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Song (disambiguation). ... Genera Accipiter Micronisus Melierax Urotriorchis Erythrotriorchis The term hawk refers to birds of prey in any of three senses: Strictly, to mean any of the species in the bird sub-family Accipitrinae in the genera Accipiter, Micronisus, Melierax, Urotriorchis, and Megatriorchis. ... For other uses, see Raven (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crow (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... Mice may refer to: An abbreviation of Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing, Exhibitions. ... For other uses, see Griffin (disambiguation). ...


As god of colonization, Apollo gave oracular guidance on colonies, especially during the height of colonization, 750–550 BCE. According to Greek tradition, he helped Cretan or Arcadian colonists found the city of Troy. However, this story may reflect a cultural influence which had the reverse direction: Hittite cuneiform texts mention a Minor Asian god called Appaliunas or Apalunas in connection with the city of Wilusa, which is now regarded as being identical with the Greek Illios by most scholars. In this interpretation, Apollo’s title of Lykegenes can simply be read as "born in Lycia", which effectively severs the god's supposed link with wolves (possibly a folk etymology). For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... This article is about a region of Greece. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Cuneiform redirects here. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... Folk etymology is a term used in two distinct ways: A commonly held misunderstanding of the origin of a particular word, a false etymology. ...


In literary contexts, Apollo represents harmony, order, and reason—characteristics contrasted with those of Dionysus, god of wine, who represents ecstasy and disorder. The contrast between the roles of these gods is reflected in the adjectives Apollonian and Dionysian. However, the Greeks thought of the two qualities as complementary: the two gods are brothers, and when Apollo at winter left for Hyperborea, he would leave the Delphic oracle to Dionysus. This contrast appears to be shown on the two sides of the Borghese Vase. This article is about the ancient deity. ... The Apollonian and Dionysian is a philosophical and literary concept, or dichotomy, based on certain features of ancient Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Hyperborea (disambiguation). ... The Borghese Vase is a monumental krater sculpted in Athens from Pentelic marble in the second half of the 1st century AD as a garden ornament for the Roman market. ...


Apollo is often associated with the Golden Mean. This is the Greek ideal of moderation and a virtue that opposes gluttony. In philosophy, especially that of Aristotle, the golden mean is the desirable middle between two extremes, one of excess and the other of deficiency. ... iDEAL is an Internet payment method in The Netherlands, based on online banking. ... Look up Moderation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Personification of virtue (Greek ἀρετή) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Virtue (Latin virtus; Greek ) is moral excellence of a person. ... Gluttony can also refer to a character named Gluttony - a homonculus from the anime series Full Metal Alchemist Gluttony is the over-indulgence and over-consumption of food, drink, or intoxicants to the point of waste. ...


Roman Apollo

The Roman worship of Apollo was adopted from the Greeks. As a quintessentially Greek god, Apollo had no direct Roman equivalent, although later Roman poets often referred to him as Phoebus. There was a tradition that the Delphic oracle was consulted as early as the period of the kings of Rome during the reign of Tarquinius Superbus.[10] On the occasion of a pestilence in the 430s BCE, Apollo's first temple at Rome was established in the Flaminian fields, replacing an older cult site there known as the "Apollinare".[11] During the Second Punic War in 212 BCE, the Ludi Apollinares ("Apollonian Games") were instituted in his honor, on the instructions of a prophecy attributed to one Marcius.[12] In the time of Augustus, who considered himself under the special protection of Apollo and was even said to be his son, his worship developed and he became one of the chief gods of Rome.[13] After the battle of Actium, which was fought near a sanctuary of Apollo, Augustus enlarged Apollo's temple, dedicated a portion of the spoils to him, and instituted quinquennial games in his honour.[14] He also erected a new temple to the god on the Palatine hill.[15] Sacrifices and prayers on the Palatine to Apollo and Diana formed the culmination of the Secular Games, held in 17 BCE to celebrate the dawn of a new era.[16] A listing of Greek mythological beings. ... Phoebus is the Latin form of Greek Phoibos Shining-one, a by-name used in classical mythology for the god Apollo. ... The ancient quarters of Rome. ... Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (also called Tarquin the Great or Tarquin II) was the last of the seven legendary kings of Rome, son of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, and son-in-law of Servius Tullius. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC - 430s BC - 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 439 BC 438 BC 437 BC 436 BC 435 BC 434 BC 433 BC 432 BC 431... The Temple of Apllo Sosianus The Temple of Apollo Sosianus (previously known as the Apollinar and the temple of Apollo Medicus[1]) is a Roman temple dedicated to Apollo in the Campus Martius next to the Theatre of Marcellus and the Porticus Octaviae. ... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Publius Cornelius Scipio†, Tiberius Sempronius Longus Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, Gaius Flaminius†, Fabius Maximus, Claudius Marcellus†, Lucius Aemilius Paullus†, Gaius Terentius Varro, Marcus Livius Salinator, Gaius Claudius Nero, Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus†, Masinissa, Minucius†, Servilius Geminus† Hannibal Barca, Hasdrubal Barca†, Mago Barca†, Hasdrubal Gisco†, Syphax... (Redirected from 212 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 217 BC 216 BC 215 BC 214 BC 213 BC - 212 BC... The Apollinarian games, or Ludi Apollinares, in ancient Rome, were solemn games held annually by the Romans in honor of the god Apollo. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between... An anniversary is a day that commemorates an event that occurred on the same day of the year some time in the past. ... // The Temple of Apollo Palatinus (Palatine Apollo) on the Palatine Hill was first dedicated by Augustus to his patron god Apollo. ... 17th century aviaries on the hill, built by Rainaldi for Odoardo Cardinal Farnese: once wirework cages surmounted them. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Secular games (Lodi Sæculares, originally Terentini). ...


In art

In art, Apollo is depicted as a handsome beardless young man, often with a kithara (as Apollo Citharoedus) or bow in his hand. The Apollo Belvedere is a marble sculpture that was rediscovered in the late 15th century; for centuries it epitomized the ideals of Classical Antiquity for Europeans, from the Renaissance through the nineteenth century. The marble is a Hellenistic or Roman copy of a bronze original by the Greek sculptor Leochares, made between 350 and 325 BCE. The kithara was an ancient Greek musical instrument. ... An Apollo Citharoedus designates a statue of Apollo with cithara (lyre), including: the Apollo of Mantua Apollo Citharoedus, example at the Vatican Museums Pothos, restored as Apollo Citharoedus, from a Greek original by Skopas; marble, fourth century BC, 1. ... The Apollo Belvedere, also called the Pythian Apollo, is a celebrated marble sculpture from Classical Antiquity. ... For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ... Sculptor redirects here. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century &#8212; 19th century &#8212; 20th century &#8212; more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hellenistic period of Greek history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the Greek peninsula and islands by Rome in 146 BC. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which... Leochares was an Greek sculptor, who lived in the 4th Century B.C. He is theorised as the creator of Apollo Belvedere, which is currently housed in Vatican City. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 330 BC 329 BC 328 BC 327 BC 326 BC - 325 BC - 324 BC 323 BC 322...


The lifesize so-called "Adonis" found in 1780 on the site of a villa suburbana near the Via Labicana in the Roman suburb of Centocelle now in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, (illustration, left) is identified as an Apollo by modern scholars. It was probably never intended as a cult object, but was a pastiche of several fourth-century and later Hellenistic model types, intended to please a Roman connoisseur of the second century CE, and to be displayed in his villa. In Greek mythology Adonis (Greek: , also: Άδωνις) is an archetypal life-death-rebirth deity of Semitic origin, and a central cult figure in various mystery religions. ... The Roman Empire contained many kinds of villas. ... Via Labicana, an ancient highroad of Italy, leading east southeast from Rome. ... Ashmolean Museum main entrance. ... In the practice of religion, a cult image is a man-made object that is venerated for the deity, spirit or daemon that it embodies or represents. ... The word pastiche describes a literary or other artistic genre. ...


In the late second century CE floor mosaic from El Djem, Roman Thysdrus (illustration, above right), he is identifiable as Apollo Helios by his effulgent halo, though now even a god's divine nakedness is concealed by his cloak, a mark of increasing conventions of modesty in the later Empire. Another haloed Apollo in mosaic, from Hadrumentum, is in the museum at Sousse.[17] The conventions of this representation, head tilted, lips slightly parted, large-eyed, curling hair cut in locks grazing the neck, were developed in the third century BCE to depict Alexander the Great (Bieber 1964, Yalouris 1980). Some time after this mosaic was executed, the earliest depictions of Christ will be beardless and haloed. El Djem: the amphitheatre of Thysdrus El Djem (Latin Thysdrus) is a town in Mahdia governorate, Tunisia, population 18,302 (2004 census). ... For other uses, see Helios (disambiguation). ... A halo (Greek: ; also known as a nimbus, glory, or Gloriole) is a ring of light that surrounds an object. ... Nude redirects here. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Hadrume(n)tum (sometimes called Adrametum or Adrametus) was a Phoenician colony that pre-dated Carthage and stood on the site of modern-day Sousse, Tunisia. ... View from the Abou Nawas Hotel over to the main beach in Sousse (Bou Jaafar) The Ribat of Sousse Sousse (Arabic سوسة Susa), is a city of Tunisia. ... “Haircut” redirects here. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...


Mythology

Birth

When Hera discovered that Leto was pregnant and that Zeus was the father, she banned Leto from giving birth on "terra firma", or the mainland, or any island. In her wanderings, Leto found the newly created floating island of Delos, which was neither mainland nor a real island, and she gave birth there. The island was surrounded by swans. Afterwards, Zeus secured Delos to the bottom of the ocean. This island later became sacred to Apollo. For other uses, see Hera (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Leto (disambiguation). ... Uros island Floating islands are a common natural phenomenon that are found in many parts of the world. ... The island of Delos, Carl Anton Joseph Rottmann, 1847 The island of Delos (Greek: Δήλος, Dhilos), isolated in the centre of the roughly circular ring of islands called the Cyclades, near Mykonos, had a position as a holy sanctuary for a millennium before Olympian Greek mythology made it the birthplace of...


It is also stated that Hera kidnapped Ilithyia, the goddess of childbirth, to prevent Leto from going into labor. The other gods tricked Hera into letting her go by offering her a necklace, nine yards long, of amber. Mythographers agree that Artemis was born first and then assisted with the birth of Apollo, or that Artemis was born one day before Apollo, on the island of Ortygia and that she helped Leto cross the sea to Delos the next day to give birth to Apollo. Apollo was born on the seventh day (ἡβδομαγενης) of the month Thargelion —according to Delian tradition— or of the month Bysios— according to Delphian tradition. The seventh and twentieth, the days of the new and full moon, were ever afterwards held sacred to him. Ilithyia—the Latin spelling—or more usually Eileithyia, was the Cretan goddess whom Greek mythology adapted as the goddess of childbirth and midwiving, and whom the relentlessly patrilineal Hesiod even described as a daughter of Zeus and Hera (Theogony 921)—and Apollodorus and Diodorus Siculus (5. ... For other senses of this word, see necklace (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Amber (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... Ortygia is an island in Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Full Moon. ...


Youth

In his youth, Apollo killed the chthonic dragon Python, which lived in Delphi beside the Castalian Spring. This was the spring which emitted vapors that caused the oracle at Delphi to give her prophesies. Apollo killed Python but had to be punished for it, since Python was a child of Gaia. In Greek mythology Python was the earth-dragon of Delphi, always represented in the vase-paintings and by sculptors as a serpent. ... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ... The Castalian Spring in the ravine between the Phaedriades at Delphi is where all comers to Delphi, the contestants in the Pythian Games and especially suppliants who came to consult the Oracle, stopped to wash their hair. ... For other uses, see Gaia. ...


Apollo has his ominous aspects, too. Marsyas, a satyr who dared challenge him to a music contest, was flayed after he lost. Apollo brought down arrows of plague upon the Greeks because they dishonored his priest Chryses. Apollo's arrows of plague struck Niobe, who, excessively proud of her seven sons and seven daughters, had disparaged Apollo's mother, Leto, for having only two children (Apollo and Artemis). In Greek mythology, Marsyas was a satyr who challenged Apollo to a contest of music. ... A bald, bearded, horse-tailed satyr balances a winecup on his erect penis, a trick worthy of note, on an Attic red-figured psykter, ca. ... Chryses attempting to ransom his daughter Chryseis from Agamemnon, Apulian red-figure crater by the Athens 1714 Painter, ca. ... Apollo and Artemis slaying the children of Niobe by Niobid Painter (c. ...


Admetus

When Zeus struck down Apollo's son Asclepius, with a lightning bolt for resurrecting the dead (transgressing Themis by stealing Hades's subjects), Apollo in revenge killed the Cyclops, who had fashioned the bolt for Zeus. Apollo would have been banished to Tartarus forever, but was instead sentenced to one year of hard labor as punishment, thanks to the intercession of his mother, Leto. During this time he served as shepherd for King Admetus of Pherae in Thessaly. Admetus treated Apollo well, and, in return, the god conferred great benefits on Admetus. In Greek mythology, Hesiod mentions Themis among the six sons and six daughters—of whom Cronos was one—of Gaia and Ouranos, that is, of Earth with Sky. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... This page is about the mythical creature. ... This article is about the deity and the place in Greek mythology. ... Penal labour or penal servitude is a form of unfree labour. ... For other uses, see Leto (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Admetus was a king of Pherae in Thessaly, succeeding his father Pheres after whom the city was named. ... Pherae was an ancient Greek city in Thessaly. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ...


Apollo helped Admetus win Alcestis, the daughter of King Pelias and later convinced the Fates to let Admetus live past his time, if another took his place. But when it came time for Admetus to die, his parents, whom he had assumed would gladly die for him, refused to cooperate. Instead, Alcestis took his place, but Heracles managed to "persuade" Thanatos, the god of death, to return her to the world of the living. A princess in Greek mythology, Alcestis (might of the home) was known for her love for her husband. ... King Pelias was the father of Acastus, Pisidice, Alcestis in Greek mythology. ... For other meanings, see Fate, a disambiguation page. ... Alcides redirects here. ... In Greek mythology, Thanatos (in Ancient Greek, θάνατος – Death) was the Daimon personification of Death and Mortality. ...


Trojan War

Apollo shot arrows infected with the plague into the Greek encampment during the Trojan War in retribution for Agamemnon's insult to Chryses, a priest of Apollo whose daughter Chryseis had been captured. He demanded her return, and the Achaeans complied, indirectly causing the anger of Achilles, which is the theme of the Iliad. The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... This article is about a character in Greek mythology. ... Chryses attempting to ransom his daughter Chryseis from Agamemnon, Apulian red-figure crater by the Athens 1714 Painter, ca. ... In Greek mythology, Chryseis (Greek: Χρύσηίς, Khrysēís) was a Trojan woman, the daughter of Chryses. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ...


When Diomedes injured Aeneas (Iliad), Apollo rescued him. First, Aphrodite tried to rescue Aeneas but Diomedes injured her as well. Aeneas was then enveloped in a cloud by Apollo, who took him to Pergamos, a sacred spot in Troy. Diomēdēs or Diomed (Gk:Διομήδης - God-like cunning or advised by Zeus) is a hero in Greek mythology, mostly known for his participation in the Trojan War. ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ...


Apollo aided Paris in the killing of Achilles by guiding the arrow of his bow into Achilles' heel. One interpretation of his motive is that it was in revenge for Achilles' sacrilege in murdering Troilus, the god's own son by Hecuba, on the very altar of the god's own temple. See List of King Priams children Statue of Paris in the British Museum This article is about the prince of Troy. ... For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation). ... Troilus is a character in medieval and Renaissance versions of the legend of the Trojan War. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Niobe

A queen of Thebes and wife of Amphion, Niobe boasted of her superiority to Leto because she had fourteen children (Niobids), seven male and seven female, while Leto had only two. Apollo killed her sons as they practiced athletics, with the last begging for his life, and Artemis her daughters. Apollo and Artemis used poisoned arrows to kill them, though according to some versions of the myth, a number of the Niobids were spared (Chloris, usually). Amphion, at the sight of his dead sons, either killed himself or was killed by Apollo after swearing revenge. A devastated Niobe fled to Mount Sipylon in Asia Minor and turned into stone as she wept. Her tears formed the river Achelous. Zeus had turned all the people of Thebes to stone and so no one buried the Niobids until the ninth day after their death, when the gods themselves entombed them. For the ancient capital of Upper Egypt, see Thebes, Egypt. ... There are several characters named Amphion in Greek mythology: Amphion, son of Zeus and Antiope, and twin brother of Zethus (see Amphion and Zethus). ... Apollo and Artemis slaying the children of Niobe by Niobid Painter (c. ... A mortal woman in Greek mythology, Niobe, daughter of Tantalus and either Euryanassa, Eurythemista, Clytia, Dione, or Laodice, and the wife of Amphion, boasted of her superiority to Leto because she had fourteen children (Niobids), seven male and seven female, while Leto had only two. ... As she talks, her lips breathe spring roses: I was Chloris, who am now called Flora. ... Anatolia (Greek: &#945;&#957;&#945;&#964;&#959;&#955;&#951; anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Achelous was often reduced to a bearded mask, an inspiration for the medieval Green Man. ...


Consorts and children

Love affairs ascribed to Apollo are a late development in Greek mythology.[18] Their vivid anecdotal qualitoes have made some of them favourites of painters since the Renaissance, so that they stand out more prominently in the modern imagination.


Female lovers

Main article: Apollo and Daphne

In explanation of the connection of Apollon with daphne, the Laurel whose leaves his priestess employed at Delphi, it was told by Libanius, a fourth-century CE teacher of rhetoric,[19] that Apollo chased a nymph, Daphne, daughter of Peneus, who had scorned him. In Ovid's telling for a Roman audience, Phoebus Apollo chaffs Cupid for toying with a man's weapon suited to a man, whereupon Cupid wounds him with an arrow with a golden dart; simultaneously, however, Eros had shot a leaden arrow into Daphne, causing her to be repulsed by Apollo. Following a spirited chase by Apollo, Daphne prayed to Mother Earth, or, alternatively, her father - a river god - to help her and he changed her into the Laurel tree, sacred to Apollo. Apollo and Daphne is a story from ancient Greek mythology, retold by Hellenistic and Roman authors in the form of an amorous vignette; Thomas Bulfinch drew on those late sources in the following manner: Daphne was Apollo’s first love. ... Binomial name Laurus nobilis L. The Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae), also known as True Laurel, Sweet Bay, Grecian Laurel, or just Laurel, is an evergreen tree or large shrub reaching 10–18 m tall, native to the Mediterranean region. ... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ... Libanius (Greek Libanios) (ca 314 AD - ca 394) was a Greek-speaking teacher of rhetoric of the later Roman Empire, an educated pagan of the Sophist school in an Empire that was turning aggressively Christian and publicly burned its own heritage and closed the academies. ... This article is about the Greek mythological character. ... In Greek mythology, Peneus (Πηνειός) was a river god, one of the three-thousand Rivers, a child of Oceanus and Tethys. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Publius Ovidius Naso (March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD) was a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid who wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ... Mythological personifications of rivers (river gods, river goddesses) and of the sea or the ocean // [edit] Sea deities [edit] Greek Oceanus and Tethys Proteus Triton Nereids Poseidon/Neptune [edit] Vedic Sea deities are much less common in Vedic than in Greek mythology. ...


Apollo had an affair with a human princess named Leucothea, daughter of Orchamus and sister of Clytia. Leucothea loved Apollo who disguised himself as Leucothea's mother to gain entrance to her chambers. Clytia, jealous of her sister because she wanted Apollo for herself, told Orchamus the truth, betraying her sister's trust and confidence in her. Enraged, Orchamus ordered Leucothea to be buried alive. Apollo refused to forgive Clytia for betraying his beloved, and a grieving Clytia wilted and slowly died. Apollo changed her into an incense plant, either heliotrope or sunflower, which follows the sun every day. In Greek mythology, Leucothea (Greek Leukothea, the White Goddess) was one of the aspects under which an ancient sea goddess was recognized. ... Orchamus was a king in Greek mythology. ... Clytia or Clytie was a daughter of Oceanus and Tethys in Greek mythology. ...


Marpessa was kidnapped by Idas but was loved by Apollo as well. Zeus made her choose between them, and she chose Idas on the grounds that Apollo, being immortal, would tire of her when she grew old. In Greek mythology, Marpessa was a grand-daughter of Ares, an Aetolian princess. ... In Greek mythology, Idas was a son of Aphareus and Arene and brother of Lynceus. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ...


Castalia was a nymph whom Apollo loved. She fled from him and dived into the spring at Delphi, at the base of Mt. Parnassos, which was then named after her. Water from this spring was sacred; it was used to clean the Delphian temples and inspire poets. Castalia, in Greek and Roman mythology was a nymph whom Apollo transformed into a fountain at Delphi, at the base of Mt. ... In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of female nature entities, either bound to a particular location or landform or joining the retinue of a god or goddess. ... The Castalian Spring in the ravine between the Phaedriades at Delphi is where all comers to Delphi, the contestants in the Pythian Games and especially suppliants who came to consult the Oracle, stopped to wash their hair. ... Mount Parnassus (also Mount Parnassos) is a mountain in central Greece that towers above Delphi. ...


By Cyrene, Apollo had a son named Aristaeus, who became the patron god of cattle, fruit trees, hunting, husbandry and bee-keeping. He was also a culture-hero and taught humanity dairy skills and the use of nets and traps in hunting, as well as how to cultivate olives. In Greek mythology, as recorded in Pindars 9th Pythian ode, Cyrene (or Kyrene) (sovereign queen) was the daughter of Hypseus, King of the Lapiths. ... A minor god in Greek mythology, Aristaeus or Aristaios was the son of Apollo and the huntress Cyrene, who despised spinning and other womanly arts but spent her days hunting. ... A fruit tree is a tree bearing fruit &#8212; the structures formed by the ripened ovary of a flower containing one or more seeds. ... Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of one or more hives of honeybees. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


With Hecuba, wife of King Priam of Troy, Apollo had a son named Troilus. An oracle prophesied that Troy would not be defeated as long as Troilus reached the age of twenty alive. He was ambushed and killed by Achilles. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... King Priam killed by Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, detail of an Attic red-figure amphora In Greek mythology, Priam (Greek Πρίαμος, Priamos) was the king of Troy during the Trojan War, and youngest son of Laomedon. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... Troilus is a character in medieval and Renaissance versions of the legend of the Trojan War. ... Consulting the Oracle by John William Waterhouse, showing eight priestesses in a temple of prophecy An oracle is a person or persons considered to be the source of wise counsel or prophetic opinion; an infallible authority, usually spiritual in nature. ... For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation). ...


Apollo also fell in love with Cassandra, daughter of Hecuba and Priam, and Troilus' half-sister. He promised Cassandra the gift of prophecy to seduce her, but she rejected him afterwards. Enraged, Apollo indeed gifted her with the ability to know the future, with a curse that she could only see the future tragedies and that no one would ever believe her. For other uses, see Cassandra (disambiguation). ...


Coronis, daughter of Phlegyas, King of the Lapiths, was another of Apollo's liaisons. Pregnant with Asclepius, Coronis fell in love with Ischys, son of Elatus. A crow informed Apollo of the affair. When first informed he disbelieved the crow and turned all crows black (where they were previously white) as a punishment for spreading untruths. When he found out the truth he sent his sister, Artemis, to kill Coronis. As a result he also made the crow sacred and gave them the task of announcing important deaths. Apollo rescued the baby and gave it to the centaur Chiron to raise. Phlegyas was irate after the death of his daughter and burned the Temple of Apollo at Delphi. Apollo then killed him for what he did. In Greek mythology: Coronis (crow or raven), daughter of Phlegyas, King of the Lapiths, was one of Apollos lovers. ... Phlegyas, son of Ares and Chryse, King of the Lapiths in Greek mythology was father of Ixion and Coronis, one of Apollos lovers. ... In Greek mythology, the Lapiths were a semi-legenday, semi-historical race, whose home was in Thessaly in the valley of the Peneus. ... Asclepius (Greek also rendered Aesculapius in Latin and transliterated Asklepios) was the god of medicine and healing in ancient Greek mythology, according to which he was born a mortal but was given immortality as the constellation Ophiuchus after his death. ... In Greek mythology, Ischys Ισχυς was the son of Elatus and Hippea, and also the lover of Coronis. ... There were two figures named Elatus or Élatos in Greek mythology. ... This article is about the mythological creatures. ... Chiron and Achilles In Greek mythology, Chiron (hand) — sometimes transliterated Cheiron or rarely Kiron — was held as the superlative centaur among his brethren. ...


In Euripides' play Ion, Apollo fathered Ion by Creusa, wife of Xuthus. Creusa left Ion to die in the wild, but Apollo asked Hermes to save the child and bring him to the oracle at Delphi, where he was raised by a priestess. A statue of Euripides. ... Ion is an ancient Greek play by Euripides, thought to be wrtten between 414 and 412 BC. It follows the orphan Ion in the discovery of his origins. ... According to Greek mythology, Ion was the illegitimate child of Creüsa, daughter of Erechtheus and wife of Xuthus. ... In Greek mythology, four people had the name Creusa. ... In Greek mythology, Xuthus (Classical Greek ) was a son of Hellen and Orseis and founder (through his sons) of the Achaean and Ionian nations. ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ...


One of his other liaisons was with Acantha, the spirit of the acanthus tree. Upon her death, Apollo transformed her into a sun-loving herb. Acantha was a nymph and the spirit of the acanthus plant in Greek mythology. ... Species See text Acanthus is a genus of about 30 species of flowering plants in the family Acanthaceae, native to tropical and warm temperate regions of the Old World, with the highest species diversity in the Mediterranean region and Asia. ...


Male lovers

Apollo and HyacinthusJacopo Caraglio; 16th c. Italian engraving
Apollo and Hyacinthus
Jacopo Caraglio; 16th c. Italian engraving

Apollo, the eternal beardless kouros himself, had the most prominent male relationships of all the Greek Gods. That was to be expected from a god who was god of the palaestra, the athletic gathering place for youth who all competed in the nude, a god said to represent the ideal educator and therefore the ideal erastes, or lover of a boy (Sergent, p.102). All his lovers were younger than him, in the style of the Greek pederastic relationships of the time. Many of Apollo's young beloveds died "accidentally", a reflection on the function of these myths as part of rites of passage, in which the youth died in order to be reborn as an adult. Image File history File links Hyacinthus. ... Image File history File links Hyacinthus. ... The great kouros of Samos, the largest surviving kouros in Greece (Samos Archaeological Museum) A kouros (plural kouroi) is a statue of a male youth, dating from the Archaic Period of Greek sculpture (about 650 BC to about 500 BC). ... A listing of Greek mythological beings. ... Pompeii palaestra seen from the top of the stadium wall. ... Nudity in sport, i. ... In the pederastic tradition of Classical Athens, the eromenos (Greek ἐρόμενος, pl. ... Pederastic courtship scene Athenian black-figure amphora, 5th c. ... For other uses, see Rite of passage (disambiguation). ...


Hyacinth was one of his male lovers. Hyacinthus was a Spartan prince, beautiful and athletic. The pair were practicing throwing the discus when Hyacinthus was struck in the head by a discus blown off course by Zephyrus, who was jealous of Apollo and loved Hyacinthus as well. When Hyacinthus died, Apollo is said in some accounts to have been so filled with grief that he cursed his own immortality, wishing to join his lover in mortal death and made Zephyrus into the wind so that he could never truly touch or speak to anyone again. Out of the blood of his slain lover Apollo created the hyacinth flower as a memorial to his death, and his tears stained the flower petals with άί άί, meaning alas. The Festival of Hyacinthus was a celebration of Sparta. The Death of Hyacinthos, by Jean Broc Zephyrus and Hyacinth; Attic red-figure cup from Tarquinia, ca 480 BC, Boston Museum of Fine Arts In Greek mythology, Hyacinth (in Greek, Ὑάκινθος — Hyakinthos) was a divine hero, the son of Clio and Pierus, King of Macedonia. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... “Discus” redirects here. ... Zephyr and Hyakinth; Attic red figure cup from Tarquinia, circa 480 BCE. Boston Museum of Fine Arts. ... Genera Hyacinthus litwinowii Hyacinthus orientalis Hyacinthus transcaspicus A Hyacinth is any plant of genus Hyacinthus, which are bulbous herbs formerly placed in the lily family Liliaceae but now regarded as the type genus of the separate family Hyacinthaceae. ...


Another male lover was Cyparissus, a descendant of Heracles. Apollo gave the boy a tame deer as a companion but Cyparissus accidentally killed it with a javelin as it lay asleep in the undergrowth. Cyparissus asked Apollo to let his tears fall forever. Apollo turned the sad boy into a cypress tree, which was said to be a sad tree because the sap forms droplets like tears on the trunk. In Greek mythology, Cyparissus, son of Telephus, was one of Apollos homosexual lovers. ... Alcides redirects here. ... Reconstruction of a post-Marian pilum A Roman coin showing Antoninianus of Carinus holding pilum and globe. ... Genera Actinostrobus Athrotaxis Austrocedrus Callitris - Cypress-pine Callitropsis - Cypress * (Cupressus) Calocedrus - Incense-cedar Chamaecyparis - Cypress Cryptomeria - Sugi Cunninghamia - Cunninghamia Cupressus - Cypress Diselma - Diselma Fitzroya - Alerce Fokienia - Fujian Cypress Glyptostrobus - Chinese Swamp Cypress Juniperus - Juniper Libocedrus Metasequoia - Dawn Redwood Microbiota - Microbiota Neocallitropsis Papuacedrus * (Libocedrus) Pilgerodendron * (Libocedrus) Platycladus - Chinese Arborvitae Sequoia - Coast...


Birth of Hermes

Hermes was born on Mount Cyllene in Arcadia. The story is told in the Homeric Hymn to Hermes. His mother, Maia, had been secretly impregnated by Zeus. Maia wrapped the infant in blankets but Hermes escaped while she was asleep. Hermes ran to Thessaly, where Apollo was grazing his cattle. The infant Hermes stole a number of his cows and took them to a cave in the woods near Pylos, covering their tracks. In the cave, he found a tortoise and killed it, then removed the insides. He used one of the cow's intestines and the tortoise shell and made the first lyre. Apollo complained to Maia that her son had stolen his cattle, but Hermes had already replaced himself in the blankets she had wrapped him in, so Maia refused to believe Apollo's claim. Zeus intervened and, claiming to have seen the events, sided with Apollo. Hermes then began to play music on the lyre he had invented. Apollo, a god of music, fell in love with the instrument and offered to allow exchange of the cattle for the lyre. Hence, Apollo became a master of the lyre and Hermes invented a kind of pipes-instrument called a syrinx. For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... Mount Kyllini or Mount Cyllene (Greek: Κυλλήνη, Kyllíni; sometimes in modern times Ζήρια, Zíria), is a mountain on the Peloponnesus peninsula in Greece. ... The anonymous Homeric Hymns are a collection of ancient Greek hymns. ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... Maia, in Greek mythology, is the eldest of the Pleiades, the seven daughters of Atlas and Pleione. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... This article is about the Greek geographical feature and town. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... “Lyres” redirects here. ... According to Bulfinchs Mythology, Syrinx (Greek Συριγξ) was a nymph and a follower of Artemis, known for her chastity. ...


Later, Apollo exchanged a caduceus for a syrinx from Hermes. For the medical symbol often mistakenly referred to as a caduceus, see Rod of Asclepius. ... According to Bulfinchs Mythology, Syrinx (Greek Συριγξ) was a nymph and a follower of Artemis, known for her chastity. ...


Other stories

Apollo gave the order through the Oracle at Delphi, for Orestes to kill his mother, Clytemnestra, and her lover, Aegisthus. Orestes was punished fiercely by the Erinyes (the Furies, female personifications of vengeance) for this crime. Relentlessly pursued by the Furies, Orestes asked for the intercession of Athena, who decreed that he be tried by a jury of his peers, with Apollo acting as his attorney. The Remorse of Orestes by William-Adolphe Bouguereau For other uses, see Orestes (disambiguation). ... After the murder (1882 painting) Clytemnestra (or Clytaemestra) ‘‘(Eng. ... In Greek mythology, Aegisthus (goat strength, also transliterated as Aegisthos or Aigísthos) was the son of Thyestes and his daughter, Pelopia. ... Two Furies, from an ancient vase. ... In Greek mythology the Erinyes (the Romans called them the Furies) were female personifications of vengeance. ... For other uses, see Female (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Revenge (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... For jury meaning makeshift, see jury rig. ... Look up peer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In the Odyssey, Odysseus and his surviving crew landed on an island sacred to Helios the sun god, where he kept sacred cattle. Though Odysseus warned his men not to (as Tiresias and Circe had told him), they killed and ate some of the cattle and Helios had Zeus destroy the ship and all the men save Odysseus. For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ... For other meanings, see Odysseus (disambiguation) Ulysses redirects here. ... Everes redirects here. ... Circe, a painting by John William Waterhouse. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... For other meanings, see Odysseus (disambiguation) Ulysses redirects here. ...


Apollo also had a lyre-playing contest with Cinyras, his son, who committed suicide when he lost. “Lyres” redirects here. ... In Greek mythology, King Cinyras of Cyprus was a son of Apollo and husband of Metharme. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ...


Apollo killed the Aloadae when they attempted to storm Mt. Olympus. In Greek mythology, the Aloadae were Otus and Ephialtes or Ephialtis, sons of Iphimidea and Aloeus. ... Mount Olympus (Greek: ; also transliterated as Mount Ólympos, and on modern maps, Óros Ólimbos) is the highest mountain in Greece at 2,919 meters high (9,576 feet)[1]. Since its base is located at sea level, it is one of the highest mountains in Europe, in real absolute altitude...


It was also said that Apollo rode on the back of a swan to the land of the Hyperboreans during the winter months, a swan that he also lent to his beloved Hyacinthus to ride. In Greek mythology, according to tradition, the Hyperboreans were a mythical people who lived to the far north of Greece. ...


Apollo turned Cephissus into a sea monster. Cephissus (Greek &#922;&#942;&#966;&#953;&#963;&#963;&#959;&#962;: Kifissós, Kephissós, or Kêphissos) or Cephisus (Greek &#922;&#942;&#966;&#953;&#963;&#959;&#962;: Kêphisos) the name of several rivers in Greece: Cephissus (Boeotia), a river arising in Phocis and flowing through northern Boeotia into Lake... For the television series about extinct sea animals, see Sea Monsters. ...


Musical contests

Pan

Once Pan had the audacity to compare his music with that of Apollo, and to challenge Apollo, the god of the kithara, to a trial of skill. Tmolus, the mountain-god, was chosen to umpire. Pan blew on his pipes, and with his rustic melody gave great satisfaction to himself and his faithful follower, Midas, who happened to be present. Then Apollo struck the strings of his lyre. Tmolus at once awarded the victory to Apollo, and all but Midas agreed with the judgment. He dissented, and questioned the justice of the award. Apollo would not suffer such a depraved pair of ears any longer, and caused them to become the ears of a donkey. Pan (Greek , genitive ) is the Greek god of shepherds and flocks, of mountain wilds, hunting and rustic music: paein means to pasture. ... The kithara was an ancient Greek musical instrument. ... In Greek mythology, Tmolus was a mountain god and husband to Omphale (but see below). ... For other uses, see Midas (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ...


Marsyas
The Flaying of Marsyas by Titian, c.1570-76.
The Flaying of Marsyas by Titian, c.1570-76.

Marsyas was a satyr who challenged Apollo to a contest of music. He had found an aulos on the ground, tossed away after being invented by Athena because it made her cheeks puffy. Marsyas lost and was flayed alive in a cave near Calaenae in Phrygia for his hubris to challenge a god. His blood turned into the river Marsyas. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Also see: Titian (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Marsyas was a satyr who challenged Apollo to a contest of music. ... A bald, bearded, horse-tailed satyr balances a winecup on his erect penis, a trick worthy of note, on an Attic red-figured psykter, ca. ... A nude youth plays the aulos at a banquet: Attic red-figure cup by the Euaion Painter, ca. ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... Michelangelos Last Judgment - Saint Bartholomew holding the knife of his martyrdom and his flayed skin Flaying is the removal of skin from the body. ... In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolia. ... Hubris or hybris (Greek ), according to its modern usage, is exaggerated self pride or self-confidence (overbearing pride), often resulting in fatal retribution. ...


Another variation is that Apollo played his instrument (the lyre) upside down. Marsyas could not do this with his instrument (the flute), and so Apollo hung him from a tree and flayed him alive.[20] â™  This article is about the family of musical instruments. ...


Graeco-Roman epithets and cult titles

Apollo, like other Greek deities, had a number of epithets applied to him, reflecting the variety of roles, duties, and aspects ascribed to the god. However, while Apollo has a great number of appellations in Greek myth, only a few occur in Latin literature, chief among them Phoebus ("shining one"), which was very commonly used by both the Greeks and Romans in Apollo's role as the god of light. An epithet (Greek - επιθετον and Latin - epitheton; literally meaning imposed) is a descriptive word or phrase. ... Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... Phoebus is the Latin form of Greek Phoibos Shining-one, a by-name used in classical mythology for the god Apollo. ...


In Apollo's role as healer, his appellations included Akesios, Iatros, and Acestor[21] meaning "healer". He was also called Alexikakos ("restrainer of evil") and Apotropaeus ("he who averts evil"), and was referred to by the Romans as Averruncus ("averter of evils"). As a plague god and defender against rats and locusts, Apollo was known as Smintheus ("mouse-catcher") and Parnopius ("grasshopper"). The Romans also called Apollo Culicarius ("driving away midges"). In his healing aspect, the Romans referred to Apollo as Medicus ("the Physician"), and a temple was dedicated to Apollo Medicus at Rome, probably next to the temple of Bellona. As a sun-god he was worshiped as Aegletes, the radiant god.[22][23] Midges on a car Midges are small, two-winged flying insects. ... The Temple of Hercules Victor, near the Teatro di Marcello in Rome (a Greek-style Roman temple) // Pagan history and architecture Originally in Roman paganism, a templum was not (necessarily) a cultic building but any ritually marked observation site for natural phenomena believed to allow predictions, such as the flight... Bellona may refer to: The goddess Bellona, the Roman counterpart of to the Greek goddess Enyo. ...


As a god of archery, Apollo was known as Aphetoros ("god of the bow") and Argurotoxos ("with the silver bow"). The Romans referred to Apollo as Articenens ("carrying the bow") as well. As a pastoral shepherd-god, Apollo was known as Nomios ("wandering").


Apollo was also known as Archegetes ("director of the foundation"), who oversaw colonies. He was known as Klarios, from the Doric klaros ("allotment of land"), for his supervision over cities and colonies.


He was known as Delphinios ("Delphinian"), meaning "of the womb", in his association with Delphoi (Delphi). At Delphi, he was also known as Pythios ("Pythian"). An aitiology in the Homeric hymns connects the epitheton to dolphins. Kynthios, another common epithet, stemmed from his birth on Mt. Cynthus. He was also known as Lyceios or Lykegenes, which either meant "wolfish" or "of Lycia", Lycia being the place where some postulate that his cult originated. For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ... Etiology (alternately aetiology, aitiology) is the study of Greek words aitia = cause and logos = word/speech) is used in philosophy, physics and biology in reference to the causes of various phenomena. ... The anonymous Homeric Hymns are a collection of ancient Greek hymns. ... For other uses, see Dolphin (disambiguation). ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycia (in Lycian, Trm̃misa (see List of Lycian place names); in ancient Greek, Λυκία and in modern Turkish, Likya) is a region in the modern-day provinces of Antalya and Muğla on the southern coast of Turkey. ...


Specifically as god of prophecy, Apollo was known as Loxias ("the obscure"). He was also known as Coelispex ("he who watches the heavens") to the Romans. Apollo was attributed the epithet Musagetes as the leader of the muses, and Nymphegetes as "nymph-leader". In Greek mythology, the Muses (Greek , Mousai: perhaps from the Proto-Indo-European root *men- think[1]) are a number of goddesses or spirits who embody the arts and inspire the creation process with their graces through remembered and improvised song and stage, writing, traditional music and dance. ... In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of female nature entities, either bound to a particular location or landform or joining the retinue of a god or goddess. ...


Acesius was the epithet of Apollo worshipped in Elis, where he had a temple in the agora. This surname, which has the same meaning as akestor and alezikakos, characterized the god as the averter of evil.[24] Acraephius or Acraephiaeus was his epithet worshipped in the Boeotian town of Acraephia, reputedly founded by his son, Acraepheus. Actiacus was his epithet in Actium, one of the principal places of his worship.[25][26] Elis, or Eleia (Greek, Modern: Ήλιδα Ilida, Ancient/Katharevousa: Ήλις, also Ilis, Doric: Άλις) is an ancient district within the modern prefecture of Ilia. ... Stoa of the ancient agora de Thessaloniki An agora (αγορά), translatable as marketplace, was a public space and an essential part of an ancient Greek polis or city-state. ... Boeotia or Beotia (//, (Greek Βοιωτια; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was the central area of ancient Greece. ... Acraepheus (Gr. ... Actium (mod. ...


Celtic epithets and cult titles

Apollo was worshipped throughout the Roman Empire. In the traditionally Celtic lands he was most often seen as a healing and sun god. He was often equated with Celtic gods of similar character. [27] For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Six Nations considered the heartland of the modern Celts Celtic nations are areas of Europe inhabited by members of Celtic cultures, specifically speakers of Celtic languages. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Celtic mythology. ...


Apollo Atepomarus ("the great horseman" or "possessing a great horse"). Apollo was worshipped at Mauvrieres (Indre) under this name. Horses were, in the Celtic world, closely linked to the sun. [28][29][30] Atepomarus in Celtic Gaul was a healing and sun god. ...


Apollo Belenus ('bright' or 'brilliant'). This epithet was given to Apollo in parts of Gaul, North Italy and Noricum (part of modern Austria. Apollo Belenus was a healing and sun god. [31][32][33][34][35] In Celtic mythology, Belenus (also Belinus, Belenos, Belinos, Belinu, Bellinus, Belus, Bel) was a deity worshipped in Gaul, Britain and Celtic areas of Italy, Austria and northern Spain. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Noricum in ancient geography was a celtic kingdom in Austria and later a province of the Roman Empire. ...


Apollo Cunomaglus ('hound lord'). A title given to Apollo at a shrine in Wiltshire. Apollo Cunomaglus may have been a god of healing. Cunomaglus himself may originally have been an independent healing god. [36] Cunomaglus (Hound Lord) is a Celtic epithet of the god Apollo. ... Wiltshire (abbreviated Wilts) is a large southern English county. ...


Apollo Grannus. Grannus was a healing spring god, later equated with Apollo [37][38][39] In Celtic mythology, Grannus (also Gramnos, Gramnnos) was a god of healing and mineral springs. ...


Apollo Maponus. A god known from inscriptions in Britain. This may a local fusion of Apollo and Maponus. In Celtic mythology, Maponos or Maponus (divine son) was a god of youth known mainly in northern Britain but also in Gaul. ...


Apollo Moritasgus ('masses of sea water'). An epithet for Apollo at Alesia, where he was worshipped as god of healing and, possibly, of physicians. [40] Moritasgus (Masses of Sea Water) is a Celtic epithet of the sun-god Apollo, at Alesia in Burgundy. ...


Apollo Vindonnus ('clear light'). Apollo Vindonnus had a temple at Essarois, near Chatillon-sur-Seine in Burgundy. He was a god of healing, especially of the eyes. [38] Vindonnus (Clear Light) is is a Celtic epithet of the sun-god Apollo. ... Another French commune is Ch tillon_sur_Marne. ... Coat of arms of the second Duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: ; German: ) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks; the former gave their...


Apollo Virotutis ('benefactor of mankind?'). Apollo Virotutis was worshipped, among other places, at Fins d'Annecy (Haute-Savoire) and at Jublains (Maine-et-Loire) [39][41] Virotutis is a Celtic epithet of the sun-god Apollo. ... Jublains is a commune in the department of Mayenne, Pays de la Loire, France. ... Maine-et-Loire is a département in west-central France. ...


Reception

Apollo has often featured in postclassical art and literature. Percy Bysshe Shelley composed a "Hymn of Apollo" (1820), and the god's instruction of the Muses formed the subject of Igor Stravinsky's Apollon musagète (1927–1928). Apollo also gave his name to NASA's Apollo Lunar program in the 1960s. Percy Bysshe Shelley (August 4, 1792 – July 8, 1822; pronounced ) was one of the major English Romantic poets and is widely considered to be among the finest lyric poets of the English language. ... Igor Stravinsky. ... Apollon musagète is a ballet in two tableaux composed between 1927 and 1928 by Igor Stravinsky. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (IPA [ˈnæsÉ™]) is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... This article is about the series of human spaceflight missions. ...


Media

Notes

  1. ^ For the iconography of the Alexander-Helios type, see H. Hoffmann, 1963. "Helios," in Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 2, pp. 117-23; cf. Yalouris, no. 42.
  2. ^ Joseph Fontenrose, "Apollo and Sol in the Latin poets of the first century BC", Transactions of the American Philological Association 30 (1939), pp 439-55; "Apollo and the Sun-God in Ovid", American Journal of Philology 61 (1940) pp 429-44; and "Apollo and Sol in the Oaths of Aeneas and Latinus" Classical Philology 38.2 (April 1943), pp. 137-138.
  3. ^ Burkert so holds; Greek Religion p.144
  4. ^ http://www.behindthename.com/php/view.php?name=apollo
  5. ^ de Grummond, Nancy Thomson (2006) "Etruscan Myth, Sacred History, and Legend". (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology)
  6. ^ Mackenzie, Donald A. (2005) "Myths of Babylonia and Assyria" (Gutenberg)
  7. ^ Croft, John (2003) wrote in the Ancient Near East mail list that "Apollo does not have a Greek provenance but an Anatolian one. Luwian Apaliuna seems to have travelled west from further East. Hurrian Aplu was a god of the plague, and resembles the mouse god Apollo Smitheus. Hurrian Aplu itself seems derived from the Babylonian "Aplu" meaning a "son of" - a title that was given to the Babylonian plague God, Nergal (son of Enlil)"
  8. ^ Burkert 1985:143.
  9. ^ Lucian (attrib.), De Dea Syria 35–37.
  10. ^ Livy 1.56.
  11. ^ Livy 3.63.7, 4.25.3.
  12. ^ Livy 25.12.
  13. ^ J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz (1979). Continuity and Change in Roman Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 82–85. ISBN 0-19-814822-4. 
  14. ^ Suetonius, Augustus 18.2; Cassius Dio 51.1.1–3.
  15. ^ Cassius Dio 53.1.3.
  16. ^ Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae 5050, translated by Mary Beard; John North and Simon Price (1998). Religions of Rome: Volume 2: A Sourcebook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, no. 5.7b. ISBN 0-521-45015-2 (hbk.); ISBN 0-521-45646-0 (pbk.). 
  17. ^ http://www.tunisiaonline.com/mosaics/mosaic05b.html.
  18. ^ ""The love-stories themselves were not told until later." ([[Karl Kerenyi, The Gods of the Greeks 1951:140.
  19. ^ Libanius, Narrationes.
  20. ^ MAN MYTH & MAGIC by Richard Cavendish
  21. ^ Euripides, Andromache 901
  22. ^ Apollonius of Rhodes, iv. 1730
  23. ^ Apollodorus, i. 9. § 26
  24. ^ "Acesius". Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. London, 1880.
  25. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses xiii. 715
  26. ^ Strabo, x. p. 451
  27. ^ Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend, Miranda J. Green, Thames and Hudson Ltd, 1997
  28. ^ Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum XIII, 1863-1986
  29. ^ Pagan Celtic Britain, A. Ross, 1967
  30. ^ The Gods of the Celts, M.J. Green, 1986, London
  31. ^ Fontes Historiae Religionis Celticae, J. Zwicker, 1934-36, Berlin
  32. ^ Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum V, XI, XII, XIII
  33. ^ Le culte de Belenos en Provence occidentale et en Gaule, Ogam (vol 6), J. Gourcest, 1954
  34. ^ Le cheval sacre dans la Gaule de l'Est, Revue archeologique de l'Est et du Centre-Est (vol 2), E. Thevonot, 1951
  35. ^ Temoignages du culte de l'Apollon gaulois dans l'Helvetie romaine, Revue celtique (vol 51), 1934
  36. ^ The Excavation of the Shrine of Apollo at Nettleton, Whilshire 1956-1971, Society of Antiquaries of London
  37. ^ The Celtic Heritage in Hungary, M. Szabo, 1971, Budapest
  38. ^ a b Divinites et sanctuaires de la Gaule, E. Thevonat, 1968, Paris
  39. ^ a b La religion des Celtes, J. de Vries, 1963, Paris
  40. ^ <Alesia, archeologie et histoire, J. Le Gall, 1963, Paris
  41. ^ Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum XIII
  42. ^ http://www.ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/0239.html.

Lucian. ... De Dea Syria (Concerning the Syrian Goddess) is the conventional Latin title of a work written in Greek that has been traditionally ascribed to the Hellenized Syrian essayist Lucian of Samosata. ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ... On the Life of the Caesars[1], in Latin De vita Caesarum, or as it is often known in English, The Twelve Caesars, is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire. ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ... Mary Beard is Professor in Classics at the University of Cambridge and a fellow of Newnham College. ... A statue of Euripides. ... Andromache (c. ... Apollonius of Rhodes, also known as Apollonius Rhodius (Latin; Greek Apollōnios Rhodios), early 3rd century BC - after 246 BC, was an epic poet, scholar, and director of the Library of Alexandria. ... Apollodorus was a common name in ancient Greece. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Publius Ovidius Naso (March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD) was a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid who wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ... Disambiguation: This article is about the poem Metamorphoses written by the poet Ovid. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ...

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition article "Apollo" by John Henry Freese, a publication now in the public domain.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge&#8212;writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others&#8212;in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Further reading

Primary sources

For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... Palaephatus (Παλαιφατος) is the name of four literary persons in Suidas, who, however, seems to have confounded different persons and writings. ... Apollodorus was a common name in ancient Greece. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Publius Ovidius Naso (March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD) was a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid who wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... Philostratus, was the name of four Greek sophists of the Roman imperial period: (c. ... Philostratus, was the name of four Greek sophists of the Roman imperial period: (c. ... Lucian. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the Greek tragedian. ...

Secondary sources

  • M. Bieber, 1964. Alexander the Great in Greek and Roman Art (Chicago)
  • Walter Burkert, 1985. Greek Religion (Harvard University Press) III.2.5 passim
  • Robert Graves, 1960. The Greek Myths, revised edition (Penguin)
  • Miranda J. Green, Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend, Thames and Hudson Ltd, 1997
  • Karl Kerenyi, Apollon: Studien über Antiken Religion und Humanität rev. ed. 1953.
  • Karl Kerenyi , 1951 The Gods of the Greeks
  • Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopädie der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft: II, "Apollon". The best repertory of cult sites (Burkert).
  • Pfeiff, K.A., 1943. Apollon: Wandlung seines Bildes in der griechischen Kunst. Traces the changing iconography of Apollo.
  • William Smith (lexicographer), Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, 1870, article on Apollo,[42]
  • N. Yalouris, 1980. The Search for Alexander (Boston) Exhibition.

Walter Burkert (born Neuendettelsau (Bavaria), February 2, 1931), the most eminent living scholar of Greek myth and cult, is an emeritus professor of classics at the University of Zurich, Switzerland who has also taught in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ... One of the founders of modern studies in Greek mythology, Karl (Carl, Károly) Kerényi (January 19, 1897 - April 14, 1973) was born in Hungary but became a citizen of Switzerland in 1943. ... Pauly-Wissowa is the name commonly used for the Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, 1894ff, a German encyclopedia of classical scholarship. ... Sir William Smith (1813 - 1893), English lexicographer, was born at Enfield in 1813 of Nonconformist parents. ... Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology is a encyclopedia/biographical dictionary. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Mythography | The Greek God Apollo in Myth and Art (528 words)
Indeed, Apollo is most often associated with the cultivated arts of music and medicine, and his role as the leader of the Muses establishes him as a patron of intellectual pursuits.
According to the Greek poet Hesiod (Theogony, 918-20), Apollo was the son of the Olympian Zeus and the Titan Leto, and the brother of the goddess Artemis.
Apollo was then cared for by Themis, who fed him nectar and ambrosia for a few days, after which time he was an adult capable of assuming the full responsibilities of a god.
Apollo (1628 words)
Apollo was the god of music (principally the lyre, and he directed the choir of the Muses) and also of prophecy, colonization, medicine, archery (but not for war or hunting), poetry, dance, intellectual inquiry and the carer of herds and flocks.
Apollo's infatuation for the nymph Daphne, which had been invoked by the young god of love Eros, because Apollo had mocked him, saying his archery skills were pathetic, and Apollo's singing had also irritated him.
Apollo also loved Cyrene, she was another nymph, and she bore Apollo a son: Aristaeus, a demi-god, who became a protector of cattle and fruit trees, and a deity of hunting, husbandry and bee-keeping.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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