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Encyclopedia > Aphasia
Aphasia
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 F80.0-F80.2, R47.0
ICD-9 315.31, 784.3
DiseasesDB 4024
MedlinePlus 003204
eMedicine neuro/437 
MeSH D001037
Look up aphasia, aphemia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Aphasia ( from Greek, aphatos : 'speechless' ), is also known as aphemia, and is a loss of the ability to produce and/or comprehend language, due to injury to brain areas specialized for these functions, Broca's area, which governs language production, or Wernicke's area, which governs the interpretation of language. It is not a result of deficits in sensory, intellect, or psychiatric functioning,[1] nor due to muscle weakness or a cognitive disorder. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Aphasia is a loss of the ability to produce and/or comprehend language. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // F00-F99 - Mental and behavioural disorders (F00-F09) Organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders (F00) Dementia in Alzheimers disease (F01) Vascular dementia (F011) Multi-infarct dementia (F02) Dementia in other diseases classified elsewhere (F020) Dementia in Picks disease (F021) Dementia in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (F022) Dementia in Huntingtons... // F00-F99 - Mental and behavioural disorders (F00-F09) Organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders (F00) Dementia in Alzheimers disease (F01) Vascular dementia (F011) Multi-infarct dementia (F02) Dementia in other diseases classified elsewhere (F020) Dementia in Picks disease (F021) Dementia in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (F022) Dementia in Huntingtons... // R00-R99 - Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified (R00-R09) Symptoms and signs involving the circulatory and respiratory systems (R00) Abnormalities of heart beat (R000) Tachycardia, unspecified (R001) Bradycardia, unspecified (R002) Palpitations (R008) Other and unspecified abnormalities of heart beat (R01) Cardiac murmurs and other... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Brocas area is the section of the human brain (in the opercular and triangular sections of the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe of the cortex) that is involved in language processing, speech production and comprehension. ... Wernickes area is a part of the human brain that forms part of the cortex, on the left posterior section of the superior temporal gyrus, encircling the auditory cortex, on the Sylvian fissure (part of the brain where the temporal lobe and parietal lobe meet). ...


Depending on the area and extent of the damage, someone suffering from aphasia may be able to speak but not write, or vice versa, or display any of a wide variety of other deficiencies in language comprehension and production, such as being able to sing but not speak. Aphasia may co-occur with speech disorders such as dysarthria or apraxia of speech, which also result from brain damage. Look up dysarthria in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Apraxia is a neurological disorder characterized by loss of the ability to execute or carry out learned (familiar) movements, despite having the desire and the physical ability to perform the movements. ...

Contents

Causes

Usually, aphasias are a result of damage (lesions) to the language centres of the brain (like Broca's area). These areas are almost always located in the left hemisphere, and in most people this is where the ability to produce and comprehend language is found. However, in a very small number of people, language ability is found in the right hemisphere. In either case, damage to these language areas can be caused by a stroke, traumatic brain injury, or other head injury. Aphasia may also develop slowly, as in the case of a brain tumor or progressive neurological disease. It may also be caused by a sudden hemorrhagic event within the brain. Certain chronic neurological disorders, such as epilepsy or migraine, can also include transient aphasia as a prodromal or episodic symptom. Certain benzodiazepines such as temazepam and flunitrazepam have also been known causes of aphasias.[citation needed] Brocas area is the section of the human brain (in the opercular and triangular sections of the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe of the cortex) that is involved in language processing, speech production and comprehension. ... Human brain viewed from above, showing cerebral hemispheres. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Traumatic brain injury (TBI), traumatic injuries to the brain, also called intracranial injury, or simply head injury, occurs when a sudden trauma causes brain damage. ... Head injury is a trauma to the head, that may or may not include injury to the brain (see also brain injury). ... A brain tumor is any intracranial tumor created by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division, normally either in the brain itself (neurons, glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells), lymphatic tissue, blood vessels), in the cranial nerves (myelin-producing Schwann cells), in the brain envelopes (meninges), skull, pituitary and pineal gland, or... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems. ... In medicine, a prodrome is an early symptom indicating the development of a disease, or indicating that a disease attack is imminent. ... Alprazolam 2 mg tablets The benzodiazepines (pronounced , often abbreviated to benzos) are a class of sedative hypnotic psychoactive drugs with varying hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and amnesic properties, which are mediated by slowing down the central nervous system. ... Temazepam (marketed under brand names Restoril®, Normison®, Planum®, Tenox® and Temaze®) is a benzodiazepine derivative with powerful hypnotic properties. ... Flunitrazepam (IPA: ; is marketed by Roche under the trade name Rohypnol. ...


Medical treatment

Diagnosis

Aphasia can be assessed in a variety of ways, from quick clinical screening at the bedside to several-hour-long batteries of tasks that examine the key components of language and communication.


Symptoms

Any of the following may be considered symptoms of aphasia: A symptom is a manifestation of a disease, indicating the nature of the disease, which is noticed by the patient. ...

  • inability to comprehend language
  • inability to pronounce, not due to muscle paralysis or weakness
  • inability to speak spontaneously
  • inability to form words
  • inability to name objects
  • poor enunciation
  • excessive creation and use of personal neologisms
  • inability to repeat a phrase
  • persistent repetition of phrases
  • paraphasia (substituting letters, syllables or words)
  • agrammatism (inability to speak in a grammatically correct fashion)
  • dysprosody (alterations in inflexion, stress, and rhythm)
  • uncompleted sentences
  • inability to read
  • inability to write

Sentence comprehension is the ability to derive from concepts linguistics input (through writing or speech acts). ... Pronunciation refers to: the way a word or a language is usually spoken; the manner in which someone utters a word. ... Enunciation is the act of speaking clearly and concisely. ... A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (or coined), often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... Paraphasia (also known as paragrammatism) is a notable feature of aphasia (also known as dysphasia) in which one loses the ability of speaking correctly, substitutes one word for another, and changes words and sentences in an inappropriate way. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Speech disorders or speech impediments, as they are also called, are a type of communication disorders where normal speech is disrupted. ... This article is about the learning activity. ... Write redirects here. ...

Prognosis

The prognosis of those with aphasia varies widely, and is dependent upon age of the patient, site and size of lesion, and type of aphasia.


Types

The following table summarizes some major characteristics of different types of aphasia:

Type of aphasia Repetition Naming Auditory comprehension Fluency Presentation
Wernicke's aphasia mild–mod mild–severe defective fluent paraphasic Individuals with Wernicke's aphasia may speak in long sentences that have no meaning, add unnecessary words, and even create new "words" (neologisms). For example, someone with Wernicke's aphasia may say, "You know that smoodle pinkered and that I want to get him round and take care of him like you want before", meaning "The dog needs to go out so I will take him for a walk". They have poor auditory and reading comprehension, and fluent, but nonsensical, oral and written expression. Individuals with Wernicke's aphasia usually have great difficulty understanding the speech of both themselves and others and are therefore often unaware of their mistakes. They are also often unaware of their surroundings, and may present a risk to themselves and others around them.
Transcortical sensory aphasia good mod–severe poor fluent Similar deficits as in Wernicke's aphasia, but repetition ability remains intact.
Conduction aphasia poor poor relatively good fluent Caused by damage to the arcuate fasciculus, the structure that transmits information between Wernicke's area and Broca's area. Auditory comprehension is near normal, and oral expression is fluent with occasional paraphasic errors. Repetition ability is poor.
Anomic aphasia mild mod–severe mild fluent Anomic aphasia, is essentially a difficulty with naming. The patient may have difficulties naming certain words, linked by their grammatical type (e.g. difficulty naming verbs and not nouns) or by their semantic category (e.g. difficulty naming words relating to photography but nothing else) or a more general naming difficulty. Patients tend to produce grammatic, yet empty, speech. Auditory comprehension tends to be preserved.
Broca's aphasia mod–severe mod–severe mild difficulty non-fluent, effortful, slow Individuals with Broca's aphasia frequently speak short, meaningful phrases that are produced with great effort. Broca's aphasia is thus characterized as a nonfluent aphasia. Affected people often omit small words such as "is", "and", and "the". For example, a person with Broca's aphasia may say, "Walk dog" meaning, "I will take the dog for a walk". The same sentence could also mean "You take the dog for a walk", or "The dog walked out of the yard", depending on the circumstances. Individuals with Broca's aphasia are able to understand the speech of others to varying degrees. Because of this, they are often aware of their difficulties and can become easily frustrated by their speaking problems. It is associated with right hemiparesis, meaning that there will be paralysis of the patient's right arm, leg, and face.
Transcortical motor aphasia good mild–severe mild non-fluent Similar deficits as Broca's aphasia, except repetition ability remains intact. Auditory comprehension is generally fine for simple conversations, but declines rapidly for more complex conversations. It is associated with right hemiparesis, meaning that there will be paralysis of the patient's right arm, leg, and face.
Global aphasia poor poor poor non-fluent Individuals with global aphasia have severe communication difficulties and will be extremely limited in their ability to speak or comprehend language. They may be totally nonverbal, and/or only use facial expressions and gestures to communicate. It is associated with right hemiparesis, meaning that there will be paralysis of the patient's right arm, leg, and face.
Transcortical mixed aphasia moderate poor poor non-fluent Similar deficits as in global aphasia, but repetition ability remains intact.
Subcortical aphasias Characteristics and symptoms depend upon the site and size of subcortical lesion. Possible sites of lesions include the thalamus, internal capsule, and basal ganglia.

Receptive aphasia, also known as Wernickes aphasia in clinical neuropsychology and neologistic jargonaphasia in cognitive neuropsychology, is a type of aphasia caused by neurological damage to Wernickes area in the brain. ... A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (or coined), often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... Transcorticol Sensory Aphasia, or TSA, is a type of Aphasia where sufferers have poor comprehension, but have fluent, grammatical speech. ... Conduction aphasia is a relatively rare form of aphasia, caused by damage to the nerve fibres connecting Wernickes and Brocas areas (arcuate fasciculus). ... Nominal aphasia is a form of aphasia (loss of language capability caused by brain damage) in which the subject has difficulty remembering or recognizing names which the subject should know well. ... In general, semantics (from the Greek semantikos, or significant meaning, derived from sema, sign) is the study of meaning, in some sense of that term. ... Expressive aphasia, known as Brocas aphasia in clinical neuropsychology and agrammatic aphasia in cognitive neuropsychology, is an aphasia caused by damage to Brocas area in the brain. ... Hemiparesis is the partial paralysis of one side of the body. ... Transcortical Motor Aphasia Transcortical Motor Aphasia (TMA) results from an injury to the anterior superior frontal lobe. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Stub | Aphasia ... The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος = bedroom, chamber, IPA= /ˈθæləməs/) is a pair and symmetric part of the brain. ...

Classification

Classifying the different subtypes of aphasia is difficult and has led to disagreements among experts. The localizationist model is the original model, but modern anatomical techniques and analyses have shown that precise connections between brain regions and symptom classification don't exist. The neural organization of language is complicated; language is a comprehensive and complex behavior and it makes sense that it isn't the product of some small, circumscribed region of the brain.
No classification of patients in subtypes and groups of subtypes is adequate. Only about 60% of patients will fit in a classification scheme such as fluent/nonfluent/pure aphasias. There is a huge variation among patients with the same diagnosis, and aphasias can be highly selective. For instance, patients with naming deficits (anomic aphasia) might show an inability only for naming buildings, or people, or colors. [2]


Localizationist model

Cortex
Cortex

The localizationist model attempts to classify the aphasia by major characteristics and then link these to areas of the brain in which the damage has been caused. The initial two categories here were devised by early neurologists working in the field, namely Paul Broca and Carl Wernicke. Other researchers have added to the model, resulting in it often being referred to as the "Boston-Neoclassical Model". The most prominent writers on this topic have been Harold Goodglass and Edith Kaplan. Drawing of human brain with Brocas and Wernicke area highlighted. ... Drawing of human brain with Brocas and Wernicke area highlighted. ... Paul Pierre Broca (June 28, 1824 - July 9, 1880) was a French physician, anatomist and anthropologist. ... Carl Wernicke (born 15 May 1848 in Tarnowitz, Upper Silesia, then Prussia, now Tarnowskie Gory, Poland – died 15 June 1905 in Gräfenroda, Germany) was a German physician, anatomist, psychiatrist and neuropathologist. ... Edith Kaplan is a respected pioneer of neuropsychological tests who did most of her work in the Boston area. ...

  • Individuals with Broca's aphasia (also termed expressive aphasia) were once thought to have ventral temporal damage though more recent work by Nina Dronkers using imaging and 'lesion analysis' has revealed that patients with Broca's aphasia have lesions to the medial insular cortex. Broca missed these lesions because his studies did not dissect the brains of diseased patients so only the more temporal damage was visible. Individuals with Broca's aphasia often have right-sided weakness or paralysis of the arm and leg because the frontal lobe is also important for body movement.
  • In contrast to Broca's aphasia, damage to the temporal lobe may result in a fluent aphasia that is called Wernicke's aphasia (also termed sensory aphasia). These individuals usually have no body weakness because their brain injury is not near the parts of the brain that control movement.
  • Working from Wernicke's model of aphasia, Ludwig Lichtheim proposed five other types of aphasia but these were not tested against real patients until modern imaging made more indepth studies available. The other five types of aphasia in the localizationist model are:
  1. Pure word deafness
  2. Conduction aphasia
  3. Apraxia of speech, which is now considered a separate disorder in itself.
  4. Transcortical motor aphasia
  5. Transcortical sensory aphasia
  • Anomia is another type of aphasia proposed under what is commonly known as the Boston-Neoclassical model, which is essentially a difficulty with naming. A final type of aphasia, global aphasia, results from damage to extensive portions of the language areas of the brain.

Expressive aphasia, known as Brocas aphasia in clinical neuropsychology and agrammatic aphasia in cognitive neuropsychology, is an aphasia caused by damage to Brocas area in the brain. ... Expressive aphasia, known as Brocas aphasia in clinical neuropsychology and agrammatic aphasia in cognitive neuropsychology, is an aphasia caused by damage to Brocas area in the brain. ... Hemiplegia (or hemiphlegia) is a condition where there is paralysis in the vertical half of a patients body. ... The temporal lobes are part of the cerebrum. ... Receptive aphasia, also known as Wernickes aphasia in clinical neuropsychology and neologistic jargonaphasia in cognitive neuropsychology, is a type of aphasia caused by neurological damage to Wernickes area in the brain. ... Receptive aphasia, also known as Wernicke’s aphasia, fluent aphasia, or sensory aphasia in clinical neuropsychology and cognitive neuropsychology, is a type of aphasia often (but not always) caused by neurological damage to Wernicke’s area in the brain (Brodman Area 22, in the posterior part of the superior temporal... Ludwig Lichtheim (born December 7, 1845, Breslau; died 1928) was a German physician. ... Pure Word Deafness is caused by damage to Wernickes area or disruption of auditory input to this region. ... Conduction aphasia is a relatively rare form of aphasia, caused by damage to the nerve fibres connecting Wernickes and Brocas areas (arcuate fasciculus). ... Apraxia is a neurological disorder characterized by loss of the ability to execute or carry out learned (familiar) movements, despite having the desire and the physical ability to perform the movements. ... Transcortical Motor Aphasia Transcortical Motor Aphasia (TMA) results from an injury to the anterior superior frontal lobe. ... Transcorticol Sensory Aphasia, or TSA, is a type of Aphasia where sufferers have poor comprehension, but have fluent, grammatical speech. ... Nominal aphasia is a form of aphasia (loss of language capability caused by brain damage) in which the subject has difficulty remembering or recognizing names which the subject should know well. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Stub | Aphasia ...

Fluent, non-fluent and "pure" aphasias

The different types of aphasia can be divided into three categories: fluent, non-fluent and "pure" aphasias.[3]

  • Fluent aphasias, also called receptive aphasias, are impairments related mostly to the input or reception of language, with difficulties either in auditory verbal comprehension or in the repetition of words, phrases, or sentences spoken by others. Speech is easy and fluent, but there are difficulties related to the output of language as well, such as paraphasia. Examples of fluent aphasias are: Wernicke's aphasia, Transcortical sensory aphasia, Conduction aphasia, Anomic aphasia
  • "Pure" aphasias are selective impairments in reading, writing, or the recognition of words. These disorders may be quite selective. For example, a person is able to read but not write, or is able to write but not read. Examples of pure aphasias are: Alexia, Agraphia, Pure word deafness

Paraphasia (also known as paragrammatism) is a notable feature of aphasia (also known as dysphasia) in which one loses the ability of speaking correctly, substitutes one word for another, and changes words and sentences in an inappropriate way. ... Receptive aphasia, also known as Wernickes aphasia in clinical neuropsychology and neologistic jargonaphasia in cognitive neuropsychology, is a type of aphasia caused by neurological damage to Wernickes area in the brain. ... Transcorticol Sensory Aphasia, or TSA, is a type of Aphasia where sufferers have poor comprehension, but have fluent, grammatical speech. ... Conduction aphasia is a relatively rare form of aphasia, caused by damage to the nerve fibres connecting Wernickes and Brocas areas (arcuate fasciculus). ... Nominal aphasia is a form of aphasia (loss of language capability caused by brain damage) in which the subject has difficulty remembering or recognizing names which the subject should know well. ... Expressive aphasia, known as Brocas aphasia in clinical neuropsychology and agrammatic aphasia in cognitive neuropsychology, is an aphasia caused by damage to Brocas area in the brain. ... Transcortical Motor Aphasia Transcortical Motor Aphasia (TMA) results from an injury to the anterior superior frontal lobe. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Stub | Aphasia ... The word Alexia has more than one meaning: Alexia, or word blindness, is an acquired type of sensory aphasia where trauma to the brain causes a patient to lose the ability to read. ... Agraphia is inability to write resulting from brain disease. ... Pure Word Deafness is caused by damage to Wernickes area or disruption of auditory input to this region. ...

Cognitive neuropsychological model

The cognitive neuropsychological model builds on cognitive neuropsychology. It assumes that language processing can be broken down into a number of modules, each of which has a specific function. Hence there is a module which recognises phonemes as they are spoken and a module which stores formulated phonemes before they are spoken. Use of this model clinically involves conducting a battery of assessments (usually from the PALPA), each of which tests one or a number of these modules. Once a diagnosis is reached as to where the impairment lies, therapy can proceed to treat the individual module. == ISABEL IS COOL AND SHE LOVES COGNITIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGY!!!!!!!!! == Cognitive neuropsychology is a branch of neuropsychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes. ... In spoken language, a phoneme is a basic, theoretical unit of sound that can distinguish words (i. ...


A few less common subtypes include:

  • Subcortical motor aphasia
  • Subcortical sensory aphasia
  • Mixed transcortical aphasia
  • Acquired epileptiform aphasia (Landau Kleffner Syndrome)

A combination of subtypes is possible. Mixed Transcortical Aphasia Mixed Transcortical Aphasia is the least common of the three transcortical aphasias (behind Transcortical motor aphasia and transcortical sensory aphasia, respectively). ... Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS), also called infantile acquired aphasia, acquired epileptic aphasia or aphasia with convulsive disorder, is a rare, childhood neurological syndrome characterized by the sudden or gradual development of aphasia (the inability to understand or express language) and an abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG). ...


Primary and secondary aphasia

Aphasia can be divided into primary and secondary aphasia.[4]

  • Primary aphasia is due to problems with language-processing mechanisms.
  • Secondary aphasia is the result of other problems, like memory impairments, attention disorders, or perceptual problems.

History

The first recorded case of aphasia is from an Egyptian papyrus, the Edwin Smith Papyrus, which details speech problems in a person with a traumatic brain injury to the temporal lobe.[5] For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ... Plates vi & vii of the Edwin Smith Papyrus at the Rare Book Room, New York Academy of Medicine The Edwin Smith Papyrus is the only surviving copy of part of an Ancient Egyptian textbook on trauma surgery. ... Traumatic brain injury (TBI), traumatic injuries to the brain, also called intracranial injury, or simply head injury, occurs when a sudden trauma causes brain damage. ... The temporal lobes are part of the cerebrum. ...


Famous sufferers

Maurice Ravel. ... Jan & Dean were a rock and roll duo, popular from the late 1950s through the mid 1960s, consisting of William Jan Berry (3 April 1941 – 26 March 2004) and Dean Ormsby Torrence (born 10 March 1940). ... Sven Nykvist (born 3 December 1922 in Moheda, Kronobergs län, Sweden) is a Swedish cinematographer known especially for his work with director Ingmar Bergman. ... Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... Joseph Chaikin (September 16, 1935–June 22, 2003) was an American theatre director. ... Professor Antony Garrard Newton Flew (born February 11, 1923) is a British philosopher. ...

See also

Speech disorders or speech impediments, as they are also called, are a type of communication disorders where normal speech is disrupted. ... Dysnomia is a marked difficulty in remembering names or recalling words needed for oral or written language. ...

Sources

Academic references

  • R. Chapey (Ed.) (2001). Language Intervention Strategies in Aphasia and Related Neurogenic Communication Disorders (Fourth Edition). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
  • Goodglass, H. & Kaplan, E. (1972). Assessment of Aphasia and Related Disorders. Philadelphia: Lea and Febinger.
  • Kay, J., Lesser, R., & Coltheart, M. (1992). Psycholinguistic Assessments of Language Processing in Aphasia (PALPA). Hove: Erlbaum.
  • Spreen, O. & Risser, A.H. (2003). Assessment of Aphasia. New York: Oxford University Press.

Personal experiences of aphasia

  • Hale, S (2003), The Man Who Lost His Language, Penguin.
  • Paul E. Berger and Stephanie Mensh, How to Conquer the World With One Hand...And an Attitude, 2nd Ed., ISBN 0-9668378-7-8
  • Cindy Greatrex (2005) Aphasia in the Deaf Community.
  • Dardick, Geeta (1991), Prisoner of Silence, Reader's Digest, June issue

References

  1. ^ Brookshire, 1992; Goodglass 1993
  2. ^ Kolb & Whishaw: Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology (2003), page 502, 505, 511.
  3. ^ Kolb & Whishaw: Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology (2003), pages 502-504. The whole paragraph "fluent, non-fluent and pure aphasias" is written with help of this reference.
  4. ^ http://christofflab.psych.ubc.ca/psych260/docs/L12-Language.pdf
  5. ^ Paul R. McCrory and Samuel F. Berkovic (2001). Concussion: The history of clinical and pathophysiological concepts and misconceptions. Neurology, 57(12): 2283-2289. PMID 11756611.

External links

A radio documentary or feature is a radio programme devoted to covering a particular topic in some depth, usually with a mixture of commentary and sound pictures. ... Radio-Canada redirects here. ... The University of Washington, founded in 1861, is a public research university in Seattle, Washington. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... A symptom is a manifestation of a disease, indicating the nature of the disease, which is noticed by the patient. ... In medicine, a sign is a feature of disease as detected by the doctor during physical examination of a patient. ... Bold text This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The word voice can be used to refer to: Sound: The human voice. ... // R00-R99 - Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified (R00-R09) Symptoms and signs involving the circulatory and respiratory systems (R00) Abnormalities of heart beat (R000) Tachycardia, unspecified (R001) Bradycardia, unspecified (R002) Palpitations (R008) Other and unspecified abnormalities of heart beat (R01) Cardiac murmurs and other... Dysphasia should not be confused with the similarly pronounced dysphagia, which is a difficulty swallowing. ... Expressive aphasia, known as Brocas aphasia in clinical neuropsychology and agrammatic aphasia in cognitive neuropsychology, is an aphasia caused by damage to Brocas area in the brain. ... Receptive aphasia, also known as Wernickes aphasia, Fluent aphasia or sensory aphasia in clinical neuropsychology and cognitive neuropsychology, is a type of aphasia often (but not always) caused by neurological damage to Wernickes area in the brain. ... Conduction aphasia is a relatively rare form of aphasia, caused by damage to the nerve fibres connecting Wernickes and Brocas areas (arcuate fasciculus). ... Speech disorders or speech impediments, as they are also called, are a type of communication disorders where normal speech is disrupted. ... Look up dysarthria in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about developmental dyslexia. ... Alexia (from the Greek , privative, expressing negation, and = word) is an acquired type of sensory aphasia where damage to the brain causes a patient to lose the ability to read. ... Agnosia (a-gnosis, non-knowledge, or loss of knowledge) is a loss of ability to recognize objects, persons, sounds, shapes, or smells while the specific sense is not defective nor is there any significant memory loss[1][2]. It is usually associated with brain injury or neurological illness, particularly after... Prosopagnosia (sometimes known as face blindness) is disorder of face perception where the ability to recognize faces is impaired, while the ability to recognize objects may be relatively intact. ... Apraxia is a neurological disorder characterized by loss of the ability to execute or carry out learned (familiar) movements, despite having the desire and the physical ability to perform the movements. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Dysgraphia (or agraphia) is a deficiency in the ability to write, regardless of the ability to read, not due to intellectual impairment. ... Speech disorders or speech impediments, as they are also called, are a type of communication disorders where normal speech is disrupted. ... Lisp may mean: Lisp programming language Lisp (speech) This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Aphasia is a loss or impairment of the ability to produce or comprehend language, due to brain damage. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) is a detailed description of known diseases and injuries. ... Mental disorder or mental illness are terms used to refer psychological pattern that occurs in an individual and is usually associated with distress or disability that is not expected as part of normal development or culture. ... Emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) is a broad category which is mostly being used in an educational context to group a range of more specific perceived difficulties of children and adolescents. ... For other uses, see Dementia (disambiguation). ... Multi-infarct dementia, also known as vascular dementia, is a form of dementia resulting from brain damage caused by stroke or transient ischemic attacks (also known as mini-strokes). ... Pick’s disease, also known as Pick disease and PiD, is a rare fronto-temporal neurodegenerative disease. ... Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a very rare and incurable degenerative neurological disorder (brain disease) that is ultimately fatal. ... AIDS dementia complex (ADC; also known as HIV dementia, HIV encephalopathy and HIV-associated dementia) has become a common neurological disorder associated with HIV infection and AIDS. It is is a metabolic encephalopathy induced by HIV infection and fueled by immune activation of brain macrophages and microglia. ... Fronto-temporal dementias selectively affect the frontal lobe of the brain. ... This article is about the mental state and medical condition. ... Post-concussion syndrome, also known as postconcussive syndrome or PCS, is a set of symptoms that a person may experience for weeks, months, or even years after a concussion, a mild form of traumatic brain injury. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behaviour. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Drunkenness of Noah by Giovanni Bellini Drunkenness is the state of being intoxicated by consumption of alcohol to a degree that mental and physical facilities are noticeably impaired. ... This article needs cleanup. ... For the beer, see Delirium Tremens (beer). ... Korsakoffs syndrome (Korsakoffs psychosis, amnesic-confabulatory syndrome), is a degenerative brain disorder caused by the lack of thiamine (vitamin B1) in the brain. ... This article needs cleanup. ... An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body. ... Opioid dependency is a medical diagnosis characterized by an individuals inability to stop using opioids even when objectively in his or her best interest to do so. ... A sedative is a substance that depresses the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness, and slowed breathing, as well as slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. ... Hypnotic drugs are a class of drugs that induce sleep, used in the treatment of severe insomnia. ... Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, caused by withdrawal or dosage reduction of benzodiazepines, is the symptoms which appear when a patient who has taken the drug for a period of time stops taking the drug. ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... Cocaine dependence (or addiction) is physical and psychological dependency on the regular use of cocaine. ... ... Comparison of the perceived harm for various psychoactive drugs from a poll among medical psychiatrists specialized in addiction treatment[1] This article is an overview of the nontherapeutic use of alcohol and drugs of abuse. ... Physical dependence refers to a state resulting from habitual use of a drug, where negative physical withdrawal symptoms result from abrupt discontinuation. ... Withdrawal, also known as withdrawal syndrome, refers to the characteristic signs and symptoms that appear when a drug that causes physical dependence is regularly used for a long time and then suddenly discontinued or decreased in dosage. ... For other uses, see Psychosis (disambiguation). ... Disorganized schizophrenia is a subtype of schizophrenia as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. ... Schizophreniform disorder is characterized by the presence of criterion A symptoms of schizophrenia. ... Schizotypal personality disorder, or simply schizotypal disorder, is a personality disorder that is characterized by a need for social isolation, odd behaviour and thinking, and often unconventional beliefs such as being convinced of having extra sensory abilities. ... Delusional disorder is a psychiatric diagnosis denoting a psychotic mental illness that involves holding one or more non-bizarre delusions in the absence of any other significant psychopathology (signs or symptoms of mental illness). ... Folie à deux (literally, a madness shared by two) is a rare psychiatric syndrome in which a symptom of psychosis (particularly a paranoid or delusional belief) is transmitted from one individual to another. ... A mood disorder is a condition whereby the prevailing emotional mood is distorted or inappropriate to the circumstances. ... This article is an expansion of a section entitled Mania from within the main article Bipolar disorder. ... For other uses, see Bipolar. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... Cyclothymia is a mood disorder. ... Dysthymia is a mood disorder that falls within the depression spectrum. ... A neurosis, in psychoanalytic theory, is an ineffectual coping strategy that Sigmund Freud suggested was caused by emotions from past experience overwhelming or interfering with present experience. ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... Anxiety disorder is a blanket term covering several different forms of abnormal, pathological anxiety, fears, phobias. ... Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder precipitated by the fear of having a symptom attack or panic attack in a setting from which there is no easy means of escape. ... Panic Disorder is a psychiatric condition characterized by recurring panic attacks in combination with significant behavioral change or at least a month of ongoing worry about the implications or concern about having other attacks. ... Panic attacks are sudden, discrete periods of intense anxiety, fear and discomfort that are associated with a variety of somatic and cognitive symptoms[1]. The onset of these episodes is typically abrupt, and may have no obvious trigger. ... Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder that is characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry about everyday things, which is disproportionate to the actual source of worry. ... Social anxiety is an experience of fear, apprehension or worry regarding social situations and being evaluated by others. ... Social phobia (DSM-IV 300. ... OCD redirects here. ... Acute stress reaction is a psychological condition arising in response to a terrifying event. ... Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a term for certain severe psychological consequences of exposure to, or confrontation with, stressful events that the person experiences as highly traumatic. ... In psychology, adjustment disorder refers to a psychological disturbance that develops in response to a stressor. ... Conversion Disorder is a DSM-IV diagnosis which describes neurological symptoms such as extreme weakness, paralysis, sensory disturbance, seizure and/or attacks that may resemble a known organic disease such as epilepsy or dystonia, but which cannot be currently attributed to neurological disease. ... Ganser syndrome is a psychiatric disorder characterised by approximate answers to questions. ... Somatization disorder (or Briquets disorder) is a type of mental illness in which a patient manifests a psychiatric condition as a physical complaint. ... Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a mental disorder that involves a distorted body image. ... Hypochondria (sometimes hypochondriasis) is the unfounded belief that one is suffering from a serious illness. ... The English suffix -phobia is used to describe fear or hatred (the latter is often ignored) of a particular thing or subject. ... Da Costas Syndrome is a type of anxiety disorder first observed in soldiers in the American Civil War. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikiquote. ... Neurasthenia was a term first coined by George Miller Beard in 1869 to describe a condition with symptoms of fatigue, anxiety and pessimism. ... For other uses, see Anorexia. ... Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterised by recurrent binge eating, followed by compensatory behaviors, referred to as purging.[1] The most common form—practised more than 75% of people with bulimia nervosa—is self-induced vomiting; fasting, the use of laxatives, enemas, diuretics, and overexercising are also common. ... Dyssomnias are a broad classification of sleeping disorder that make it difficult to get to sleep, or to stay sleeping. ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... Hypersomnia, also known as excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), is excessive amount of sleepiness. ... A parasomnia is any sleep disorder such as sleepwalking, sleepeating, sleep sex, teeth grinding, night terrors, rhythmic movement disorder, REM behaviour disorder, restless leg syndrome, and somniloquy (or sleep talking), characterized by partial arousals during sleep or during transitions between wakefulness and sleep. ... For other uses, see Night Terror. ... The current usage of the term nightmare refers to a dream which causes the sleeper a strong unpleasant emotional response. ... Sexual dysfunction or sexual malfunction (see also sexual function) is difficulty during any stage of the sexual act (which includes desire, arousal, orgasm, and resolution) that prevents the individual or couple from enjoying sexual activity. ... Erectile dysfunction (ED) or impotence is a sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis. ... Premature ejaculation (PE), also known as rapid ejaculation, premature climax or early ejaculation, is the most common sexual problem in men, affecting 25%-40% of men. ... Vaginismus is a condition which affects a womans ability to engage in any form of vaginal penetration, including sexual penetration, insertion of tampons, and the penetration involved in gynecological examinations. ... Dyspareunia is painful sexual intercourse, due to medical or psychological causes. ... Satyriasis redirects here. ... Postnatal Depression (also called Postpartum Depression and referred throughout this article by the acronym PPD) is a form of clinical depression which can affect women, and less frequently men, after childbirth. ... Wikinews has related news: Dr. Joseph Merlino on sexuality, insanity, Freud, fetishes and apathy Personality disorder, formerly referred to as a Character Disorder is a class of mental disorders characterized by rigid and on-going patterns of thought and action (Cognitive modules). ... Passive-aggressive behavior refers to passive, sometimes obstructionist resistance to following authoritative instructions in interpersonal or occupational situations. ... Kleptomania (Greek: κλέπτειν, kleptein, to steal, μανία, mania) is an inability or great difficulty in resisting impulses of stealing. ... Trichotillomania (TTM), or trich as it is commonly known, is an impulse control disorder characterized by the repeated urge to pull out scalp hair, eyelashes, facial hair, nose hair, pubic hair, eyebrows or other body hair. ... “Voyeur” redirects here. ... A factitious disorder or FD is a mental disorder where the ill individuals symptoms are either self-induced or falsified by the patient. ... This page refers to the self-inflicted factitious disorder. ... Egodystonic sexual orientation is an egodystonic condition. ... Two women in handcuffs and latex miniskirts and tops - Latex and PVC fetishism Wikinews has related news: Dr. Joseph Merlino on sexuality, insanity, Freud, fetishes and apathy Sexual fetishism is the sexual attraction for material and terrestrial objects while in reality the essence of the object is inanimate and sexless. ... Half-wit redirects here. ... Developmental disorders are disorders that occur at some stage in a childs development, often retarding the development. ... Specific developmental disorders categorizes specific learning disabilities and developmental disorders affecting coordination. ... Speech disorders or speech impediments, as they are also called, are a type of communication disorders where normal speech is disrupted. ... Expressive language disorder (DSM 315. ... Expressive aphasia, known as Brocas aphasia in clinical neuropsychology and agrammatic aphasia in cognitive neuropsychology, is an aphasia caused by damage to Brocas area in the brain. ... Receptive aphasia, also known as Wernickes aphasia, Fluent aphasia or sensory aphasia in clinical neuropsychology and cognitive neuropsychology, is a type of aphasia often (but not always) caused by neurological damage to Wernickes area in the brain. ... Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS), also called progressive epileptic aphasia, is a rare, childhood neurological syndrome characterized by the sudden or gradual development of aphasia (the inability to understand or express language) and an abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG). ... For the programming language, see Lisp (programming language). ... This article is about developmental dyslexia. ... Dysgraphia (or agraphia) is a deficiency in the ability to write, regardless of the ability to read, not due to intellectual impairment. ... Gerstmann syndrome is a neurological disorder. ... Developmental Dyspraxia is one or all of a heterogeneous range of psychological development disorders affecting the initiation, organization and performance of action[1]. It entails the partial loss of the ability to coordinate and perform certain purposeful movements and gestures in the absence of motor or sensory impairments. ... The diagnostic category pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), as opposed to specific developmental disorders (SDD), refers to a group of disorders characterized by delays in the development of multiple basic functions including socialization and communication. ... Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ... Rett syndrome/ disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is classified as a pervasive developmental disorder by the DSM-IV. Many[1] argue that this is a misclassification just as it would be to include such disorders as fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, or Down syndrome where one can see autistic... Asperger syndrome (also Aspergers syndrome, Aspergers disorder, Aspergers, or AS) is one of several autism spectrum disorders (ASD) characterized by difficulties in social interaction and by restricted and stereotyped interests and activities. ... Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), is a neurobehavioural developmental disorder[1] [2] [3] affecting about 3-5% of the worlds population under the age of 19[4]. It typically presents itself during childhood, and is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity, as well as forgetfulness... Conduct disorder is a psychiatric category to describe a pattern of repetitive behavior where the rights of others or the social norms are violated. ... Oppositional defiant disorder is a controversial psychiatric category listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders where it is described as an ongoing pattern of disobedient, hostile, and defiant behavior toward authority figures that goes beyond the bounds of normal childhood behavior. ... Separation Anxiety redirects here. ... Selective mutism is a social anxiety disorder in which a person who is normally capable of speech is unable to speak in given situations. ... Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is the diagnostic term for severe and relatively uncommon disorders of attachment that can affect children. ... A tic is a repeated, impulsive action, almost reflexive in nature, which the actor feels powerless to control or avoid. ... “Tourette” redirects here. ... Speech disorders or speech impediments, as they are also called, are a type of communication disorders where normal speech is disrupted. ... “Stutter” redirects here. ... Cluttering (also called tachyphemia) is a communicative disorder characterized by speech that is difficult for listeners to understand due to rapid speaking rate, erratic rhythm, poor syntax or grammar, and words or groups of words unrelated to the sentence. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Aphasia Hope Foundation (675 words)
I am afraid it sounds as though the staff in the nursing home where your mother lives have a lot to learn about aphasia!.
Aphasia Hope Foundation is a 501(c)3 non-profit foundation that has a two-fold mission: (1) to promote research into the prevention and cure of aphasia and (2) to ensure that all survivors of aphasia and their caregivers are aware of and have access to the best possible treatments available.
Aphasia is a speech/language disorder that impairs a person's ability to communicate.
Aphasia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1506 words)
Aphasia (also Aphemia - from Greek α, without, and φημη, speech), is a loss or impairment of the ability to produce and/or comprehend language, due to brain damage.
Aphasia may also develop slowly, as in the case of a brain tumor.
Broca's aphasia is thus characterized as a nonfluent aphasia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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