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Encyclopedia > Aplastic anemia
Aplastic anemia
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 D60.-D61.
ICD-9 284
OMIM 609135
DiseasesDB 866
eMedicine med/162 
MeSH D000741

Aplastic anemia is a condition where bone marrow does not produce sufficient new cells to replenish blood cells. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // C00-D48 - Neoplasms (C00-C14) Malignant neoplasms, lip, oral cavity and pharynx (C00) Malignant neoplasm of lip (C01) Malignant neoplasm of base of tongue (C02) Malignant neoplasm of other and unspecified parts of tongue (C03) Malignant neoplasm of gum (C04) Malignant neoplasm of floor of mouth (C05) Malignant neoplasm of... // C00-D48 - Neoplasms (C00-C14) Malignant neoplasms, lip, oral cavity and pharynx (C00) Malignant neoplasm of lip (C01) Malignant neoplasm of base of tongue (C02) Malignant neoplasm of other and unspecified parts of tongue (C03) Malignant neoplasm of gum (C04) Malignant neoplasm of floor of mouth (C05) Malignant neoplasm of... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ...


The term 'aplastic' means the marrow suffers from an aplasia that renders it unable to function properly. Anemia is the condition of having fewer red blood cells than normal, or fewer than needed to function properly. Typically, anemia refers to low red blood cell counts, but aplastic anemia patients have lower counts of all three blood cell types: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Aplasia is defective development resulting in the absence of all or part of an organ or tissue. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... “Red cell” redirects here. ... White Blood Cells redirects here. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ...

Contents

Causes

One known cause is an autoimmune disorder, where the white blood cells attack the bone marrow. Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ... White Blood Cells redirects here. ...


In many cases, the etiology is impossible to determine, but aplastic anemia is sometimes associated with exposure to substances such as benzene, radiation, or to the use of certain drugs, including chloramphenicol, carbamazepine, felbamate, phenytoin, quinine, and phenylbutazone. Many drugs are associated with aplasia mainly in the base of case reports but at a very low probability, As an example, chloramphenicol treatment is followed by aplasia in less than 1 in 40,000 treatment courses,and carbamazepine aplasia is even more rare. This article is about the medical term. ... For benzine, see petroleum ether. ... For other uses, see Radiation (disambiguation). ... Chloramphenicol is a bacteriostatic antibiotic originally derived from the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae, isolated by David Gottlieb, and introduced into clinical practice in 1949. ... Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizing drug, used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. ... Felbamate (marketed as Felbamol by MedPointe) is an anticonvulsant drug used in the treatment of epilepsy. ... Phenytoin sodium (marketed as Dilantin® in the USA and as Epanutin® in the UK, by Parke-Davis, now part of Pfizer) is a commonly used antiepileptic. ... Quinine (IPA: ) is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), anti-smallpox, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. ... Phenylbutazone, often known as bute, is a crystalline substance having the structure shown at right. ...


Aplastic anaemia is present in up to 2% of patients with acute viral hepatitis. In medicine (gastroenterology), hepatitis is any disease featuring inflammation of the liver. ...


Signs and symptoms

This article discusses the medical condition. ... Malaise is a feeling of general discomfort or uneasiness, an out of sorts feeling, often the first indication of an infection or other disease. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Thrombocytopenia (or -paenia, or thrombopenia in short) is the presence of relatively few platelets in blood. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A bruise or contusion or ecchymoses is a kind of injury, usually caused by blunt impact, in which the capillaries are damaged, allowing blood to seep into the surrounding tissue. ... Leukopenia or leukocytopenia refers to a decrease in the number of circulating white blood cells (leukocytes) in the blood. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ...

Diagnosis

The diagnosis can only be made on bone marrow examination. Before this procedure is undertaken, a patient will generally have had other blood tests to find diagnostic clues, including a full blood count, renal function and electrolytes, liver enzymes, thyroid function tests, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. A bone marrow biopsy is a medical procedure used as part of a test in the diagnosis of several conditions including leukemia. ... Blood tests are laboratory tests done on blood to gain an appreciation of disease states and the function of organs. ... A full blood count (FBC) or complete blood count (CBC) is a test requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patients blood. ... In medicine (nephrology) renal function is an indication of the state of the kidney and its role in physiology. ... An electrolyte is a substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs), are groups of clinical biochemistry laboratory blood assays designed to give a doctor or other health professional information about the state of a patients liver. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. ...


Treatment

Treating aplastic anemia involves suppression of the immune system, an effect achieved by daily medicine intake, or, in more severe cases, a bone marrow transplant, a potential cure but a risky procedure. The transplanted bone marrow replaces the failing bone marrow cells with new ones from a matching donor. The pluripotent stem cells in the bone marrow reconstitute all three blood cell lines, giving the patient a new immune system, red blood cells, and platelets. However, besides the risk of graft failure, there is also a risk that the newly created white blood cells may attack the rest of the body ("graft-versus-host disease"). A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Bone marrow transplantation or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a medical procedure in the field of hematology and oncology that involves transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). ... Pluripotency in the broad sense refers to having more than one potential outcome. In biological systems, this can refer either to cells or to biological compounds. ... Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a common complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in which functional immune cells in the transplanted marrow recognize the recipient as foreign and mount an immunologic attack. ...


Medical therapy of aplastic anemia often includes a short course of anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG or anti-lymphocyte globulin) and several months of treatment with cyclosporin to modulate the immune system. Mild chemotherapy with agents such as cyclophosphamide and vincristine may also be effective. Antibodies therapy, such as ATG, targets T-cells, which are believed to attack the bone marrow. Steroids are generally ineffective. Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) is an infusion of rabbit-derived antibodies against human T cells which is used in the prevention and treatment of acute rejection in organ transplantation. ... Anti-lymphocyte globulin (ALG) is an infusion of horse-derived antibodies against human T cells which is used in the treatment of acute rejection in organ transplantation, especially in kidney transplants. ... ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Cyclophosphamide (the generic name for Cytoxan, Neosar) is a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent, used to treat various types of cancer and some autoimmune disorders. ... Vincristine (Oncovin®), also known as leurocristine, is a vinca alkaloid from the Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus, formerly Vinca rosea and hence its name). ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ... In chemistry and biology, Steroids are a type of lipid, characterized by a carbon skeleton with four fused rings. ...


In the past, before the above treatments became available, patients with low leukocyte counts were often confined to a sterile room or bubble (to reduce risk of infections), as in the famed case of Ted DeVita. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Prognosis

Untreated aplastic anemia is an illness that leads to rapid death, typically within six months. If the disease is diagnosed correctly and initial treatment is begun promptly, then the survival rate for the next five to ten years is substantially improved, and many patients live well beyond that length of time.[citation needed]


Occasionally, milder cases of the disease resolve on their own. Relapses of previously controlled disease are, however, much more common.


Well-matched bone marrow transplants from siblings have been successful in young, otherwise healthy people, with a long-term survival rate of 80%-90%. Most successful BMT recipients eventually reach a point where they consider themselves cured for all practical purposes, although they need to be compliant with follow-up care permanently.[citation needed]


Older people (who are generally too frail to undergo bone marrow transplants) and people who are unable to find a good bone marrow match have five year survival rate of up to 75%. Prognosis (older Greek πρόγνωσις, modern Greek πρόγνωση - literally fore-knowing, foreseeing) is a medical term denoting the doctors prediction of how a patients disease will progress, and whether there is chance of recovery. ...


Follow-up

Regular full blood counts are required to determine whether the patient is still in a state of remission. A full blood count (FBC) or complete blood count (CBC) is a test requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patients blood. ...


10-33% of all patients develop the rare disease paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH, anemia with thrombopenia and/or thrombosis), which has been explained as an escape mechanism by the bone marrow against destruction by the immune system. Flow cytometry testing is probably warranted in all PNH patients with recurrent aplasia. A rare disease (sometimes known as an orphan disease) has such a low prevalence in a population that a doctor in a busy general practice would not expect to see more than one case a year. ... Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare acquired life-threatening disease of the blood characterised by hemolytic anemia, thrombosis and red urine due to breakdown of red blood cells. ... Thrombosis is the formation of a clot or thrombus inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. ... Analysis of a marine sample of photosynthetic picoplankton by flow cytometry showing three different populations (Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes) Flow cytometry is a technique for counting, examining and sorting microscopic particles suspended in a stream of fluid. ...


See also

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic disease that affects children and adults from all ethnic backgrounds. ... Acquired pure red cell aplasia (or PRCA) refers to a type of anemia affecting the precursors to red blood cells but not to white blood cells. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Aplastic anemia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (431 words)
Aplastic anemia is a condition where the bone marrow does not produce enough, or any, new cells to replenish the blood cells.
Anemia is the condition of having fewer blood cells than normal, or fewer than needed to function properly.
In many cases, the etiology is impossible to determine, but aplastic anemia is sometimes associated with exposure to substances such as benzene,radiation, or to the use of certain drugs, including chloramphenicol and phenylbutazone.
Aplastic Anemia Information on Healthline (1098 words)
Aplastic anemia is a disorder in which the bone marrow greatly decreases or stops production of blood cells.
In aplastic anemia, the basic structure of the marrow becomes abnormal, and those cells responsible for generating blood cells (hematopoietic cells) are greatly decreased in number or absent.
Symptoms of aplastic anemia tend to be those of other anemias, including fatigue, weakness, tiny reddish-purple marks (petechiae) on the skin (evidence of pinpoint hemorrhages into the skin), evidence of abnormal bruising, and bleeding from the gums, nose, intestine, or vagina.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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