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Encyclopedia > Apolipoprotein E
Apolipoprotein E
Symbol(s): APOE AD2
Locus: 19 q13.31
EntrezGene 348
OMIM 107741
RefSeq NM_000041
UniProt P02649

Apolipoprotein E (APOE), a main apoprotein of the chylomicron, binds to a specific receptor on liver cells and peripheral cells. APOE is essential for the normal catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein constituents. APOE was initially recognized for its importance in lipoprotein metabolism and cardiovascular disease. More recently, it has been studied for its role in several biological processes not directly related to lipoprotein transport, including Alzheimer's disease, immunoregulation, and cognition. Defects in APOE result in familial dysbetalipoproteinemia, or type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP III), in which increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides are the consequence of impaired clearance of chylomicron and VLDL remnants. Hugo is a masculine name. ... In biology and evolutionary computation, a locus is the position of a gene (or other significant sequence) on a chromosome. ... Chromosome 19 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System allows access to databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the US National Library of Medicine (NLM), which is a branch of the US National Institutes of Health. ... Swiss-Prot is a curated biological database of protein sequences created in 1986 by Amos Bairoch during his PhD and developed by the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and the European Bioinformatics Institute. ... An apoprotein is a protein without its characteristic prosthetic group or metal. ... Chylomicrons are large lipoprotein particles (having a diameter of 75 to 1,200nm) that are created by the absorptive cells of the small intestine. ... Receptor may refer to: In telecommunication, a receiver. ... Hepatocytes make up 60-80% of the cytoplasmic mass of the liver. ... Anabolism is the aspect of metabolism that contributes to growth. ... It has been suggested that Medium Chain Triglycerides be merged into this article or section. ... A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly that contains both proteins and lipids and may be structural or catalytic in function. ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart and/or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... Cholesterol chemical structure Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol) and a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ... Chylomicrons are large lipoprotein particles (having a diameter of 75 to 1,200nm) that are created by the absorptive cells of the small intestine. ... Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) is a lipoprotein subclass. ...


Structure

The Apo E protein is 299 amino acids long, and a core apoprotein of the chylomicron. Apo E is synthesized principally in the liver, but has also been found in other tissues such as the brain, kidneys, and spleen. An apoprotein is a protein without its characteristic prosthetic group or metal. ... Chylomicrons are large lipoprotein particles (having a diameter of 75 to 1,200nm) that are created by the absorptive cells of the small intestine. ... The liver is one of the largest internal organs of the human body. ... Comparative brain sizes In animals, the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system. ... Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The spleen is a ductless, vertebrate gland that is not necessary for life but is closely associated with the circulatory system, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells in holding a reservoir of blood. ...


Gene

The APOE gene, APOE, is mapped to chromosome 19 in a cluster with Apolipoprotein C1 and Apolipoprotein C2. APOE consists of four exons and three introns totaling 3597 base pairs. The gene is polymorphic, with three major alleles, APOE2, APOE3, APOE4, which translate into three isoforms of the protein: normal - APOE3; dysfunctional - APOE2 and APOE4. These isoforms differ from each other only by single amino acid substitutions at positions 112 and 158, but have profound physiological consequences. E2 is associated with the genetic disorder type III hyperlipoproteinemia and with both increased and decreased risk for atherosclerosis. E4 has been implicated in atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, impaired cognitive function, and reduced neurite outgrowth. Chromosome 19 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... The exon portion of a DNA strand encodes a specific portion of a protein. ... Diagram of the location of introns and exons within a gene. ... Headline text this website sucks your mothers dickIn molecular biology, two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds are called a base pair (often abbreviated bp). ... In general, polymorphism describes multiple possible states for a single property (it is said to be polymorphic). ... An allele is any one of a number of viable DNA codings of the same gene (sometimes the term refers to a non-gene sequence) occupying a given locus (position) on a chromosome. ... In biology, a protein isoform is a version of a protein with some small differences, usually a splice variant or the product of some posttranslational modification. ... In chemistry, chemistry is really stupid. ... A genetic disorder, or genetic disease is a disease caused by abnormal expression of one or more genes in a person causing a clinical phenotype. ... Wiktionary has a definition of: Cognition The term cognition is used in several different loosely related ways. ...



Lipoproteins edit 
Chylomicron | HDL | IDL | LDL | VLDL

APOA1 | APOA2 | APOB | APOC1 | APOC2 | APOC3 | APOC4 | APOD | APOE A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly that contains both proteins and lipids and may be structural or catalytic in function. ... Chylomicrons are large lipoprotein particles (having a diameter of 75 to 1,200nm) that are created by the absorptive cells of the small intestine. ... High density lipoproteins (HDL) form a class of lipoproteins, varying somewhat in their size (8-11 nm in diameter) and contents, that carry cholesterol from the bodys tissues to the liver. ... Intermediate density lipoproteins are a class of lipoproteins formed from the degradation of very low density lipoproteins, constituted essentially of triacylglycerols and cholesterol esters. ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) refers to a class and range of lipoprotein particles, varying in their size and contents, which carry cholesterol in the blood and around the body, for use by cells. ... Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) is a lipoprotein subclass. ...


 
 

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