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Encyclopedia > Apirana Ngata
The Honourable
 Sir Apirana Turupa Ngata 
MP

Sir Apirana Ngata, circa 1905. The prefix The Honourable or The Honorable ( or formerly The Honble) is a title of quality attached to the names of certain classes of persons. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 447 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (522 × 700 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


22nd Minister of Māori Affairs
In office
10 December 1928 – 1 November 1934
Prime Minister Sir Joseph Ward
George Forbes
Monarch George V
Preceded by Gordon Coates
Succeeded by George Forbes

Member of the New Zealand Parliament
for Eastern Maori
In office
1905 – 1943
Preceded by Wi Pere
Succeeded by Tiaki Omana

Born 3 July 1874(1874-07-03)
Te Araroa, Gisborne, New Zealand
Died 14 July 1950 (aged 76)
Waiomatatini, New Zealand
Political party Liberal
United
Spouse Arihia Kane Tamati (married 1895)

Sir Apirana Turupa Ngata (3 July 1874 - 14 July 1950) was a prominent New Zealand politician and lawyer. He has often been described as the foremost Māori politician to have ever served in Parliament, and is also known for his work in promoting and protecting Māori culture and language. The Minister of Māori Affairs is an official of the New Zealand government who has broad responsibility for government policy towards Māori, the first inhabitants of New Zealand. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph George Ward (1856 - 1930) was Prime Minister of New Zealand on two occasions in the early 20th century. ... George William Forbes (12 March 1869 - 17 May 1947) served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1930 to 1935. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... This article is about the New Zealand prime minister. ... George William Forbes (12 March 1869 - 17 May 1947) served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1930 to 1935. ... The New Zealand Parliament is the legislative body of the New Zealand government. ... The New Zealand general election of 1905 was held December 6 to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 16th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The 1943 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 27th term. ... Tiaki Omana , also known as John or Jack Ormond is a former New Zealand politician who captured the Ratana Movements fourth Maori seat of Eastern Maori in 1943 from Apirana Ngata who had held it since 1905. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses of Gisborne see Gisborne (disambiguation). ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the original New Zealand Liberal Party. ... This article discusses the party which originated in 1927 from a faction of the Liberal Party. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... The New Zealand Parliament is the legislative body of the New Zealand government. ... Wharenui, Ohinemutu village, Rotorua. ...

Contents

Early life

Ngata was born to a Māori family in Te Araroa (then called Kawakawa), a small coastal town about 175 kilometres north of Gisborne, New Zealand. His iwi was Ngāti Porou, and his father was considered an expert in traditional lore. Ngata was greatly influenced both by his father and by his great-uncle Ropata Wahawaha (who had led Ngāti Porou forces in the Māori Wars). Ngata was raised in a Māori environment, speaking the Māori language, but his father also ensured that Ngata learned about the Pākehā world, believing that this understanding would be of benefit to Ngāti Porou. For other uses of Gisborne see Gisborne (disambiguation). ... Iwi (pronounced ee-wee) are the largest everyday social units in Māori society. ... Ngāti Porou is a Māori iwi traditionally located in the East Cape and Gisborne regions on the North Island of New Zealand. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ropata Wahawaha was a Ngati Porou war chief who rose to prominence during the East Cape War and to senior command during Te Kootis War. ... M is the thirteenth letter of the Latin alphabet. ... Māori or Te Reo Māori,[1] commonly shortened to Te Reo (literally the language) functions as one of the official languages of New Zealand. ... Pākehā is a Māori term generally used to describe New Zealanders of British or European ancestry, but it can also be used to refer to any non-Māori person. ...


Ngata attended primary school in Waiomatatini before moving on to Te Aute College, where he received a Pākehā-style education. Ngata performed well, and his academic results were enough to win him a scholarship to Canterbury University College (now the University of Canterbury), where he studied political science and law. He gained a BA in politics in 1893 before completing an LLB at the University of Auckland in 1896. Ngata's success marked the first time a Māori person had completed a degree at a New Zealand university. Te Aute College (Maori: Te Kura O Te Aute) is a prestigious Maori school in the Hawkes Bay region of New Zealand. ... This article is about scholarship (noun) and scholarship as a form of financial aid. ... This page is about the New Zealand university. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... The degree of Bachelor of Laws is the principal academic degree in law in most common law countries. ... The University of Auckland (Māori: Te Whare Wānanga o Tāmaki Makaurau) is New Zealands largest research-based university. ...


Marriage

In 1895, a year before finishing his law degree, Ngata had married Arihia Kane Tamati, who was also of the Ngāti Porou iwi. Ngata had been betrothed to Arihia's elder sister, Te Rina, but she died before the wedding. So as consolation, Apirana was given the younger sister who was only 16 at the time of their marriage.


Apirana and Arihia had 15 children together, of whom three boys and one girl died in infancy, while six girls and five boys survived into adulthood.


Shortly after Ngata's legal qualifications were recognised, he and his wife returned to Waiomatatini, where they built a house. Ngata quickly became prominent in the community, making a number of efforts to improve the social and economic conditions of Māori across the country. He also wrote extensively on the place of Māori culture in the modern age. At the same time, he gradually acquired a leadership role within Ngāti Porou, particularly in the area of land management and finance.


Start of national political career

Ngata's first involvement with national politics came through his friendship with James Carroll, who was Minister of Native Affairs in the Liberal Party government. Ngata assisted Carroll in the preparation of two pieces of legislation, both of which were intended to increase the legal rights enjoyed by Māori. In the 1905 election, Ngata himself stood as the Liberal candidate for the Eastern Māori seat, challenging the incumbent Wi Pere. He was successfully elected to Parliament. James Carroll (1857-1926), known to Māori as Timi Kara, was a New Zealand politician of Irish and Ngati Kahungunu (Māori) descent. ... This article is about the original New Zealand Liberal Party. ... The New Zealand general election of 1905 was held December 6 to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 16th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ...


Early political career

Ngata quickly distinguished himself in Parliament as a skilled orator. He worked closely with his friend Carroll, and also worked closely with Robert Stout. Ngata and Stout, members of the Native Land Commission, were often critical of the government's policies towards Māori, particularly those designed at encouraging the sale of Māori land. In 1909, Ngata assisted John Salmond in the drafting of the Native Land Act. Robert Stout (1844 - 1930) was Premier of New Zealand on two occasions in the late 19th century. ... Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir John Maitland Salmond was born on 17 July 1881. ...


In late 1909, Ngata was appointed to Cabinet, holding a minor ministerial responsibility for Māori land councils. He retained this position until 1912, when the Liberal government was defeated. Ngata followed the Liberals into Opposition. The New Zealand Cabinet functions as the policy and decision-making body of New Zealand governments executive branch. ... Parliamentary Opposition is a form of political opposition to a designated government, particularly in a Westminster-based parliamentary system. ...


In the First World War, Ngata was highly active in gathering Māori recruits for military service, working closely with Reform Party MP Maui Pomare. Ngata's own Ngāti Porou were particularly well represented among the volunteers. The large Māori commitment to the war, much of which can be attributed to Ngata and Pomare, created a certain amount of goodwill from Pākehā towards Māori, and assisted Ngata's later attempts to resolve land grievances. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Reform Party was New Zealands second major political party, having been founded as a conservative response to the original Liberal Party. ... Maui Wiremu Piti Naera Pomare 1875 or 1876 - 1930) was a New Zealand doctor and politician, being counted among the more prominent Maori political figures. ...


Although in Opposition, Ngata enjoyed relatively good relations with his counterparts across the House in the Reform Party. He had a particularly good relationship with Gordon Coates, who became Prime Minister in 1925. The establishment of several government bodies, such as the Māori Purposes Fund Control Board and the Board of Māori Ethnological Research, owed much to Ngata's involvement. This article is about the New Zealand prime minister. ... The Prime Minister of New Zealand is New Zealands head of government consequent on being the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in the Parliament of New Zealand. ...


During this time, Ngata was also active in a huge variety of other endeavours. The most notable, perhaps, was his involvement in academic and literary circles - in this period, he published a number of works on significant Māori culture, with Nga moteatea, a collection of Māori songs, being one of his better known works. Ngata was also heavily involved in the protection and advancement of Māori culture among Māori themselves, giving particular attention to promoting the haka, poi dancing, and traditional carving. One aspect of his advocacy of Māori culture was the construction of many new traditional meeting houses throughout the country. Yet another of Ngata's interests was the promotion of Māori sport, which he fostered by encouraging intertribal competitions and tournaments. Finally, Ngata also promoted Māori issues within the Anglican Church, encouraging the creation of a Māori bishopric. Throughout all this, Ngata also remained deeply involved in the affairs of his Ngāti Porou iwi, particularly as regards land development. This article is about the traditional Māori dance genre. ... Poi dance, by Manutuke School at Hopuhopu, New Zealand, 2003 Poi is a form of juggling Impartial Art [1] (Finnigan, 1992) with balls on ropes, held in the hands and swung in various circular patterns, similar to club-twirling. ... The Anglican Communion is a world-wide organisation of Anglican Churches. ... In some Christian churches, the diocese is an administrative territorial unit governed by a bishop, sometimes also referred to as a bishopric or episcopal see, though more often the term episcopal see means the office held by the bishop. ...


In 1927, Ngata was awarded a knighthood, only the third Māori (after Carroll and Pomare) to receive this honour. A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ...


Ministerial career

In the 1928 elections, the United Party (a rebranding of the old Liberal Party, to which Ngata belonged) won an unexpected victory. Ngata was returned to Cabinet, becoming Minister of Native Affairs. He was ranked third within Cabinet, and occasionally served as acting Deputy Prime Minister. Ngata remained extremely diligent in his work, and was noted for his tirelessness. Much of his ministerial work related to land reforms, and the encouragement of Māori land development. Ngata continued to believe in the need to rejuvenate Māori society, and worked strongly towards this goal. In 1929, both Ngata's wife and eldest son died of illness - this had a great impact on Ngata, but he eventually returned to his former level of activity. The New Zealand general election of 1925 was held November 14 to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 23rd session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The Minister of Māori Affairs is an official of the New Zealand government who has broad responsibility for government policy towards Māori, the first inhabitants of New Zealand. ... The Deputy Prime Minister of New Zealand is second most senior officer in the Government of New Zealand, although this seniority does not necessarily translate into power. ...


In 1932, however, Ngata and his Department of Native Affairs were coming under increasing criticism from other politicians. Many believed that Ngata was pressing ahead too fast, and the large amount of activity that Ngata ordered had caused organizational difficulties within the department. An inquiry into Ngata's department was set up, and in the course of the investigation, it was discovered that one of Ngata's subordinates had falsified accounts. Ngata himself was criticised for a disregard for official regulations, which he had often felt were inhibiting progress. It was also alleged that Ngata had shown favouritism to Ngāti Porou, although no real evidence of this was ever presented. Ngata, while denying any personal wrongdoing, accepted responsibility for the actions of his department and resigned from his ministerial position.


Many Māori were angry at Ngata's departure from Cabinet, believing that he was the victim of a Pākehā attempt to undermine his land reforms.


Later life

Although Ngata had resigned from Cabinet, he still remained in Parliament. In the 1935 elections, the Labour Party was triumphant - Ngata went into Opposition, although the new Labour government retained many of his land reform programs. Ngata remained in Parliament until the 1943 elections, when he was finally defeated by a Labour-Ratana candidate, Tiaki Omana. He stood again for his seat in the 1946 elections, but was unsuccessful. The 1935 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 25th term. ... The New Zealand Labour Party is a New Zealand political party. ... The 1943 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 27th term. ... Both a religion and a pan-tribal political force, the Ratana movement was founded by Tahupotiki Wiremu Ratana (1873 - 1939) in early 20th century New Zealand. ... Tiaki Omana , also known as John or Jack Ormond is a former New Zealand politician who captured the Ratana Movements fourth Maori seat of Eastern Maori in 1943 from Apirana Ngata who had held it since 1905. ... The 1946 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 28th term. ...


Despite leaving Parliament, Ngata remained involved in politics. He gave advice on Māori affairs to both Peter Fraser (a Labour Prime Minister) and Ernest Corbett (a National Minister of Māori Affairs), and arranged celebrations of the Treaty of Waitangi's centenary in 1940. In the Second World War, he once again helped gather Māori recruits. In 1950, he was appointed to Parliament's upper house, the Legislative Council, but was too ill by this time to take his seat. A statue of Fraser outside the Government Buildings Historic Reserve in Wellington The Right Honourable Peter Fraser (1884 - 1950) served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from 27 March 1940 until 13 December 1949. ... Ernest Bowyer Corbett (1898 - 1968) was a New Zealand National Party politician. ... One of the few extant copies of the Treaty of Waitangi The Treaty of Waitangi (Māori: Tiriti o Waitangi) is a treaty signed on February 6, 1840 by representatives of the British Crown, and Māori chiefs from the North Island of New Zealand. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A Legislative Council in British constitutional thought is the second-to-top tier of a government led by a Governor-General, Governor or a Lieutenant-Governor, inferior to an Executive Council and equal to or superior to a Legislative Assembly. ...


Ngata died in Waiomatatini on 14 July 1950. He is remembered for his great contributions to Māori culture and language. His image appears on New Zealand's $50 note. is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... ISO 4217 Code NZD User(s) New Zealand, Cook Islands, Niue, Pitcairn Islands, Tokelau Inflation 2. ...


References

  • Biography in 1966 Encyclopaedia of New Zealand
  • The Cyclopedia of New Zealand, Volume 6 (1908); Taranaki, Hawke’s Bay & Wellington Province: page 301 (has photo)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Apirana Ngata - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1295 words)
Ngata was raised in a Māori environment, speaking the Māori language, but his father also ensured that Ngata learned about the Pakeha world, believing that this understanding would be of benefit to Ngati Porou.
Ngata performed well, and his academic results were enough to win him a scholarship to Canterbury University College (now the University of Canterbury), where he studied political science and law.
Ngata was also heavily involved in the protection and advancement of Māori culture among Māori themselves, giving particular attention to promoting the haka, poi dancing, and traditional carving.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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