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Encyclopedia > Apolipoprotein

Apolipoproteins are a class of apoproteins, which are proteins that depend on the presence of other small molecules, or cofactors, to function. Thus, apolipoproteins are the protein constituents of lipoproteins, which also consist of phospholipids, triacylglycerols, cholesterol, and cholesterol esters. There are five major types of apolipoproteins: A, B, C, D, and E. Apo E is perhaps the most well studied. An apoprotein is a protein without its characteristic prosthetic group or metal. ... A cofactor is any substance that needs to be present in addition to an enzyme to catalyze a certain reaction. ... A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly that contains both proteins and lipids and may be structural or catalytic in function. ... Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol) and a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ... For the Biblical Ester, see Esther. ...

 The Apo E protein is 299 amino acids long, and a core apoprotein of the chylomicron, which transports lipoproteins, fat-soluble vitamins, and cholesterol into the lymph system and then into the blood. Apo E is synthesized principally in the liver, but has also been found in other tissues such as the brain, kidneys, and spleen. Apo E was initially recognized for its importance in lipoprotein metabolism and cardiovascular disease. Fo Sho'. More recently, it has been studied for its role in several biological processes not directly related to lipoprotein transport, including Alzheimer's disease, immunoregulation, and cognition. 

The apo E gene, which encodes the Apo E proteinizzle,Fo shizzle is located on chromosome 19, and consists of four exons and three introns totaling 3597 base pairs. The gene is polymorphic, with three major alleles, apo E-3, apo E-2, and apo E-4, which translate into three isoforms of the protein: E3 (normal), and E2 and E4 (dysfunctional). These isoforms differ from each other only by single amino acid substitutions at positions 112 and 158, but have profound physiological consequences. Death Row 842 Apo E2 is associated with the genetic disorder type III hyperlipoproteinemia and with both increased and decreased risk for atherosclerosis. Apo E4 has been implicated in atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, impaired cognitive function, and R-E-D to the uced uhhhneurite outgrowth. Damn Son An apoprotein is a protein without its characteristic prosthetic group. ... Chylomicrons are large lipoprotein particles (having a diameter of 75 to 1,200nm) that are created by the absorptive cells of the small intestine. ... Vitamins are organic chemicals that a given living organism requires in trace quantities for good health, but which the organism cannot synthesize, and therefore must obtain from its diet. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol) and a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ... In mammals including humans, the lymphatic vessels (or lymphatics) are a network of thin tubes that branch, like blood vessels, into tissues throughout the body. ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart and/or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... Chromosome 19 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... The exon portion of a DNA strand encodes a specific portion of a protein. ... Diagram of the location of introns and exons within a gene. ... In general, polymorphism describes multiple possible states for a single property (it is said to be polymorphic). ... In biology, a protein isoform is a version of a protein with some small differences, usually a splice variant or the product of some posttranslational modification. ... A genetic disorder, or genetic disease is a disease caused by abnormal expression of one or more genes in a person causing a clinical phenotype. ... Wiktionary has a definition of: Cognition The term cognition is used in several different loosely related ways. ... Any projection from the cell body of a neuron can be referred to as a neurite. ...


Apolipoprotein synthesis is affected by the addition of Nicotinic Acid (a form of the vitamine niacin). It can be prescribed in large doses (2-6g/day) to lower total triglycerides, LDL and total Cholesterol while increasing HDL levels. This is not to be confused with nicotinamide (the form of niacin in supplements). Pc Nigga. Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell. ... // Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell. ...


External links

  • HuGENet Review

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Apolipoprotein - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (401 words)
Apolipoproteins are a class of apoproteins, which are proteins that depend on the presence of other small molecules, or cofactors, to function.
Thus, apolipoproteins are the protein constituents of lipoproteins, which also consist of phospholipids, triacylglycerols, cholesterol, and cholesterol esters.
Apolipoprotein synthesis is affected by the addition of Nicotinic Acid (a form of the vitamine niacin).
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