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Encyclopedia > Aphid
Aphids

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hemiptera
Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
Superfamily: Aphidoidea
Families

There are 10 families: aphids on unidentified plant Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 05:26, 22 Feb 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Suborders Archaeorrhyncha Clypeorrhyncha Prosorrhyncha Sternorrhyncha Hemiptera is a large, cosmopolitan order of insects, comprising some 67,500 known species in three suborders. ... Superfamilies Aleyrodoidea Aphidoidea Coccoidea Psylloidea The Sternorrhyncha is the suborder of the Hemiptera which contains the aphids, whiteflies, and scale insects, groups which were traditionally included in the order Homoptera. ...

  • Anoeciidae
  • Aphididae
  • Drepanosiphidae
  • Greenideidae
  • Hormaphididae
  • Lachnidae
  • Mindaridae
  • Pemphigidae
  • Phloeomyzidae
  • Thelaxidae

Aphids, also known as greenfly or plant lice, are minute plant-feeding insects. Genera Aiceona Anoecia Anoeciidae is an insect family of the order Hemiptera. ... Genera Over 170, see below Aphididae is a very large insect family in the aphid superfamily (Aphidoidea), of the order Hemiptera. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera...


About 4,000 species of aphids are known, classified in 10 families; of these, around 250 species are serious pests for agriculture and forestry as well as an annoyance for gardeners. They vary in size from 1-10 mm long. A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... A gardener is any person involved in the growing and maintenance of plants, notably in a garden. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ...


Important natural enemies include the predatory ladybeetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), hoverfly larvae (Diptera: Syrphidae), and lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), and entomopathogenic fungi like Lecanicillium lecanii and the Entomophthorales. Ladybird and ladybug redirect here. ... For other uses, see Beetle (disambiguation). ... Ladybird and ladybug redirect here. ... Genera many genera about 5,000 species The flower flies or hoverflies are a family of flies (Diptera), scientifically termed Syrphidae. ... Suborders Nematocera (includes Eudiptera) Brachycera Diptera (di - two, ptera - wings), or true flies, is the order of insects possessing only a single pair of wings on the mesothorax; the metathorax bears a pair of drumstick like structures called the halteres, the remnants of the hind wings. ... Genera many genera about 5,000 species The flower flies or hoverflies are a family of flies (Diptera), scientifically termed Syrphidae. ... Superfamilies see text I am doing this topic The insect order Neuroptera, or net-winged insects, includes the lacewings, mantidflies, antlions, and their relatives (the group that was once known as the Planipennia). ... Genera See text Green lacewings are insects in the very large family Chrysopidae of the order Neuroptera. ... An entomopathogenic fungus is a fungus that kills, or parasitizes and seriously disables, insects. ... Families xxx Entomophthorales is a fungal order within the Zygomycetes. ...


Aphids are distributed world-wide, but they are most common in temperate zones. It is possible for aphids to migrate great distances (mainly through passive dispersal riding on winds) depending on the weather patterns; for example, the lettuce aphid spreading from New Zealand to Tasmania.[1] They have also been spread by human transportation of infested plant materials. In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product...

Contents

Taxonomy

Aphids, are in the superfamily Aphidoidea in the homopterous division of the order Hemiptera. Recent classification within the Hemiptera has changed the old term 'Homoptera' to two suborders: Sternorrhyncha (aphids, whiteflies, scales, psyllids...) and Auchenorrhyncha (cicadas, leafhoppers, treehoppers, planthoppers...) with the suborder Heteroptera containing a large group of insects known as the 'true bugs'; gnat bugs, pond skaters, shore bugs, toad bugs, water boatmen, backswimmers, etc. More recent reclassifications have resulted in a substantial rearrangement of the constituent families with the Aphidoidea, with some old families reduced to subfamily rank (e.g., Eriosomatidae), and numerous old subfamilies elevated to family rank. In biology, a superfamily is a taxonomic grade intermediate between suborder and family. ... Suborders Archaeorrhyncha Clypeorrhyncha Prosorrhyncha Sternorrhyncha Hemiptera is a large, cosmopolitan order of insects, comprising some 67,500 known species in three suborders. ... Superfamilies Aleyrodoidea Aphidoidea Coccoidea Psylloidea The Sternorrhyncha is the suborder of the Hemiptera which contains the aphids, whiteflies, and scale insects, groups which were traditionally included in the order Homoptera. ... Whitefly Categories: Stub ... Families Aclerdidae Asterolecaniidae Beesoniidae Carayonemidae Cerococcidae Coccidae Conchaspididae Dactylopiidae Diaspididae Electrococcidae Eriococcidae Grimaldiellidae Halimococcidae Inkaidae Jersicoccidae Kermesidae Kerriidae Kukaspididae Labiococcidae Lecanodiaspididae Margarodidae Micrococcidae Ortheziidae Phenacoleachiidae Phoenicococcidae Pseudococcidae Putoidae Stictococcidae The scale insects are small insects of the order Hemiptera, notable for their habit of secreting a waxy covering that covers... Infraorders Cicadomorpha Fulgoromorpha The Auchenorrhyncha is the suborder of the Hemiptera which contains most of the familiar members of what was traditionally called the Homoptera - groups such as cicadas, leafhoppers, treehoppers, planthoppers, and spittlebugs. ... Genera Many. ... genera: many hundreds including: Graminella Graphocephala Homalodisca Idiocerus Leafhopper is a common name applied to any species from the family Cicadellidae. ... Buffalo Treehopper, introduced to Germany, Darmstadt, 25. ... Families many; see text The name planthopper is used to refer to any insect in the infraorder Fulgoromorpha within the Hemiptera. ... Suborders Heteroptera Homoptera Hemiptera is an order of insects, comprising some 67,500 known species in two suborders, Heteroptera and Homoptera. ... Wooly aphid on new growth blackberry, red objects unknown, possibly parasitic mites Wooly aphids (family: Eriostomatidae) are sucking insects that live on plant fluids, and produces a filamentous waxy white covering which resembles cotton or wool. ...


Anatomy

Aphids contain sucking mouthparts called stylets. They have soft bodies; long, thin legs; two-jointed, two-clawed tarsi; and usually a pair of cornicles, abdominal tubes through which a waxy secretion is exuded. Aphids have two compound eyes and two ocular tubercles made up of three lenses, each of which is located behind and above the compound eyes. When host plant quality becomes poor or is crowded, female aphids will produce winged offspring that can disperse to other food sources. The stylet or stomatostyle, is the primitive mouth-parts of the nematode. ...


Diet

Aphid life stages. (Aphis pomi)
Aphid life stages. (Aphis pomi)

Many, but far from all, aphids are monophagous (i.e. feeding only on 1 species of plant). Others, like Myzus persicae feed on hundreds of plant species across many families. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1515x1515, 1134 KB) Caption The green apple aphid (Aphis pomi) A, adult sexual female B, adult male C, young female D, female laying an egg E, eggs, which turn from green to black after they are laid (Enlarged about 20 times... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1515x1515, 1134 KB) Caption The green apple aphid (Aphis pomi) A, adult sexual female B, adult male C, young female D, female laying an egg E, eggs, which turn from green to black after they are laid (Enlarged about 20 times...


Similarly to related families, aphids passively feed on sap of phloem vessels in plants. This sap being kept under high pressure, once a phloem vessel is punctured, it is forced into the food canal. As they feed, aphids often transmit plant viruses to their food plants. These viruses can sometimes kill the plants. The abbreviation, acronym, or initialism SAP has several different meanings: SAP AG, a German software company, or its various products such as SAP R/3 or SAP Business Information Warehouse second audio program (television) Session Announcement Protocol Soritong audio player Simple As Possible Computer Architecture Structural Adjustment Program of the... In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that carries organic nutrients, particularly sucrose, a sugar, to all parts of the plant where needed. ... Plant viruses are viruses affecting plants. ...


Some species of ants "farm" aphids, protecting them on the plant they eat, and eating the honeydew that the aphids secrete; this is a mutualistic relationship. Aphid honeydew is rich in carbohydrates, of which the aphids ingest an excess, being phloem-feeders. Many aphids are host to endosymbiont bacteria, Buchnera, which live in specialized cells called bacteriocytes inside the aphid. These bacteria synthesize some essential amino acids that are absent in the phloem that the aphids eat.[2] For other uses, see Ant (disambiguation). ... Honeydew is a sugar-rich sticky substance secreted by aphids and some scale insects as they feed on plant sap. ... In biology, mutualism is an interaction between two or more species, where both species derive benefit. ... An endosymbiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism, i. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Binomial name Buchnera aphidicola Buchnera aphidicola a member of the Proteobacteria, is the primary endosymbiont of aphids (A. pisum). ... A bacteriocyte (Greek: bacteria cell), also called a mycetocyte, is a specialized adipocyte found in some insect groups such as aphids, german cockroaches, and many others. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ...


Reproduction

Ant tending aphids
Ant tending aphids

Aphids are known for having unusual reproductive adaptations. Aphids undergo cyclical parthenogenesis. In the spring and summer, only females are present in the population. Reproduction is typically parthenogenetic and viviparous. Females undergo a modified meiosis that results in eggs that are genetically identical to their mother (parthenogenetic). The embryos develop within the mothers ovarioles, and give live birth to 1st instar nymphs (viviparous). Aphids typically live from 20-40 days and thus undergo multiple parthenogenetic, viviparous generations each summer. In the fall, a change in photoperiod and temperature cause females to parthenogenetically produce sexual females and males. The males are genetically identical to their mothers except they have lost one sex chromosome. Sexual females and males mate and females lay eggs that will develop outside of the mother. Thus in the fall aphids undergo sexual, oviparous reproduction. The aphids will overwinter as eggs and hatch out as females in the following spring. Download high resolution version (980x832, 152 KB)Ant cultivating aphids File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (980x832, 152 KB)Ant cultivating aphids File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For the figure of speech, see meiosis (figure of speech). ... This article is about the temperate season. ... Photoperiodism is the physiological reaction of organisms to the length of day or night. ...


Aphids have been known to have what is called telescoping generations. The parthenogenetic, viviparous female aphid will have a daughter within her who is already parthenogenetically producing its own daughter at the same time. This leads to the situation where the diet of a female aphid can have inter-generational effects on the body size and birth rate of aphids. In other words, what the aphid eats can directly change the size and fertility of the aphid's daughters and grand-daughters (Nevo and Coll 2001, Jahn et al. 2005).


The following brief summary of what takes place in the plant-louse of the rose (Aphis rosae), may be regarded as typical of the family, though exceptions occur in other species: Eggs produced in the autumn by fertilized females remain on the plant through the winter and hatching in the spring give rise to female individuals which may be winged or wingless. From these, females are born parthenogenetically: that is to say, without the intervention of males, and by a process that has been compared to internal budding, large numbers of young resembling their parents in every respect except size are produced, which themselves reproduce their kind in the same way. This process continues throughout the summer, generation after generation being produced until the number of descendants from a single individual of the spring-hatched brood may amount to many thousands. In the autumn winged males appear; union between the sexes takes place and the females lay the fertilized eggs which are destined to carry the species through the cold months of winter. If, however, the food-plant is grown in a glasshouse or greenhouse where protection against cold is afforded, the aphids may go on reproducing agamogenetically (asexually) without cessation for many years. Likewise, in warm and tropical areas or during the growing season, aphids reproduce asexually without interruption. Since the young can become adults and reproduce within a few days, this process leads to the build-up of very large populations responsible for severe damage to crops and important economic losses; such populations often require pest control. This is a disambiguation. ...

P-14 lady beetle consuming an aphid
P-14 lady beetle consuming an aphid
Aphids feeding on a rose bud, in the background lady beetle can be seen
Aphids feeding on a rose bud, in the background lady beetle can be seen

Not the least interesting features connected with this strange life-history are the facts that the young may be born by the oviparous or viviparous methods and either gamogenetically or agamogenetically, and may develop into winged forms or remain wingless, and that the males only appear in any number at the close of the season. Although the factors which determine these phenomena are not clearly understood, it is believed that the appearance of the males is connected with the increasing cold of autumn and the growing scarcity of food, and that the birth of winged females is similarly associated with decrease in the quantity or vitiation of the quality of the nourishment imbibed. Sometimes the winged females migrate from the plant they were born on to start fresh colonies on others often of quite a different kind (host plant alternancy). Thus the apple aphid (Aphis mali) after producing many generations of apterous females on its typical food-plant gives rise to winged forms which fly away and settle upon grass or corn-stalks. Download high resolution version (1445x1185, 255 KB)A P-14 lady beetle devours a pea aphid. ... Download high resolution version (1445x1185, 255 KB)A P-14 lady beetle devours a pea aphid. ... Subfamilies Chilocorinae Coccidulinae Coccinellinae Epilachninae Scymininae Sticholotidinae etc. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (664x1120, 514 KB) Summary photo taken by Nvineeth using Canon_powershot_A95. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (664x1120, 514 KB) Summary photo taken by Nvineeth using Canon_powershot_A95. ... For other uses, see Rose (disambiguation). ... Subfamilies Chilocorinae Coccidulinae Coccinellinae Epilachninae Scymininae Sticholotidinae etc. ...

Aphid infestation on broccoli plant. Note that most of the aphids one sees in a plant infestation are juveniles.
Aphid infestation on broccoli plant. Note that most of the aphids one sees in a plant infestation are juveniles.

Another widespread aphid in the Phylloxeridae family is Daktulosphairia vitifoliae (still frequently called by its former name Phylloxera vitifoliae), the famous Phylloxera which causes enormous loss by attacking the leaves and roots of grape vines. Its life-history is similar to that of Aphis rosae described above. In the autumn a single fertile egg is laid by apterous females in a crevice of the bark of the vine where it is protected during the winter. From this egg in the spring emerges an apterous female who makes a gall in the new leaf and lays therein a large number of eggs. Some of the apterous young that are hatched from these form fresh galls and continue to multiply in the leaves, others descend to the root of the plant, becoming what are known as root-forms. These, like the parent form of spring, reproduce parthenogenetically, giving rise to generation after generation of egg-laying individuals. In the course of the summer, from some of these eggs are hatched females which acquire wings and lay eggs from which wingless males and females are born. From the union of the sexes comes the fertile egg from which the parent form of spring is hatched. Download high resolution version (1000x644, 200 KB)Swarm of Aphids on broccoli File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1000x644, 200 KB)Swarm of Aphids on broccoli File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Broccoli is a plant of the Cabbage family, Brassicaceae (formerly Cruciferae). ... Grape Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, family Phylloxeridae, superfamily Aphidoidea) is a serious pest of commercial grapevines worldwide, originally native to eastern North America. ...


Some species of cabbage aphids (like Brevicoryne brassicae) reproduce rapidly during the summer. They are all females, and can produce up to 41 generations of offspring. If no aphids had died during the summer, there would be more than one and a half billion billion billion aphids (1.5 x 1027) by the end of the season.


Evolution

Aphids probably first appeared around 280 million years ago, in the Carboniferous period. They probably fed on plants like Cordaitales or Cycadophyta. The oldest known aphid fossil is one of the species Triassoaphis cubitus from the Triassic. There were relatively few species of aphids at that time, and the number of species only considerably increased since the appearance of angiosperms 160 millions of years ago. This is due to the fact that angiosperms provide an occasion for aphids to become specialized. The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... Families Cycadaceae cycas family Stangeriaceae stangeria family Zamiaceae zamia family Cycads are an ancient group of seed plants which are characterized by a large crown of compound leaves and a stout trunk. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 ± 0. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ...


Aphids have not always looked like they do nowadays. Organs like the cauda or the siphunculi were not evolved until the Cretaceous. Look up coda in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The cornicle (or siphuncule) is one of a pair of small upright backward-pointing tubes found on the underside of the last segment of the bodies of aphids. ... // The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ...


Gallery

References

  • G. B. Buckton, British Aphides (Ray Soc. 1876-1883)
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclop√¶dia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • Nevo, E., and M. Coll. 2001. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae): variation in size, color, and reproduction. J. Econ. Entomol. 94: 27-32.
  • Jahn, GC, LP Almazan, and J Pacia. 2005. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on the intrinsic rate of increase of the rusty plum aphid, Hysteroneura setariae (Thomas) (Homoptera: Aphididae) on rice (Oryza sativa L.). Environmental Entomology 34 (4): 938-943.[1]
  1. ^ Landline - 30/10/2005: Scientist battles lettuce aphid . Australian Broadcasting Corp Retrieved 1 January 2007
  2. ^ Douglas, A E (1998). "Nutritional interactions in insect-microbial symbioses: Aphids and their symbiotic bacteria Buchnera". Annual Review of Entomology 43: 17-38. ISSN 00664170. Retrieved on 2007-05-16. 

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Binomial name Adelges cooleyi (authority unknown) Gall Adelgid refers to adelgid species that produce Galls in spruce trees, conifer species. ... Aeroplankton is the term used to describe the tiny lifeforms which float and drift in the air, carried by the current of the wind; it is the atmospheric analogue to oceanic plankton. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Aphid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1394 words)
Aphids, also known as greenfly/flfly or plant lice, are minute plant-feeding insects in the superfamily Aphidoidea in the homopterous division of the order Hemiptera.
Aphids' antennae are composed of two thick basal segments and a flagellum with as many as four segments.
Aphid honeydew is rich on carbohydrates (like melezitose), of which the aphids ingest an excess, being phloem-feeders.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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