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Encyclopedia > Apicomplexa
Apicomplexa

Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Chromalveolata
Superphylum: Alveolata
Phylum: Apicomplexa
Classes & Subclasses

Aconoidasida
Image File history File links Malaria. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... The chromalveolates (Chromalveolata) are a hypothetical grouping of eukaryotes, comprising the Chromista and alveolates, as suggested by Tom Cavalier-Smith. ... The alveolates are a major line of protists. ... Orders Haemosporida Piroplasmida The Aconoidasida are a class of Apicomplexan parasites. ...

Blastocystea
Conoidasida
The Plasmodiidae are a family of apicomplexan parasites, including the genus Plasmodium, which is responsible for malaria. ... Blastocystis is an intestinal microscopic parasite present in humans and a wide range of animals. ... Orders Eucoccidiorida Conoidasida is a class of protists. ...

The Apicomplexa are a large group of protists, characterized by the presence of a unique organelle called an apical complex. They are unicellular, spore-forming, and exclusively parasites of animals. Motile structures such as flagella or pseudopods are absent except in certain gamete stages. This is a diverse group including organisms such as coccidia, gregarines, piroplasms, haemogregarines, and malarias; some diseases caused by apicomplexan organisms include: Coccidia are microscopic, single-celled parasites that infect the intestine. ... Orders Archigregarinorida Eugregarinorida Neogregarinorida The gregarines are a group of Apicomplexan protozoa, classified as the Gregarinasina or Gregarinea. ... Typical phyla Chromalveolata Chromista Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolata Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Cabozoa Excavata Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Archaeplastida (in part) Rhodophyta (red algae) Glaucophyta (basal archaeplastids) Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists (IPA: (RP); (GenAm)), Greek protiston -a meaning the (most) first of all... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... For the insect anatomical structure, see Antenna (biology). ... Pseudopods or pseudopodia (false feet) are temporary projections of eukaryotic cells. ... A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετης; translated gamete = wife, gametes = husband) is a cell that fuses with another gamete during fertilization (conception) in organisms that reproduce sexually. ... Coccidia are microscopic, single-celled parasites that infect the intestine. ... Orders Archigregarinorida Eugregarinorida Neogregarinorida The gregarines are a group of Apicomplexan protozoa, classified as the Gregarinasina or Gregarinea. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ...

Most members have a complex life-cycle, involving both asexual and sexual reproduction. Typically, a host is infected by ingesting cysts, which divide to produce sporozoites that enter its cells. Eventually, the cells burst, releasing merozoites which infect new cells. This may occur several times, until gamonts are produced, forming gametes that fuse to create new cysts. There are many variations on this basic pattern, however, and many Apicomplexa have more than one host. Babesiosis is a parasitic disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia, which belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa. ... Species Babesia (syn. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Species Plasmodium achiotense Plasmodium achromaticum Plasmodium acuminatum Plasmodium adunyinkai Plasmodium aegyptensis Plasmodium aeuminatum Plasmodium agamae Plasmodium anasum Plasmodium anomaluri Plasmodium arachniformis Plasmodium ashfordi Plasmodium atheruri Plasmodium aurulentum Plasmodium australis Plasmodium attenuatum Plasmodium azurophilum Plasmodium balli Plasmodium bambusicolai Plasmodium basilisci Plasmodium beebei Plasmodium beltrani Plasmodium berghei Plasmodium bertii Plasmodium bigueti Plasmodium... Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease affecting the intestines of mammals that is caused by Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite in the phylum Apicomplexa. ... Species Cryptosporidium bailey Cryptosporidium meleagridis Cryptosporidium muris Cryptosporidium parvum Cryptosporidium serpentis Cryptosporidium is a protozoan pathogen of the Phylum Apicomplexa and causes a diarrheal illness called cryptosporidiosis. ... Coccidia are microscopic, single-celled parasites that infect the intestine. ... Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease affecting the intestines of mammals that is caused by Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite in the phylum Apicomplexa. ... Binomial name Cryptosporidium parvum Cryptosporidium parvum is one of several species that cause cryptosporidiosis. ... Cyclospora cayetanensis is a pathogenic protozoan transmitted by feces or feces-contaminated fresh produce and water. ... Cyclospora cayetanensis ... It has been suggested that Tachyzoite, Tachyzoites and Bradyzoite be merged into this article or section. ... In the life-cycle of apicomplexan protozoa, sporozoites are cells that infect new hosts. ... A merozoite is a daughter cell of protozoan parasites. ...


The apical complex includes vesicles called rhoptries and micronemes, which open at the anterior of the cell. These secrete enzymes that allow the parasite to enter other cells. The tip is surrounded by a band of microtubules, called the polar ring, and among the Conoidasida there is also a funnel of rods called the conoid..[1] Over the rest of the cell, except for a diminished mouth called the micropore, the membrane is supported by vesicles called alveoli, forming a semi-rigid pellicle. A rhoptry is a specialized secretory organelle. ... Micronemes are cellular organs, or organelles, possessed by Apicomplexa protozoans. ... Microtubules are one of the components of the cytoskeleton. ...


The presence of alveoli and other traits place the Apicomplexa among a group called the alveolates. Several related flagellates, such as Perkinsus and Colpodella have structures similar to the polar ring and were formerly included here, but most appear to be closer relatives of the dinoflagellates. They are probably similar to the common ancestor of the two groups. The alveolates are a major line of protists. ... Perkinsus marinus is a prevalent pathogen of oysters, causing massive mortality in oyster populations. ... Classes Dinophyceae Noctiluciphyceae Syndiniophyceae The dinoflagella are a large group of flagellate protists. ...


Another similarity is that apicomplexan cells contain a single plastid, called the apicoplast, surrounded by either 3 or four membranes. Its functions are thought to include tasks such as lipid synthesis, it appears to be necessary for survival. They are generally considered to share a common origin with the chloroplasts of dinoflagellates, although some studies suggest they are ultimately derived from green rather than red algae. Plant cells with visible chloroplasts. ... The Apicoplast is a relict, non-photosynthetic plastid found in the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. ... Divisions Chlorophyta Charophyta Streptophytina (Subdivision) The green algae are the large group of algae from which the embryophytes (higher plants) emerged. ... Possible classes Florideophyceae Bangiophyceae Cyanidiophyceae The red algae (Rhodophyta, IPA: , from Greek: (rhodon) = rose + (phyton) = plant, thus red plant) are a large group, about 5000 - 6000 species [1] of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. ...


The Apicomplexa comprise the bulk of what used to be called the Sporozoa, a group for parasitic protozoans without flagella, pseudopods, or cilia. Most of the Apicomplexa are motile however. The other main lines were the Ascetosporea, the Myxozoa (now known to be derived from animals), and the Microsporidia (now known to be derived from fungi). Sometimes the name Sporozoa is taken as a synonym for the Apicomplexa, or occasionally as a subset. Genera Haplosporidiidae    Haplosporidium    Minchina    Urosporidium Paramyxidae    Marteilia    Paramartelia    Paramyxa The Ascetosporea are a group of protists that are parasites of animals, especially marine invertebrates. ... Classes Malacosporea Myxosporea The Myxozoa are a group of microscopic, parasitic animals. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Subclasses Dihaplophasea Haplophasea Microsporidia are parasites of animals, now considered to be extremely reduced fungi. ... Subkingdom/Phyla Chytridiomycota Blastocladiomycota Neocallimastigomycota Glomeromycota Zygomycota Dikarya (inc. ...


°== Blood borne genera ==


Within the Apicomplexa there are three groups of blood borne parasites. These species lie within in three suborders.

  • suborder Adeleorina - 8 genera
  • suborder Haemosporina - all genera in this suborder
  • suborder Eimeriorina - 2 genera (Lankesterella and Schellackia)


Blood parasites belonging to the suborder Adeleorina are collectively known as haemogregarines. Currently their sister group is thought to be the piroplasms.



Suborder Adeleorina has ~400 species and has been organised into four large and 4 small genera.



The larger genera are:

  • family Haemogregarinidae - taxon created by Neveu-Lemaire in 1901

genera: Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

  • Haemogregarina - taxon created by Danilewsky in 1885
  • Cyrilia - taxon created by Lainson in 1981
  • family Karyolysidae - taxon created by Wenyon in 1926

genera: Species And others. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • Karyolysus - taxon created by Labbe in 1894
  • family Hepatozoidae - taxon created by Wenyon in 1926

genera: 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The smaller genera are : Species Hepatozoon canis Hepatozoon muris Hepatozoon is a genus of Apicomplexan protozoa, causing a tick-borne disease called hepatozoonosis in animals. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...

  • Hemolivia - taxon created by Petit et al in 1990
  • Desseria - taxon created by Siddall in 1995
  • family Dactylosomatidae

genera: Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...

  • Dactylosoma
  • Babesiosoma


Notes:


Species of the genus Desseria infect fish and lack erythrocytic merogony. Merogony is a word with two biological meanings: Merogony is an asexual replication process used by some Protozoan parasites that increases the number of infective cells by multiple fission. ...


The species of the genera Dactylosoma and Babesiosoma infect fish and reptiles. Leeches are the only known vectors for these species and their vertebrate hosts are aquatic. For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Reptilia redirects here. ... For other uses, see Leech (disambiguation). ... In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Disease Genomics

As noted above, many of the apicomplexan parasites are important pathogens of human and domestic animals. In contrast to bacterial pathogens, these apicomplexan parasites are eukaryotes and share many metabolic pathways with their animal hosts. This fact makes therapeutic target development extremely difficult – a drug that harms an apicomplexan parasite is also likely to harm its human host. Currently there are no effective vaccines or treatments available for most diseases caused by these parasites. Biomedical research on these parasites is challenging because it is often difficult, if not impossible, to maintain live parasite cultures in the laboratory and to genetically manipulate these organisms. In the recent years, several of the apicomplexan species have been selected for genome sequencing. The availability of genome sequences provides a new opportunity for scientists to learn more about the evolution and biochemical capacity of these parasite. A NIH-funded database, ApiDB.org, provides public access to currently available genomic data sets. Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (or primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... NIH can refer to: National Institutes of Health Norwegian School of Sports Sciences: (Norges idrettshøgskole - NIH) Not Invented Here This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


References

  1. ^ Duszynski1, Donald W.; Steve J. Upton and Lee Couch (2004-02-21). The Coccidia of the World (Online database). Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, and Division of Biology, Kansas State University.

External links

  • The Taxonomicon & Systema Naturae (Website database). Taxon: Genus Cryptosporidium. Universal Taxonomic Services, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (2000).

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